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Julian Huxley

  • Given name:
    Julian
  • Last name:
    Huxley
  • Alternative names:

    Sir Julian Sorell Huxley

  • Date of Birth:
    22-06-1887
  • Place of Birth:
    London (GB)
  • Date of Death:
    14-02-1975
  • Place of Death:
    London (GB)
  • Profession:
    PhilosopherWriterZoologist
  • Introduction:

    Julian Huxley was the director of London Zoo from 1935 to 1942 and worked closely with emigrant photographers, artists and architects, including Berthold Lubetkin, Erna Pinner and Wolf Suschitzky.

    Word Count: 27

  • Signature Image:
    Editorial by Julian Huxley in the first issue of Animal and Zoo Magazine, no. 1, 1936, p. 6 (METROMOD Archive).
  • Content:

    In 1935, the zoologist Julian Huxley took up his post as Secretary of the Zoological Society of London and Director of London Zoo, a post he held until 1942. Until now, little attention has been paid to the role Julian Huxley played within the artistic and intellectual emigration of the 1930s. He became a commissioner and mentor, and thus also a driving force for artistic careers.

    Julian Huxley was the grandson of the biologist Thomas Henry Huxley, who was a leading supporter of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. Julian Huxley was himself a convinced Darwinist, and an advocate of eugenics. From 1946 he played a leading role in the founding of UNESCO and was its first Director-General and, influenced by the effects of two world wars, promoted the idea of “evolutionary humanism” (Huxley 1964; Baker 1978, 38f.). He supported sexual equality between men and women, advocated birth control and the right to divorce – in his time, Huxley was, as Daniel J. Kevles writes, a “feminist of sorts” (Kevles 1992, 244). Marianne Sommer points to the relevance and convergence of the various activities of Huxley, who was active in a wide range of fields with a holistic understanding of his profession – with the aim of education, enlightenment, mediation and propagation (Sommer 2017). In 1948, Julian Huxley was involved in the founding of the first global conservation organisation, the International Union for the Protection of Nature (IUPN), and a series of articles by Huxley for The Observer newspaper and his interest in African fauna in particular were not insignificant in the founding of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in 1961 (Sommer 2018, 140f.; Kellaway 2010).

    Particularly characteristic of Huxley’s self-understanding as a zoologist was his approach of conveying complex knowledge about animal development and animal life to as broad an audience as possible. He used various channels (including the media): from the early 1940s, Huxley took part in the BBC radio programme “The Brains Trust”, in which a panel of experts answered questions from the audience. At its most successful, the programme had a market share of 29% of all adult radio listeners and received over 4,000 letters a week (Waters 1992, 10). Huxley was also active in the film business: as director of The Private Life of the Gannets (1934), a short film about gannets on a rocky island off the coast of Wales, produced by Alexander Korda, Huxley won an Academy Award in 1937. In the same year, Huxley was involved in the founding of Zoological Film Productions, a subsidiary of Strand Films (Summer 2018, 136). After the end of the war, he developed a three-part television programme with BBC Television and animal filmmaker and producer David Attenborough (Barrington-Johnson 2005, 133).

    In addition, Huxley co-authored books with writers and photographers that were often aimed at a wide audience, including, for example, the illustrated publication The Science of Life, which he published together with the literary figure H.G. Wells and his son, the biologist G. P. Wells (Barrington-Johnson 2005, 114). In 1938, Julian Huxley, together with the emigrated bio-acoustician Ludwig Koch and the animal photographer Ylla, who lived in Paris and came from Vienna, published the sound book Animal Language, which was devoted to the communication and auditory forms of expression of zoo animals in pictures, text and sound (Huxley/Koch 1938).
    Some years before Huxley worked with Ludwig Koch on Animal Language, he gave commissions to Hans Honigmann, physician, zoologist and director of the Breslau Zoo, who lost his post for “racial” reasons after the National Socialists came to power and was able to emigrate to England in 1935. Honigmann's first job was provided by Julian Huxley at the London Zoo, where he spent 18 months doing research in the zoo laboratory, including on the digestive system of sloths (Huxley 1974, 206).

