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Kurt Schwitters

  • Given name:
    Kurt
  • Last name:
    Schwitters
  • Date of Birth:
    20-06-1887
  • Place of Birth:
    Hannover (DE)
  • Date of Death:
    08-01-1948
  • Place of Death:
    Kendal (GB)
  • Profession:
    ArtistPoet
  • Introduction:

    The artist and poet Kurt Schwitters lived in London between 1941 and 1945, where he stood in contact to émigré and local artists, before moving to the Lake District.

    Word Count: 27

  • Signature Image:
    In 1933 Herbert Read reproduced Kurt Schwitters’s Grey-rose picture assemblage (1932) in his book Art Now. An Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture (METROMOD Archive).
  • Content:

    As early as 1933, Kurt Schwitters was introduced to the art-interested English public by Herbert Read’s book Art Now, an introduction to modern art, which depicted Schwitters’s Grey-rose picture assemblage (1932) (Read 1933, pl. 75). Based in Hannover/Germany, Schwitters belonged to the artistic avant-garde of the Weimar Republic and became known for his spatial installation Merzbau, his collages, sound poems and abstract sculptures.

    In 1937, Schwitters was represented with four works at the National Socialist Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art) exhibition in Munich. In the same year he emigrated to Norway. In 1938, his works were exhibited in the 20th Century German Art exhibition at the New Burlington Galleries in London; Schwitters was described in the short catalogue biography as “One of the Leaders of German Dadism” (p. 43). One of his exhibits, The Golden Ear construction (1935), came from a private collection in London. In the same year, 1938/39, Schwitters’s work was also shown in two exhibitions at the Guggenheim Jeune Gallery, namely the Exhibition of Collages, Papier-Collés and Photomontages and Abstract and Concrete Art. In both exhibitions, Schwitters was placed in the context of contemporary British art (Roland Penrose, Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson), but also international Constructivist art (Chambers 2013, 9).

    It can be assumed, that Kurt Schwitters and his work were familiar to the interested art audience, when he arrived in Britain from Norway in June 1940. He was immediately interned and lived from July onwards, together with artists such as Fred Uhlman, Paul Hamann and Georg Ehrlich, in Hutchinson Camp on the Isle of Man. During his internment, Schwitters continued his artistic production even under adverse conditions. He created sculptures out of porridge – due to a lack of plaster – but also portraits of his interned artist colleagues, with whom he participated in exhibitions in the camp (Powell 2013, 34). Schwitters’s performative readings in Hutchinson Camp are reflected in the novel Die Welt in der Nussschale (The World in a Nutshell) by the writer Richard Friedenthal, who was also interned there (Friedenthal 1956; see Pross 2000, 42).
    Schwitters lived in London from November 1941, initially in an attic flat at 2 St Stephens Crescent before moving, in August 1942, to a house at 39 Westmoreland Road in the Barnes district, on the outskirts of London. Schwitters’s address book shows how the artist tried to build up a professional and private network in the city. It lists such institutions as the Arcade Gallery and the Artists’ Refugee Committee, which were important points of contact for Schwitters to make initial professional contacts and receive support. The address of the sculptor Jussuf Abbo is also listed. Schwitters had written to him in December 1941 after seeing his work at a Free German League of Culture exhibition (Schwitters 1941).

    Schwitters made contact with other exiles, such as the painters László Péri and Jankel Adler, and the filmmaker Stefan Themerson. These friendships found expression in his artistic work. He created the collage for my friend Peri (1941), for example, and dedicated another collage to Stefan and Franziska Themerson in 1943 (Chambers 2013, 9, 18). Schwitters also maintained relations with the Free German League of Culture and attended meetings and events, but distanced himself from the association’s political agenda (Müller-Härlin 2006, 185). In a letter to the League on 1 September 1945, Schwitters wrote: “The responsibility of an artist is only to art. If someone who makes pictures or sculptures were under any other influence than that of the laws of art for the form of his work, then this work would not be art and the person concerned would not be an artist.” (Schwitters 1974, 182)

