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Herbert Read

  • Given name:
    Herbert
  • Last name:
    Read
  • Alternative names:

    Sir Herbert Edward Read

  • Date of Birth:
    04-12-1893
  • Place of Birth:
    Stonegrave, Yorkshire (GB)
  • Date of Death:
    12-06-1968
  • Place of Death:
    Stonegrave, Yorkshire (GB)
  • Profession:
    Art CriticArt HistorianPoet
  • Introduction:

    The British art historian Herbert Read established himself as a central figure in the London artistic scene in the 1930s and was one of the outstanding supporters of exiled artists.

    Word Count: 30

  • Signature Image:
    Howard Coster, Herbert Read, 1934 (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 5).
  • Content:

    The British writer and art historian Herbert Read established himself as a central figure in the London intellectual and artistic scene in the 1930s and was editor of the well-known art historical Burlington Magazine. Read lived from 1933 at Mall Studios behind Parkhill Road in Hampstead, in the immediate vicinity of artists such as Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson (both of whom worked at Mall Studios) and Henry Moore (11a Parkhill Road). Over the following years, a number of emigrant artists and architects also settled in Hampstead. Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer, and for a time László Moholy-Nagy, lived in Lawn Road Flats (Lawn Road), and Piet Mondrian moved into his studio at 60 Parkhill Road.
    The London suburb of Hampstead demonstrates how productive the connection between exile and art was, and how fruitful was the creative “close proximity” (Read 1965b, 8). Creative communities developed there in the 1930s, with emigrants seeking proximity to local artists, who in turn benefited from interaction with the exiled creatives.

    Herbert Read and his partner Margaret ‘Ludo’ Ludwig held regular parties in their studio at Mall Studios, which became a contact zone for emigrant and local artists. The poet Geoffrey Grigson recalls: “The exodus from Hitler’s Reich having begun, one might walk into the solemn dignified company of Gropius to fine oneself face to face with slow-smiling Moholy-Nagy from the Bauhaus (furniture all round to match, as far as could be found). Ben and Barbara from next door would be there, and the Moores from down the road.” (Grigson, in Maclean 2021, 128) Herbert Read compared artistic life and work in Hampstead to Florence or Siena in the Quattrocento: “There was an unusual degree of mutual sympathy and understandig between us, an unusual intensity of effort and feeling, and the formation of a ‘front’ vis-à-vis the indifferent public.” (Read 1965a, 5) This proximity gave rise, for example, to Circle: International Survey of Constructive Art, the manifesto in whose creation Marcel Breuer, Naum Gabo, Walter Gropius, László Moholy-Nagy and Ben Nicholson, among others, were involved. Herbert Read was to become one of László Moholy-Nagy’s most important supporters and described him in an article for Architectural Review as “one of the most creative intelligences of our time” (Read 1935; Carullo 2019, 14). In 1946, when Moholy-Nagy had long been in Chicago and was directing the new bauhaus, Herbert Read gave a lecture there (Moholy-Nagy 1946).
    Read particularly appreciated the “inspiring presence of Walter Gropius” (Read 1965a, 6) and was one of the 135 guests at the Farewell Dinner for Gropius which saw the Bauhaus architect off to the USA in 1937.

    Meanwhile, other important collectors and patrons lived in Hampstead. The art collector Margaret Gardiner, who was committed to the artistic avant-garde of her time, such as Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson and Naum Gabo, lived at 35 Downshire Hill (Bohm-Duchen 2019, 160.). Across the road from Gardiner, at 21 Downshire Hill, lived, from 1936, the artist and collector Roland Penrose who, together with David Gascoyne and Herbert Read, organised the International Surrealist Exhibition at the New Burlington Galleries (11 June–4 July 1936). The 20th Century German Art exhibition, co-organised by Herbert Read among others, opened at the same venue in 1938 and exhibited artists defamed by the Nazi Degenerate Art exhibition. Artists who had emigrated to London were also on show.
    Herbert Read took an early interest in the work of Kurt Schwitters and integrated his work into his book Art Now, which was published by Faber & Faber in 1933. Herbert Read, who produced a large number of articles and books during the 1930s, also wrote the catalogues for Jack Bilbo’s Modern Art Gallery, thereby drawing attention to emigrated artists. Herbert Read wrote the catalogue texts for the theatre artist Hein Heckroth’s exhibition at the Modern Art Gallery (1943), ensuring a certain amount of public and press attention. One year later, in December 1944, the German artist Kurt Schwitters had a solo show at the Modern Art Gallery which brought together works from his London years and was accompanied by a catalogue written by Read, who focused on the use of everyday materials in Schwitters’s work (Read 1944, in Erlhoff/Stadtmüller 1989, 32). The collage For Herbert Read (1944) shows Schwitter’s use of tickets, newspaper cuttings, fabric and scraps of paper. In other collages of the London period, Schwitters also used the tickets he had used to travel from Barnes to central London (Chambers 2013, 14; Orchard 2013, 61).