    Huxley initiated the construction of an Animal Art Studio in the zoo, where art students and freelance artists were given the opportunity to work with live zoo animals. The studio was designed by the emigrant architect Berthold Lubetkin and his group Tecton. Lubetkin had also been responsible, in 1935 – before Huxley's tenure – for designing the zoo’s gorilla house and Penguin Pool (on Lubetkin’s zoo buildings see Allan 2012, 199–251).
    The artist and animal illustrator Erna Pinner also worked with Huxley and contributed a world map of animal species to the 1937 Zoo Guide. The results of her observations of animals in the wild as well as in the zoo are to be found in such books as Wonders of Animal Life (1945) and Curious Creatures (1951). Huxley had a long-standing collaboration with the photographer Wolf Suschitzky, whom he met while filming in the zoo grounds in the 1930s. Suschitzky contributed photographs for Lorna Lewis’s book The Children’s Zoo (1939), which was dedicated to the zoo for children set up by Huxley. He also contributed to the Animal and Zoo Magazine, founded by Julian Huxley in 1936, which was published until 1941 and for which Suschitzky provided cover photos and photographs for the inside section. Wolf Suschitzky and Julian Huxley also kept in touch in later years. In 1956, their joint book Kingdom of the Beasts was published by Thames & Hudson, which brings together Wolf Suschitzky's animal and zoo photographs from previous decades.
    Huxley’s interest above all in the common origin of apes and humans led to a collaboration with the Berlin doctor and palm reader Charlotte Wolff, who emigrated to London via Paris. For her book Studies in Hand Reading (Chatto & Windus, 1936), Wolff read the hand of Julian Huxley and his brother, the writer Aldous Huxley, among others. On behalf of the zoo, she applied chirology to the primates at London Zoo. Elaborate imprinting techniques were used for Wolff's project. Charlotte Wolff published her results in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (Wolff 1937; Wolff 1938).

    Precisely because of his various public activities and his various efforts to communicate knowledge either to specialists or to the public, Huxley was long perceived in research as a “public scientist” rather than a “research scientist” (Waters 1992, 22). But it was Julian Huxley's appearance as a public intellectual that made him an important, popular supporter of the émigré community. In 1937, he chaired the Farewell Dinner for Walter Gropius, with émigré guests such as Ernst L. Freud, László Moholy-Nagy and Nikolaus Pevsner. In the newsletter Freie Deutsche Kultur of the Free German League of Culture, Julian Huxley published an encouraging greeting to the members in October 1941: “The Free German League of Culture has accomplished a considerable amount of valuable work in stimulating cultural activities among Germans in Great Britain and in linking these up with British activities. I hope that it will continue to flourish and carry on with its useful work.” (Freie Deutsche Kultur, October 1941, 1).

    Word Count: 1092

  • Media:
    Charlotte Wolff. Studies in Hand-Reading. Chatto & Windus, 1936, p. 77: Reading Julian and Aldous Huxley’s hands (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).
    Charlotte Wolff. “The Form and Dermatoglyphs of the Hands and Feet of certain Anthropoid Apes”. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, Series A, 1937, Part 3, 347 + Plate (Library of the Zoological Institute, University of Hamburg). At the zoo’s behest, Charlotte Wolff applied chirology to the primates at London Zoo.
    Julian Huxley and Ludwig Koch. Animal Language. Photographs by Ylla. Country Life, 1938, cover (METROMOD Archive). Two records of animal voices were included with this sound book.
    Erna Pinner. “Map of geographical distribution.” Julian S. Huxley. Zoo. Official Guide to the Gardens and Aquarium of the Zoological Society of London, 1937, pp. 102–103 (ZSL Library, London, Original © Erna Pinner).
    Julian Huxley and Wolf Suschitzky. Kingdom of the Beasts. Thames & Hudson, 1956, pp. 157–158 (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky)
    László Moholy-Nagy, Bill of Fare, farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius, London, March 1937: List of Toasts naming Julian Huxley as chairman of the event (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, @ László Moholy-Nagy).
    “Young Artists in the Zoo” reads the headline to this photo essay on the Animal Art Studio at London Zoo, published in the Animal and Zoo Magazine, vol. 2, no. 11, 1938, p. 18–19 (METROMOD Archive).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Allan, John. Berthold Lubetkin: Architecture and the Tradition of Progress. Artifice, 2012.