    Schwitters was promoted in particular by the Modern Art Gallery of Jack Bilbo, who had also emigrated from Germany. The gallery showed five of his works in early 1942 and also integrated him into The World of Imagination group exhibition in 1944. Schwitters had a solo show at the Modern Art Gallery in December 1944, which brought together works from the London years and was accompanied by a catalogue. The text for the catalogue was provided by the renowned art critic Herbert Read, who focused in particular on the use of everyday materials in Schwitters’s work (Read 1944, in Erlhoff/Stadtmüller 1989, 32). The collage For Herbert Read (1944) a reference to the author of his catalogue text, shows Schwitter’s use of tickets, newspaper cuttings, fabrics and scraps of paper. In other collages of the London period, Schwitters also used the tickets he needed to travel from Barnes to central London (Chambers 2013, 14; Orchard 2013, 61). In his solo exhibition at the Modern Art Gallery, Schwitters also showed sculptures that were often composed of found objects, into which everyday objects, leftovers and discarded items were integrated and then painted.

    Schwitters’s work was shown in a number of London galleries and privately organised exhibitions during the 1940s. In June 1942, he took part in the Aid to Russia exhibition, organised by Ernö and Ursula Goldfinger and held at the couple’s private home in Hampstead, but nevertheless open to the public. Four works by Schwitters were shown, together with works by Pablo Picasso, Max Ernst and Henry Moore (Pezzini 2002). In 1942, Schwitters was involved in a group exhibition – 1942 Members’ Exhibition – put on by the anti-fascist Artists’ International Association, of which Schwitters had become a member in the same year (Wilson 2013).
    Schwitters gave three works to the New Movements in Art travelling exhibition, which was shown in London, Leicester, Manchester and other cities and was intended to map the status quo of modern British art. The show was put together by the critic E. Hartley Ramsden, who chose contributions by Ben Nicholson, Barbara Hepworth and Naum Gabo, among others (Chambers 2013, 10). This placed Schwitters in the context of contemporary British art. Schwitters was in contact with Ben Nicholson and Barbara Hepworth. All three belonged to the Association Abstraction-Création, an association of non-figurative artists founded in 1931. In 1942, Ben Nicholson sent Schwitters his 1942 (bus ticket) collage, which referred to works by Schwitters made at the same time with the incorporated bus ticket (Chambers 2013, 10).

    Even after moving to Ambleside in the Lake District in 1945, Schwitters continued to try to remain visible in the art scene. In March 1947, for example, the London Gallery organised two lecture evenings and performative readings at which Schwitters performed his Ur-Sonata and poetry translated into English (Giedion-Welcker 1973, 287). Schwitters attributed the fact that he received little attention and recognition and was rarely able to sell his work to the conservative art scene. In a letter to Hanns Krenz dated 20 August 1947, Schwitters wrote: “He [the Englishman] is a good poet, but a bad painter and sculptor. Even the best, like Ben Nicholson, Henry Moore, etc., cannot be compared with the best in Germany or Paris. The world view is conservative, even that of the Labour Party.” (Schwitters 1974, 285) This observation, however, fails to recognise that a new progressive art scene had been forming in the city since the mid-1940s at the latest, with protagonists such as Francis Bacon, Frank Auerbach and Lucian Freud, who were particularly promoted by emigrant gallery owners. Schwitters was not to experience the turn of the London art market towards a continental modernism, which took place from the 1940s onwards. From mid-1947, he devoted himself intensively to a new Merzbau, which was never completed due to his death in January 1948. From the late 1950s Schwitters’s work received widespread attention in London: in 1958 a solo show opened at Lord's Gallery and in 1959 the Arts Council put on a show. In 1963, Marlborough Fine Art gallery in London, founded by two emigrants, dedicated a solo exhibition to the artist and the Kurt Schwitters in Exile exhibition was held at the same venue in 1981. Schwitters’s works was already being collected in England during his lifetime, including by Roland Penrose and E.L.T. Mesens (Chambers 2013, 11). The Tate in London owns works by the artist, but these only entered the collection years, even decades, after his death. With its Schwitters in England show, Tate Britain dedicated a comprehensive exhibition to the artist in 2013, which was subsequently presented at the Sprengel Museum Hannover, in Schwitters’s hometown.