    Herbert Read’s commitment to emigrants manifested itself in many ways. He had appreciated the work of the architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner ever since he published his two books Pioneers of the Modern Movement from William Morris to Walter Gropius (1936) and An Enquiry into Industrial Art in England (1937). In 1946, Read wrote the preface to Pevsner’s Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged, published by the Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), of which Read was vice-chairman. Herbert Read also had contact with the emigrated art historian Rosa Schapire. As early as 1948, Schapire had been asked to loan two works by Schmidt-Rottluff for an exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Arts (ICA) in London, co-founded in 1947 by Roland Penrose and Herbert Read among others. Read was also an important contact person for the emigrated textile designer Margaret Leischner, introducing her to English designers and following her work in England with interest (Read 1944). On the occasion of John Heartfield’s 50th birthday, Herbert Read, wrote in 1941 in Freie Deutsche Kultur, the bulletin of the Free German League of Culture: “John Heartfield is one of those rare artists who have extended the range of our aesthetic sensibility by inventing a new technique. He has seen the creative possibilities of montage – of the photograph as a plastic material which can be manipulated and made to produce effects independent of its mechanical origin.” (Read 1941, 6).
    Herbert Read wrote also a review on The Warburg Institute’s exhibition English Art and the Mediterranean and gave in this way recognition to a research institute with an exile background.

    Read was a close friend of Eva and Walter Neurath, émigré founders of the Thames & Hudson publishing house. Anna Nyburg wrote that Read’s “special contribution was to heighten their interest in modern art, bringing Thames & Hudson a new and rich theme for publication.” (Nyburg 2014, 170).  Read, who had published several books with Faber & Faber, from 1959 published his manuscripts as survey works on modern art with Thames & Hudson, including A Concise History of Modern Painting (1959), A Consice History of Modern Sculpture (1964) and The Styles of European Art (1965).
    In view of Herbert Read’s extensive connections with emigrant organisations, institutions and individual emigrants, it can be argued that the art historian, along with the Bishop of Chichester and the biologist Julian Huxley, was probably one of those Englishmen who stood out for his special support for the exiled.
    The Marlborough Fine Art gallery, founded by the Viennese emigrants Harry Fischer and Frank Lloyd, dedicated the catalogue for Art in Britain 1930–40 centred around Axis, Circle, Unit One to Herbert Read on his 70th birthday in 1965 and printed two texts by him in which he recalled his time in Hampstead.

    Word Count: 1185

  • Media:
    Howard Coster, Herbert Read, 1934 (© National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG x19537).
    “Map showing where some of the people connected with the modern movement in art lived in Hampstead during the 1930s.” (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 9).
    Mall Studios behind Parkhill Road in Hampstead, occupied during the 1930s by Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson, Cecil Stephenson and Herbert Read (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 8).
    Herbert Read. Art Now. An Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture. Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1933, cover (METROMOD Archive).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Art in Britain 1930–40 centred around Axis, Circle, Unit One, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1965.

    Bohm-Duchen, Monica. “Modernist Sanctuary: Hampstead in the 1930s and 1940s.” Insiders Outsiders. Refugees from Nazi Europe and their Contribution to British Visual Culture, edited by Monica Bohm-Duchen, Lund Humphries, 2019, pp. 157–164.

    Carullo, Valeria. Moholy-Nagy in Britain 1935–1937. Lund Humphries, 2019.

    Chambers, Emma. “Schwitters und England.” Schwitters in England, edited by Emma Chambers and Karin Orchard, exh. cat. Sprengel Museum Hannover, Hannover, 2013, pp. 6–19.

    Erlhoff, Michael, and Klaus Stadtmüller, editors. Kurt Schwitters Almanach, vol. 8. Postskriptum-Verlag, 1989.