    Baker, J. R. Julian Huxley. Homme de science et citoyen du monde 1887–1975. UNESCO, 1978.

    Barrington-Johnson, J. The Zoo. The Story of London Zoo. Robert Hale, 2005.

    Huxley, Julian. “Die Grundgedanken des evolutionären Humanismus.” Julian Huxley. Der evolutionäre Humanismus. Zehn Essays über die Leitgedanken und Probleme, Beck, 1964, pp. 13–70.

    Huxley, Julian. Ein Leben für die Zukunft. Erinnerungen. Translated by Wilhelm Höck, Paul List Verlag, 1974.

    Huxley, Julian, and Ludwig Koch. Animal Language. Photographs by Ylla. Country Life, 1938.

    Kellaway, Kate. “How the Observer brought the WWF into being.” The Observer, 7 November 2010, www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/nov/07/wwf-world-wildlife-fund-huxley. Accessed 22 March 2021.

    Kevles, Daniel J. “Huxley and the Popularization of Science.” Julian Huxley. Biologist and Statesman of Science, edited by C. Kenneth Waters and Albert Van Helden, Rice University Press, 1992, pp. 238–251.

    Sommer, Marianne. “Animal Sounds against the Noise of Modernity and War: Julian Huxley (1887–1975) and the Preservation of the Sonic World Heritage.” 19 January 2017, Journal of Sonic Studies, vol. 13, no. 13, 2017, www.researchcatalogue.net/view/325229/325230. Accessed 3 April 2021.

    Sommer, Marianne. “Tierstimmen gegen den Lärm von Krieg und Moderne. Julian Huxley und das akustische Erbe in Soundbook, Film und Comic.” Zwitschern, Bellen, Röhren. Tierlaute in der Wissens-, Medientechnik- und Musikgeschichte, edited by Marianne Sommer and Denise Reimann, Neofelis, 2018, pp. 113–143.

    Suschitzky, Wolf and Julian Huxley. Kingdom of the Beasts. Thames and Hudson, 1956.

    Waters, C. Kenneth. “Introduction: Revising Our Picture of Julian Huxley.” Julian Huxley. Biologist and Statesman of Science, edited by C. Kenneth Waters and Albert Van Helden, Rice University Press, 1992, pp. 1–27.

    Wolff, Charlotte. “The Form and Dermatoglyphs of the Hands and Feet of certain Anthropoid Apes.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, vol. 107, Series A, Part 3, September 1937, pp. 347–350. ZSL, doi: doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1937.tb00816.x. Accessed 3 April 2021.

    Wolff, Charlotte. “A Comparative Study of the Form and Dermatoglyphs of the Extremities of Primates.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, vol. 108, Series A, Part 1, April 1938, pp. 143–161. ZSL, doi: doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1938.tb00025.x. Accessed 7 March 2021.

    Wolff, Charlotte. Augenblicke verändern uns mehr als die Zeit. Eine Autobiographie. Translated by Michaela Huber, Beltz Verlag, 1982.

    Word Count: 349

  • Archives and Sources:

    Julian Sorell Huxley Papers, 1899–1980, Woodson Research Center, Fondren Library, Rice University.

    Word Count: 11

  • Author:
    Burcu Dogramaci
  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    London Zoo, Outer Circle, London NW1 (workplace and residence).

  • Metropolis:
    London
  • Burcu Dogramaci. "Julian Huxley." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/1470/object/5138-11259857, last modified: 12-05-2021.
  • László Moholy-Nagy
    PhotographerGraphic DesignerPainterSculptor

    László Moholy-Nagy emigrated to London in 1935, where he worked in close contact with the local avantgarde and was commissioned for window display decoration, photo books, advertising and film work.