    Word Count: 1327

  • Media:
    Kurt Schwitters, Red Wire Sculpture, 1944, Metal, plaster, stone, ceramics, dried fruit, wood, painted (Tate Collection, T05767, Photo © Tate, CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported)).
    Kurt Schwitters’s London address book, undated [1941/1945] (Sprengel Museum Hannover, Kurt Schwitters Archiv, Hannover, Leihgabe Kurt und Ernst Schwitters Stiftung, Hannover). On the right is the address of Abbo’s studio at Lambolle Road and a reference to the Abbo family in Sussex.
    Letter [draft?] from Kurt Schwitters to Jussuf Abbo, London, 23 December 1941 (Sprengel Museum Hannover, Kurt Schwitters Archiv, Hannover, Leihgabe Kurt und Ernst Schwitters Stiftung, Hannover). Schwitters writes: “I found you in the exhibition of the German League of Culture and am glad to have you in London. You remember our meetings in Berlin and at the Hanoversche Secession. I come from Norway, where I have been resident for 11 years. When and where can I see you one day?”
    Leaflet advertising the December exhibition held at the Modern Art Gallery on Masterpieces by Great Masters, also featuring Paintings and Sculptures by Kurt Schwitters, Modern Art Gallery Ltd., 1944 (Tate Archive, TGA 9510/4/8/1, Photo © Tate, CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported)).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Chambers, Emma. “Schwitters und England.” Schwitters in England, edited by Emma Chambers and Karin Orchard, exh. cat. Sprengel Museum Hannover, Hannover, 2013, pp. 6–19.

    Dickson, Rachel. “‘Our horizon is the barbed wire’: Artistic Life in the British Internment Camps.” Insiders Outsiders. Refugees from Nazi Europe and their Contribution to British Visual Culture, edited by Monica Bohm-Duchen, Lund Humphries, 2019, pp. 147–156.

    Erlhoff, Michael, and Klaus Stadtmüller, editors. Kurt Schwitters Almanach, vol. 8. Postskriptum-Verlag, 1989.

    Exhibition of 20th century German art, exh. cat. New Burlington Galleries, London, 1938.

    Friedenthal, Richard. Die Welt in der Nußschale. Piper, 1956.

    Giedion-Welcker, Carola. Schriften 1926–1971. Stationen zu einem Zeitbild, edited by Reinhold Hohl, Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, 1973.

    Müller-Härlin, Anna. “‘Remember Hannover, Berlin, Paris’: Kurt Schwitters’ alte und neue Freunde in London.” Merzgebiete. Kurt Schwitters und seine Freunde, edited by Karin Orchard and Isabel Schulz, exh. cat. Sprengel Museum Hannover, Hannover, 2006, pp. 182–195.

    Orchard, Karin. “‘British made’. Die späten Collagen von Kurt Schwitters.” Schwitters in England, edited by Emma Chambers and Karin Orchard, exh. cat. Sprengel Museum Hannover, Hannover, 2013, pp. 56–65.

    Pezzini, Barbara. “‘For an appreciation of art and architecture’. The Goldfinger Collection at 2 Willow Road.” Apollo, vol. 153, no. 470, 2001, pp. 55–59.

    Powell, Jennifer. “Unter Freunden. Schwitters im Internierungslager.” Schwitters in England, edited by Emma Chambers and Karin Orchard, exh. cat. Sprengel Museum Hannover, Hannover, 2013, pp. 32–35.

    Pross, Steffen. “In London treffen wir uns wieder”. Vier Spaziergänge durch ein vergessenes Kapitel deutscher Kulturgeschichte nach 1933. Eichhorn, 2000.

    Read, Herbert. Art Now. An Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture. Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1933.