    MacLean, Caroline. Circles & Squares. The Lives & Art of the Hampstead Modernists. Bloomsbury, 2021.

    Moholy-Nagy, László. Letter to Ben Nicholson. Ben Nicholson Papers (Tate Library and Archive, London, 29 March 1946).

    Nyburg, Anna. Émigrés. The Transformation of Art Publishing in Britain. Phaidon, 2014.

    Nyburg, Anna. “Émigré Art Publishers.” Insiders Outsiders. Refugees from Nazi Europe and their Contribution to British Visual Culture, edited by Monica Bohm-Duchen, Lund Humphries, 2019, pp. 115–119.

    Read, Herbert. Art Now. An Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture. Faber & Faber, 1933.

    Read, Herbert. Art and Industry. The Principles of Industrial Design. Faber & Faber, 1934.

    Read, Herbert. “A New Humanism.” Architectural Review, October 1935, p. 151.

    Read, Herbert. “Paul Klee.” Paintings and Watercolours by Paul Klee, exh. cat. The Leicester Galleries, London, 1941a, pp. 2–6.

    Read, Herbert. “Zum 50. Geburtstag von John Heartfield.” Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 6, 1941b, p. 6.

    Read, Herbert. Letter to Margaret Leischner. Margaret Leischner Papers (Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin, 5 December 1944).

    Read, Herbert. “Foreword.” Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged, Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, pp. 2–3.

    Read, Herbert. “British Art 1930–1940.” Art in Britain 1930–40 centred around Axis, Circle, Unit One, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1965a, pp. 5–6.

    Read, Herbert. “A Nest of Gentle Artists.” (1962) Art in Britain 1930–40 centred around Axis, Circle, Unit One, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London 1965b, pp. 7–8.

    Word Count: 313

  • Archives and Sources:

    University of Leeds Special Collections, Herbert Read Archive.

    Word Count: 8

  • Author:
    Burcu Dogramaci
  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    3 Mall Studios, Parkhill Road, Belsize Park, Hampstead, London NW3 (residence, 1933–c.1937).

  • Metropolis:
    London
  • Burcu Dogramaci. "Herbert Read." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/1470/object/5138-11267250, last modified: 28-04-2021.
  • Rosa Schapire
    Art Historian

    The art historian Rosa Schapire, a supporter of Expressionist art, contributed to the presence of Expressionist art in England with loans and donations from her art collections rescued to London.

    Word Count: 30

    Ludwig Meidner, Portrait of Rosa Schapire, London, 1946, sketchbook 8 July 1945–13 September 1946, pencil on paper, 28 x 21 cm (© Ludwig Meidner-Archiv, Jüdisches Museum der Stadt Frankfurt am Main).
    First number of Eidos art magazine with two reviews by Rosa Schapire, no. 1, May–June 1950, cover (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).First number of Eidos art magazine with Schapire’s book reviews “Otto Mueller, Freiburg” and “Paul Klee. Handzeichnungen II. 1921–1930, Bergen”, vol. 1, no. 1, May-June 1950, p. 48 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).Rosa Schapire. “Matisse in der Tate Gallery.” Die Weltkunst, vol. 23, no. 4, 1953, p. 11 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).Rosa Schapire. “Mexikanische Kunst in der Tate Gallery.” Die Weltkunst, vol. 23, no. 9, 1953, H. 9, p. 3 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).Rosa Schapire’s reviews “Deutsche Expressionisten in Leicester” and “Josef Herman bei Roland Browse and Delbanco” in art magazine Die Weltkunst, vol. 23, no. 21, 1953, p. 3 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).Rosa Schapire. “Russische Emigrantenkünstler aus Paris in London.” Die Weltkunst, vol. 24, no. 2, 1954, p. 4 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).Rosa Schapire’s last published essay “Wall-Paintings in the Alexanderkirche at Wildeshausen” in The Connoisseur, vol. 133, no. 535, 1954, p. 9 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).
    London
    László Moholy-Nagy
    PhotographerGraphic DesignerPainterSculptor

    László Moholy-Nagy emigrated to London in 1935, where he worked in close contact with the local avantgarde and was commissioned for window display decoration, photo books, advertising and film work.