    Word Count: 30

    László Moholy-Nagy, Cover of sales leaflet for Marcel Breuer’s Isokon Long Chair, 1937 (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).
    László Moholy-Nagy, Bill of Fare, farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius, London, March 1937, front page (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).Mary Benedetta. The Street Markets of London. Photographs by László Moholy-Nagy. (reissued 1972). Benjamin Blom, 1972, “Petticoat Lane: The Spectacle Man” and “Petticoat Lane: In a side street. Some Arabian visitors at a second-hand clothes stall” (Photo: Private Archive, © The Moholy-Nagy Foundation).Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson, their triplets and Hattula Moholy-Nagy at 7 Farm Walk, the London home of László and Sibyl Moholy-Nagy, June 1936 (provided by The Moholy-Nagy Foundation).
    London
    Wolf Suschitzky
    PhotographerCinematographer

    The Viennese Wolf Suschitzky made a career as a photographer and cinematographer after emigrating to London in 1935.

    Word Count: 17

    Animal and Zoo Magazine, vol. 3, no. 6, 1938, cover photograph by Wolf Suschitzky (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).
    Animal and Zoo Magazine, vol. 3, no. 6, 1938, p. 29 with photographs by Wolf Suschitzky (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Animal and Zoo Magazine, vol. 3, no. 6, 1938, p. 30 with photographs by Wolf Suschitzky (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Animal and Zoo Magazine, vol. 3, no. 2, 1938, pp. 14–15 with photographs by Wolf Suschitzky (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Wolf Suschitzky (photographs) and Julian Huxley (text). Kingdom of the Beasts. Thames and Hudson, 1956, pp. 84–85 (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Wolf Suschitzky. Photographing Animals. The Studio, 1941, cover (© Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Wolf Suschitzky. Photographing Animals. The Studio, 1941, p. 21 (© Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Wolf Suschitzky. Photographing Children. The Studio, 1940, cover (© Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Wolf Suschitzky. Photographing Children. The Studio, 1940, p. 53 (© Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Lilliput, vol. 6, 1940, p. 311: “London Snowstorm”, photo: Wolf Suschitzky (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).
    London
    Herbert Read
    Art HistorianArt CriticPoet

    The British art historian Herbert Read established himself as a central figure in the London artistic scene in the 1930s and was one of the outstanding supporters of exiled artists.

    Word Count: 30

    Howard Coster, Herbert Read, 1934 (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 5).
    Howard Coster, Herbert Read, 1934 (© National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG x19537).“Map showing where some of the people connected with the modern movement in art lived in Hampstead during the 1930s.” (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 9).Mall Studios behind Parkhill Road in Hampstead, occupied during the 1930s by Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson, Cecil Stephenson and Herbert Read (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 8).Herbert Read. Art Now. An Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture. Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1933, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    London
    Curious Creatures
    Book

    Curious Creatures by the émigré artist Erna Pinner was published in 1951 and explores unusual, overlooked and lesser-known curiosities of the animal world.

    Word Count: 22

    Erna Pinner. Curious Creatures. The Scientific Book Club, 1951, cover (Original © Erna Pinner).
    Erna Pinner. Curious Creatures. The Scientific Book Club, 1951, bastard title (Original © Erna Pinner).Erna Pinner. Curious Creatures. The Scientific Book Club, 1951, p. 61: “Nursing Fathers” (Original © Erna Pinner).Erna Pinner. Curious Creatures. The Scientific Book Club, 1951, p. 141: Lowland Gorilla (Original © Erna Pinner).Erna Pinner. Curious Creatures. The Scientific Book Club, 1951, p. 145: Black-tailed Python of Celebes and Java (Original © Erna Pinner).Erna Pinner. Curious Creatures. The Scientific Book Club, 1951, pp. 156–157: “Living Upside Down” (Original © Erna Pinner).Erna Pinner. Curious Creatures. The Scientific Book Club, 1951, p. 209: “Insects of Strange Habits” (Original © Erna Pinner).Erna Pinner. Wonders of Animal-Life. Text by Monica Shorten. Puffin Picture Books, Penguin, 1945, cover (Original © Erna Pinner).Erna Pinner. Wonders of Animal-Life. Text by Monica Shorten. Puffin Picture Books, Penguin, 1945, back cover (Original © Erna Pinner).
    London
    Animal Language
    Sound Book

    In 1938, the London publisher Country Life published the Animal Language sound book which featured text by Julian Huxley, audio records produced by Ludwig Koch and photographs by Ylla.