    Schwitters, Kurt. Letter to Jussuf Abbo. Kurt Schwitters Archiv (Sprengel Museum, Hannover, 23 December 1941, London).

    Schwitters, Kurt. Wir spielen, bis uns der Tod abholt. Briefe aus fünf Jahrzehnten, edited by Ernst Nündel, Ullstein, 1974.

    Vinzent, Jutta. “Muteness as Utterance of a Forced Reality – Jack Bilbo’s Modern Art Gallery (1941–1948).” Arts in Exile in Britain 1933–1945. Politics and Cultural Identity (The Yearbook of the Research Centre for German and Austrian Exile Studies, 6 (2004)), edited by Shulamith Behr and Marian Malet, Rodopi, 2005, pp. 301–337.

    Vinzent, Jutta. Identity and Image. Refugee Artists from Nazi Germany in Britain (1933–1945) (Schriften der Guernica-Gesellschaft, 16). VDG, 2006.

    Wilson, Sarah. “Kurt Schwitters in England.” 2013, Tate, www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-britain/exhibition/schwitters-britain/essay-sarah-wilson-kurt-schwitters-england. Accessed 20 February 2021.

    Word Count: 362

  • Archives and Sources:

    Sprengel Museum Hannover, Kurt Schwitters Archiv, Hannover.

    Tate Collection, London.

    Tate Archive, London.

    Word Count: 13

  • Acknowledgements:

    My deepest thanks go to Karin Orchard from Sprengel Museum Hannover who provided me with images and permission for Schwitters’s address book and letter. I am grateful to be able to reproduce Schwitters’s work in the Tate Collection under Creative Commons license.

    Word Count: 44

  • Author:
    Burcu Dogramaci
  • Exile:

    Norway (1937–1940); London, GB (1940–1945); Ambleside, Westmoreland, GB (1945–1948).

  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    3 St. Stephen’s Crescent, Bayswater, London W2 (residence, 1941–1942); 39 Westmoreland Road, Barnes, London SW13 (residence, 1942–1945).

  • Metropolis:
    London
  • Burcu Dogramaci. "Kurt Schwitters." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/1470/object/5138-11259275, last modified: 20-06-2021.
  • László Moholy-Nagy
    PhotographerGraphic DesignerPainterSculptor

    László Moholy-Nagy emigrated to London in 1935, where he worked in close contact with the local avantgarde and was commissioned for window display decoration, photo books, advertising and film work.

    Word Count: 30

    László Moholy-Nagy, Cover of sales leaflet for Marcel Breuer’s Isokon Long Chair, 1937 (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).
    László Moholy-Nagy, Bill of Fare, farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius, London, March 1937, front page (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).Mary Benedetta. The Street Markets of London. Photographs by László Moholy-Nagy. (reissued 1972). Benjamin Blom, 1972, “Petticoat Lane: The Spectacle Man” and “Petticoat Lane: In a side street. Some Arabian visitors at a second-hand clothes stall” (Photo: Private Archive, © The Moholy-Nagy Foundation).Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson, their triplets and Hattula Moholy-Nagy at 7 Farm Walk, the London home of László and Sibyl Moholy-Nagy, June 1936 (provided by The Moholy-Nagy Foundation).
    London
    Jussuf Abbo
    SculptorGraphic Artist

    The Berlin sculptor Jussuf Abbo emigrated together with his family to London in 1935, where he received a limited number of commissions and participated in a few group exhibitions.

    Word Count: 28

    Jussuf Abbo, Selbstbildnis, in Der Querschnitt, vol. 4, no. 1, 1924, p. 71 (Photo: Private Archive, © Estate of Jussuf Abbo).
    Else Lasker-Schüler, “Jussuff Abbu.” Berliner Börsen-Courier, vol. 55, no. 327, 15 July 1923, p. 5 (Photo: Private Archive).Jussuf Abbo, Untitled [Else Lasker Schüler?], n.d. [1920s], lithograph, 52 x 39,5 cm (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2010, © Estate of Jussuf Abbo).Genja Jonas, Portrait Jussuf Abbo, 1926 (© Estate of Jussuf Abbo).Jussuf Abbo, Untitled [Thomas Sturge Moore?], n.d. [1940], bronze, H. 27 cm (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2010, © Estate of Jussuf Abbo).Jussuf Abo, Untitled, 1928, plaster, 36 x 29 x 22 cm (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2010, © Estate of Jussuf Abbo).Jussuf Abo, Untitled, n.d., clay, coloured, 37,5 x 18 cm (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2010, © Estate of Jussuf Abbo).Jussuf Abbo, Untitled [sleeping girl], n.d. [c. 1939/40], clay (© Estate of Jussuf Abbo).Jussuf Abbo, Untitled [c. 1939/40], n.d., clay, 15 x 36 cm (© Estate of Jussuf Abbo).Review of the Exhibition of Sculpture, Pottery and Sculptors’ Drawings in the monthly newsletter Freie Deutsche Kultur (no. 12, 1941, p. 10). The exhibition was organised by the Free German League of Culture and the Artists International Association. Abbo is mentioned twice with reference to a bronze bust and potteries (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Jussuf Abbo took part in the Opening Exhibition at Ben Uri Art Gallery in 1944 (© Ben Uri Archive).Opening Exhibition, exh cat. Ben Uri Gallery, London, 1944, p. 4–5 with Abbo’s Torso listed as first entry (© Ben Uri Archive).Kurt Schwitters’s London address book, undated [1941/1945] (Sprengel Museum Hannover, Kurt Schwitters Archiv, Hannover, Leihgabe Kurt und Ernst Schwitters Stiftung, Hannover). On the right is the address of Abbo’s studio at Lambolle Road and a reference to the Abbo family in Sussex.
    London
    Herbert Read
    Art HistorianArt CriticPoet

    The British art historian Herbert Read established himself as a central figure in the London artistic scene in the 1930s and was one of the outstanding supporters of exiled artists.

    Word Count: 30

    Howard Coster, Herbert Read, 1934 (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 5).
    Howard Coster, Herbert Read, 1934 (© National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG x19537).“Map showing where some of the people connected with the modern movement in art lived in Hampstead during the 1930s.” (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 9).Mall Studios behind Parkhill Road in Hampstead, occupied during the 1930s by Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson, Cecil Stephenson and Herbert Read (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 8).Herbert Read. Art Now. An Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture. Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1933, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    London
    Freie Deutsche Kultur
    Newsletter

    The Free German League of Culture was an association of emigrant artists and authors who organised exhibitions, concerts and lectures. The events were announced in the Freie Deutsche Kultur newsletter.

    Word Count: 30

    Announcement for the Camp-Art in Kanada exhibition, 1941, Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 4, 1941, p. 3, detail (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).
    “Wir haben ein Haus.” Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 12, 1939, p. 6 (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).36 Upper Park Road – the clubhouse of the Free German League of Culture from 1939 (Photo: Julia Winckler, 2008, originally used in Brinson/Dove 2010).Announcement for the Camp-Art in Kanada exhibition, 1941, Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 4, 1941, p. 3: Introductory Words by John Heartfield and Herbert Lieske (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Advertisements in Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 4, 1941, p. 11: From boardinghouses to typewriters, from modern furniture wanted to Wiener and Berliner bakeries (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Announcement for The Story of London Town exhibition, 1941, Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 7, 1941, p. 3 (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Advertisements in Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 2, 1942, p. 14: Lindsay Drummond publishing house, the Central Books Ltd. bookshop, the Laterndl theatre and cabaret, The Austrian Theatre and “What the Stars Foretell” – a new cabaret revue of the Free German League of Culture (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Review of the Mid-European Art exhibition (1944) at Leicester Museum and Art Gallery by Oskar Kokoschka in Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 5, 1944, p. 3. The page includes a reproduction of Erich Kahn’s Flüchtlinge, announcements of a lecture by Francis Klingender and life classes by the sculptor Paul Hamann (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Article on “Samson Schames – Bilder und Mosaiken” at the Civil Defence Artists’ Exhibition (1944) in Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 10, 1944, p. 13 (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).
    London
    Aid to Russia
    Exhibition

    The Aid to Russia exhibition was organised in 1942 by the emigré architect Ernö Goldfinger and his wife, the painter Ursula Goldfinger, at their house in Hampstead.