    Word Count: 28

    Julian Huxley and Ludwig Koch. Animal Language. Photographs by Ylla. Country Life, 1938, cover (METROMOD Archive). Two records of animal voices were included with this sound book.
    Julian Huxley and Ludwig Koch. Animal Language. Photographs by Ylla. Country Life, 1938, p. xi: Ludwig Koch plays recordings of their own voices to the zoo animals (METROMOD Archive).Julian Huxley and Ludwig Koch. Animal Language. Photographs by Ylla. Country Life, 1938, p. 13: Bactrian Camel (METROMOD Archive).Julian Huxley and Ludwig Koch. Animal Language. Photographs by Ylla. Country Life, 1938, p. 15: Mandrill (METROMOD Archive).Julian Huxley and Ludwig Koch. Animal Language. Photographs by Ylla. Country Life, 1938, p. 52: Zebra (METROMOD Archive).Julian Huxley and Ludwig Koch. Animal Language. Photographs by Ylla. Country Life, 1938, two records included with the book (METROMOD Archive).
    London
    Freie Deutsche Kultur
    Newsletter

    The Free German League of Culture was an association of emigrant artists and authors who organised exhibitions, concerts and lectures. The events were announced in the Freie Deutsche Kultur newsletter.

    Word Count: 30

    Announcement for the Camp-Art in Kanada exhibition, 1941, Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 4, 1941, p. 3, detail (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).
    “Wir haben ein Haus.” Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 12, 1939, p. 6 (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).36 Upper Park Road – the clubhouse of the Free German League of Culture from 1939 (Photo: Julia Winckler, 2008, originally used in Brinson/Dove 2010).Announcement for the Camp-Art in Kanada exhibition, 1941, Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 4, 1941, p. 3: Introductory Words by John Heartfield and Herbert Lieske (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Advertisements in Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 4, 1941, p. 11: From boardinghouses to typewriters, from modern furniture wanted to Wiener and Berliner bakeries (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Announcement for The Story of London Town exhibition, 1941, Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 7, 1941, p. 3 (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Advertisements in Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 2, 1942, p. 14: Lindsay Drummond publishing house, the Central Books Ltd. bookshop, the Laterndl theatre and cabaret, The Austrian Theatre and “What the Stars Foretell” – a new cabaret revue of the Free German League of Culture (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Review of the Mid-European Art exhibition (1944) at Leicester Museum and Art Gallery by Oskar Kokoschka in Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 5, 1944, p. 3. The page includes a reproduction of Erich Kahn’s Flüchtlinge, announcements of a lecture by Francis Klingender and life classes by the sculptor Paul Hamann (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Article on “Samson Schames – Bilder und Mosaiken” at the Civil Defence Artists’ Exhibition (1944) in Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 10, 1944, p. 13 (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).
    London
    Studies in Hand-Reading
    Book

    In 1936, Charlotte Wolff’s Studies in Hand-Reading was published with analysis of the palms of Horst P. Horst, Aldous and Julian Huxley, Man Ray and Virginia Woolf, among others.

    Word Count: 29

    Charlotte Wolff. Studies in Hand-Reading. Chatto & Windus, 1936, p. 77: Julian Huxley (A Comparative Study): the hands of Aldous and Julian Huxley (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).
    Charlotte Wolff. Studies in Hand-Reading. Chatto & Windus, 1936, bastard title (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Charlotte Wolff. Studies in Hand-Reading. Chatto & Windus, 1936, p. 81: Julien Green (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Charlotte Wolff. Studies in Hand-Reading. Chatto & Windus, 1936, p. 117: Herman Schryver (Interior Decorator) (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Charlotte Wolff. Studies in Hand-Reading. Chatto & Windus, 1936, n.p.: hand of Herman Schryver (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Charlotte Wolff. Studies in Hand-Reading. Chatto & Windus, 1936, p. 119: Man Ray (Photographer) (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Charlotte Wolff. Studies in Hand-Reading. Chatto & Windus, 1936, n.p.: hand of Man Ray (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Charlotte Wolff. Studies in Hand-Reading. Chatto & Windus, 1936, p. 121: Horst [P. Horst] (Photographer) (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Charlotte Wolff. Studies in Hand-Reading. Chatto & Windus, 1936, n.p.: hand of Horst [P. Horst] (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Charlotte Wolff. “The Form and Dermatoglyphs of the Hands and Feet of certain Anthropoid Apes”. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, Series A, 1937, Part 3, 347 + Plate (Library of the Zoological Institute, University of Hamburg). At the zoo’s behest, Charlotte Wolff applied chirology to the primates at London Zoo.
    London
    Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things
    Booklet

    Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things is a booklet written in 1946 by the emigrated architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner with the aim of aesthetic education and teacher training.

    Word Count: 26

    Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, title page (METROMOD Archive).Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, pp. 2–3: Foreword by Herbert Read. (METROMOD Archive).Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, pp. 8–9 (METROMOD Archive).Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, pp. 14–15 (METROMOD Archive).
    London
    Farewell Dinner for Walter Gropius
    Dinner

    Friends and colleagues came together on 9 March 1937 to send off the architect Walter Gropius and his wife Ise Gropius, who had decided to leave for the United States.

    Word Count: 28

    László Moholy-Nagy, Bill of Fare, farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius, London, March 1937, front page (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).
    László Moholy-Nagy, Bill of Fare, farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius, London, March 1937 (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).László Moholy-Nagy, Bill of Fare, farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius, London, March 1937, Alphabetical List of Guests (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).Portrait of Walter Gropius, London, c. 1937 (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia). This photo was included in the Bill of Fare farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius designed by László Moholy-Nagy.
    London
    Allies inside Germany
    Exhibition

    On 3 July 1942, the Allies inside Germany exhibition, organised by the Free German League of Culture, opened in London in an empty shop at 149 Regent Street.

    Word Count: 25

    Allies inside Germany, leaflet, cover, 1942, design by René Graetz (METROMOD Archive).
    Allies inside Germany, leaflet, pp. 2–3: Programme of Activities, 1942 (METROMOD Archive).Allies inside Germany, leaflet, p. 4: Come and see our exhibition, 1942 (METROMOD Archive).Allies inside Germany, exhibition view, shop at 149 Regent Street, 1942 (Kunst im Exil in Großbritannien 1986, 44).Allies inside Germany, panel: “1933 – Hitler comes to Power”, 1942 (Kunst im Exil in Großbritannien 1986, 41).Allies inside Germany, panel: “1934 – In Power”, 1942. Photomontage 30. Juni 1934: Heil Hitler! (1934) by John Heartfield (Kunst im Exil in Großbritannien 1986, 41, © The Heartfield Community of Heirs / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).Allies inside Germany, panel: “22 June 1941 – One by One”, 1942 (Kunst im Exil in Großbritannien 1986, 42).Allies inside Germany, panel: “Second Front – Victory 1942”, 1942. 5 Minutes to 12 photomontage, (1942) by John Heartfield (Kunst im Exil in Großbritannien 1986, 43, © The Heartfield Community of Heirs / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).Allies inside Germany, panel: “German Refugees Play Their Part for Allied Victory”, 1942 (Kunst im Exil in Großbritannien 1986, 44).Allies inside Germany, panel: “Germans whose work endures”, 1942 (Kunst im Exil in Großbritannien 1986, 43).Allies inside Germany on tour: opening ceremony in Glasgow, 1942, in Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 12, 1943, p. 8 (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).
    London
    20th Century German Art
    Exhibition

    The 20th Century German Art exhibition of 1938 gave visibility to artists who had been defamed at the Munich exhibition Entartete Kunst and were persecuted by the National Socialist regime.