    Word Count: 26

    Aid to Russia exhibition at 2 Willow Road, 1942, with Pablo Picasso’s La Niçoise, 1937 – today known as the portrait of Nusch Eluard. On the right: Nancy Cunard (Archive 2 Willow Road, National Trust Collections. With kind permission of the Goldfinger Family. © Ernö Goldfinger).
    Goldfinger House, 2 Willow Road, London Hampstead, site of the Aid for Russia exhibition, 1942 (Photo: Mareike Hetschold/Sonja Hull, 2017).Ernö Goldfinger, 2 Willow Road, Hampstead, 1939, interior, dining room, photo: Dell & Wainwright (Architectural Press Archive / RIBA Collections, RIBA8557). The flexible floor plan by means of mobile walls allowed variable use of space for social occasions but also for exhibitions such as Aid to Russia in 1942.Catalogue of the Aid to Russia exhibition, 1942 (Archive 2 Willow Road, National Trust Collections. With kind permission of the Goldfinger Family. © Ernö Goldfinger).Aid to Russia exhibition in 2 Willow Road, 1942, Opening (Archive 2 Willow Road, National Trust Collections. With kind permission of the Goldfinger Family. © Ernö Goldfinger).
    London
    20th Century German Art
    Exhibition

    The 20th Century German Art exhibition of 1938 gave visibility to artists who had been defamed at the Munich exhibition Entartete Kunst and were persecuted by the National Socialist regime.

    Word Count: 29

    Invitation card to the 20th Century German Art exhibition, 1938, front cover with Franz Marc’s painting Blue Horses from 1911 (Akademie der Künste, Berlin, Heinz-Worner-Archiv 174).
    20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, cover (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 4–5 (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 8–9: Ernst Barlach’s Hunger (no. 2) was purchased by the to the Friends of the Whitworth Fund and presented to the Whitworth Gallery in Manchester (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 10–11: Max Beckmann’s Triptych: Temptation (no. 18) was one of the signature works of the exhibition (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 14–15: Benno Elkan’s Head of Alfred Flechtheim (1911) from the possession of the artist (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, p. 47: Erna Auerbach, Martin Bloch, Georg Ehrlich and other artists are mentioned in a separate section of the catalogue titled “Artists now working in England” (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 48–49: Hans Feibusch, Paul Hamann, Hein Heckroth, Tiza Hess, Walter Hoefner and other artists are mentioned in a separate section of the catalogue titled “Artists now working in England” (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).Peter Thoene [Oto Bihalji-Merin]. Modern German Art. Penguin Books, 1938, cover (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).Information on Peter Thoene [Oto Bihalji-Merin] in the book Modern German Art, 1938 (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).Reproduction of Franz Marc’s Blue Horses in Peter Thoene’s Modern German Art, 1938 (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).N. “Twentieth-Century German Art.” The Manchester Guardian, 7 July 1938, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).Article “Whitworth Acquisitions” in The Manchester Guardian, 29 July 1938, p. 13 mentioning acquisitions from the 20th Century German Art exhibition by the Whitworth Gallery in Manchester.Announcement for the exhibition in The Observer, 14 August 1938, p. 2 (Photo: Private Archive).
    London
    Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949
    Exhibition

    In 1949, a joint exhibition of works by Ludwig and Else Meidner opened at the Ben Uri Art Gallery. It was the first solo exhibition of the artists in London.