    Word Count: 29

    Invitation card to the 20th Century German Art exhibition, 1938, front cover with Franz Marc’s painting Blue Horses from 1911 (Akademie der Künste, Berlin, Heinz-Worner-Archiv 174).
    20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, cover (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 4–5 (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 8–9: Ernst Barlach’s Hunger (no. 2) was purchased by the to the Friends of the Whitworth Fund and presented to the Whitworth Gallery in Manchester (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 10–11: Max Beckmann’s Triptych: Temptation (no. 18) was one of the signature works of the exhibition (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 14–15: Benno Elkan’s Head of Alfred Flechtheim (1911) from the possession of the artist (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, p. 47: Erna Auerbach, Martin Bloch, Georg Ehrlich and other artists are mentioned in a separate section of the catalogue titled “Artists now working in England” (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 48–49: Hans Feibusch, Paul Hamann, Hein Heckroth, Tiza Hess, Walter Hoefner and other artists are mentioned in a separate section of the catalogue titled “Artists now working in England” (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).Peter Thoene [Oto Bihalji-Merin]. Modern German Art. Penguin Books, 1938, cover (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).Information on Peter Thoene [Oto Bihalji-Merin] in the book Modern German Art, 1938 (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).Reproduction of Franz Marc’s Blue Horses in Peter Thoene’s Modern German Art, 1938 (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).N. “Twentieth-Century German Art.” The Manchester Guardian, 7 July 1938, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).Article “Whitworth Acquisitions” in The Manchester Guardian, 29 July 1938, p. 13 mentioning acquisitions from the 20th Century German Art exhibition by the Whitworth Gallery in Manchester.Announcement for the exhibition in The Observer, 14 August 1938, p. 2 (Photo: Private Archive).
    London
    Isokon Company
    Architecture and Furniture Company

    The furniture design and architecture company Isokon was an important commissioner for emigrants such as Marcel Breuer, Walter Gropius, László Moholy-Nagy, Ernst Riess and Edith Tudor-Hart.

    Word Count: 27

    Egon Riess, Isokon Penguin Donkey, 1939 (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia).
    Edith Tudor-Hart took a series of photographs of the construction and opening of Lawn Road Flats in 1934 (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Edith Tudor-Hart, Lawn Road Flats’ Christmas card, 1934, cover (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).The Isobar, photo: Dell & Wainwright, c. 1937 (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia). Bar with designs by Marcel Breuer.Edith Tudor-Hart, Terrace of the Isobar overlooking the Isobar garden, c. 1930s (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky). Isokon Long Chairs designed by Marcel Breuer.László Moholy-Nagy, Cover of sales leaflet for Marcel Breuer’s Isokon Long Chair, 1937 (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).
    London
    Ylla
    Photographer

    Ylla was an Austrian-born photographer who emigrated to New York in 1941. Specialising in animal photography, she produced not only studio photographs, but also shot outside on urban locations in the metropolis.

    Word Count: 31

    "Speaking of Pictures … this is the work of the Bachrach of Dog Photography.”, images by Ylla and published in Life, 17 November 1947, pp. 18–19. (Photo: Helene Roth).“Babytime at the Zoo”, images by Ylla, Life,14 May 1944, p. 43. (Photo: Helene Roth).“Ylla’s cameras tells. A tale of two kittens ... .” Popular Photography, Dezember 1951, pp. 50–51 (Photo: Helene Roth).Profile photo of terrier by Ylla (Camilla Koffler), ca. 1938, published on the cover of U.S. Camera, October 1940 ( © Waverley123 (Pryor Dodge) at the English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons).Advertisement in The New Yorker (November 14, 1953, p. 184) for Ylla’s book Animal’s in Africa (Photo: Helene Roth).Published photograph by Ylla Back to Methusala, Regent's Park London for U.S. Camera. Annual 1943, edited by Tom Malloney, Radom House, 1943, p. 90.Fritz Neugass. “The saga of the S.S. Winnipeg.” Modern Photography, July 1951, pp. 72–73 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Thames & Hudson
    Publishing House

    The emigrants Eva Feuchtwang (later Eva Neurath) and Walter Neurath founded the Thames & Hudson publishing house in 1949, which published art history books, photo books and collection catalogues.

    Word Count: 28

    Julian Huxley and Wolf Suschitzky. Kingdom of the Beasts. Thames & Hudson, 1956, bastard title (METROMOD Archive).
    Julian Huxley and Wolf Suschitzky. Kingdom of the Beasts. Thames & Hudson, 1956, pp. 157–158 (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky)
    London