    Word Count: 29

    Ludwig and Else Meidner at the exhibition opening at the Ben Uri Art Gallery, London, October 1949, photographer unknown (© Ludwig Meidner-Archiv, Jüdisches Museum der Stadt Frankfurt am Main).
    Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, 1949, cover (© Ben Uri Archive).Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, 1949, p. 1 (© Ben Uri Archive).Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, 1949, pp. 2–3 (© Ben Uri Archive).Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, 1949, p. 4 (© Ben Uri Archive).Else Meidner, Self-portrait with chin propped up, 1938, charcoal, 65,0 x 50,0 cm, Ludwig Meidner Archiv, Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt (© Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt, CC BY SA 4.0).Else Meidner, Self-portrait, 1952, charcoal, 68,3 x 52,8 cm, Ludwig Meidner Archiv, Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt (© Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt, CC BY SA 4.0).Ludwig Meidner, Portrait of Rosa Schapire, London, 1946, sketchbook 8 July 1945–13 September 1946, pencil on paper, 28 x 21 cm (© Ludwig Meidner-Archiv, Jüdisches Museum der Stadt Frankfurt am Main).Else Meidner exhibition, invitation card, Ben Uri Art Gallery, London, 1972 (© Ben Uri Archive).Else Meidner, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, London, 1972, cover (© Ben Uri Archive).
    London
    Modern Art Gallery
    Art Gallery

    The Modern Art Gallery, founded by the émigré painter, sculptor and writer Jack Bilbo, was a forum for the presentation of modern art, specialising in the work of emigrant artists.

    Word Count: 30

    Cover of Jack Bilbo’s The Moderns. Past – Present – Future, published in 1945 under The Modern Art Gallery Ltd imprint (Bilbo 1945).
    Jack Bilbo’s Modern Art Gallery was located at 24 Charles II Street, St. James’s, London SW1 from 1943 (Bilbo 1948, 16).Leaflet advertising the December exhibition held at the Modern Art Gallery on Masterpieces by Great Masters, also featuring Paintings and Sculptures by Kurt Schwitters, Modern Art Gallery Ltd., 1944 (Tate Archive, TGA 9510/4/8/1, Photo © Tate, CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported)).Page with works by László Moholy-Nagy, Kurt Schwitters and Henry Moore in Jack Bilbo’s The Moderns. Past – Present – Future, 1945 (Bilbo 1945, 28).Title page of Jack Bilbo’s book An Autobiography, 1948 (Bilbo 1948).Lunch at Jack Bilbo’s Modern Art Gallery (Bilbo 1948, 17).
    London
    Faber & Faber
    Publishing House

    Faber & Faber shows the importance of publishing houses as supporters of contemporary art movements and of the contribution of emigrants, helping to popularise their art and artistic theories.

    Word Count: 29

    Klee. With an Introduction and Notes by Herbert Read. The Faber Gallery. Faber & Faber, 1948, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Klee. With an Introduction and Notes by Herbert Read. The Faber Gallery. Faber & Faber, 1948, pp. 2–3 (METROMOD Archive).
    London
    Marlborough Fine Art
    Art Gallery

    Marlborough Fine Art was founded in 1946 by the Viennese emigrants Harry Fischer and Frank Lloyd in the Mayfair district, focused on Impressionists, Modern and Contemporary Art.

    Word Count: 26

    Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, back cover (METROMOD Archive).Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, title page (METROMOD Archive).Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, pp. 136–137 with works by August Macke (METROMOD Archive).Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, pp. 162–163 with works by Kurt Schwitters (METROMOD Archive).Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, cover (METROMOD Archive). Sales exhibition to mark the artist’s 80th birthday.Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, title page (METROMOD Archive). The catalogue indicates the international presence of the gallery.Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, p. 46: list of past exhibitions (METROMOD Archive).Report on the art market in England with an entry on Marlborough Fine Art (left column) in the Swiss magazine Du, no. 10, 1959, p. 53 (Photo: Private Archive). The entry mentions the gallery owners and their pre-exile life in Vienna.Advertisement announcing the Francis Bacon. Recent Paintings exhibition at Marlborough Gallery in 1960, The Manchester Guardian, 2 April 1960, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive). Bacon had left Hanover Gallery for Marlborough Gallery at the end of the 1950s.
    London