    Word Count: 30

    László Moholy-Nagy, Cover of sales leaflet for Marcel Breuer’s Isokon Long Chair, 1937 (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).
    László Moholy-Nagy, Bill of Fare, farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius, London, March 1937, front page (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).Mary Benedetta. The Street Markets of London. Photographs by László Moholy-Nagy. (reissued 1972). Benjamin Blom, 1972, “Petticoat Lane: The Spectacle Man” and “Petticoat Lane: In a side street. Some Arabian visitors at a second-hand clothes stall” (Photo: Private Archive, © The Moholy-Nagy Foundation).Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson, their triplets and Hattula Moholy-Nagy at 7 Farm Walk, the London home of László and Sibyl Moholy-Nagy, June 1936 (provided by The Moholy-Nagy Foundation).
    London
    John Heartfield
    ArtistGraphic DesignerFotomonteur (mounter of photographs)

    After escaping from his first exile in Prague in December 1938, the political artist John Heartfield lived in London since 1950, working for Picture Post and the publisher Lindsay Drummond.

    Word Count: 28

    Richard St. Barbe Baker. Africa drums. Lindsay Drummond, 1943, cover design by John Heartfield (METROMOD Archive, © The Heartfield Community of Heirs / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).
    London
    Kurt Schwitters
    ArtistPoet

    The artist and poet Kurt Schwitters lived in London between 1941 and 1945, where he stood in contact to émigré and local artists, before moving to the Lake District.

    Word Count: 27

    In 1933 Herbert Read reproduced Kurt Schwitters’s Grey-rose picture assemblage (1932) in his book Art Now. An Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture (METROMOD Archive).
    Kurt Schwitters, Red Wire Sculpture, 1944, Metal, plaster, stone, ceramics, dried fruit, wood, painted (Tate Collection, T05767, Photo © Tate, CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported)).Kurt Schwitters’s London address book, undated [1941/1945] (Sprengel Museum Hannover, Kurt Schwitters Archiv, Hannover, Leihgabe Kurt und Ernst Schwitters Stiftung, Hannover). On the right is the address of Abbo’s studio at Lambolle Road and a reference to the Abbo family in Sussex.Letter [draft?] from Kurt Schwitters to Jussuf Abbo, London, 23 December 1941 (Sprengel Museum Hannover, Kurt Schwitters Archiv, Hannover, Leihgabe Kurt und Ernst Schwitters Stiftung, Hannover). Schwitters writes: “I found you in the exhibition of the German League of Culture and am glad to have you in London. You remember our meetings in Berlin and at the Hanoversche Secession. I come from Norway, where I have been resident for 11 years. When and where can I see you one day?”Leaflet advertising the December exhibition held at the Modern Art Gallery on Masterpieces by Great Masters, also featuring Paintings and Sculptures by Kurt Schwitters, Modern Art Gallery Ltd., 1944 (Tate Archive, TGA 9510/4/8/1, Photo © Tate, CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported)).
    London
    Margaret Leischner
    Textile Designer

    The designer Margaret Leischner lived in England from 1938, worked for textile and furniture companies, taught at the Royal College of Art and was honoured as Royal Designer for Industry.

    Word Count: 29

    Tintawn Carpets brochure featuring designs by Margaret Leischner (Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin, Margaret Leischner Papers, Folder 6, Inv. No. 7568).
    Margaret Leischner, Advertisement for BOAC (British Overseas Airways Corporation), seat fabrics, 1955 (Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin, Margaret Leischner Papers, Folder 12, Inv. No. 75693).Brochure: “Choose comfort with Guy Rogers for 1963” featuring Leischner’s fabric for the ‘New Yorker’ upholstered furniture series (Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin, Margaret Leischner Papers, Folder 6, Inv. No. 10523).Company brochure: “Design in Yarn”, R. Greg & Co. Ltd. South Reddish, Stockport (Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin, Margaret Leischner Papers, Folder 6, Inv. No. 10522).Tintawn Carpets brochure (Eileen Ellis, Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2011).Margaret Leischner, Sisal sample Tintawn Carpets, 1960s (Eileen Ellis, Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2011).Margaret Leischner obituary, by Donald Tomlinson, Design Journal, vol. 5, no. 259, 1970, p. 83 (Photo: Private Archive).
    London
    Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things
    Booklet

    Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things is a booklet written in 1946 by the emigrated architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner with the aim of aesthetic education and teacher training.

    Word Count: 26

    Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, title page (METROMOD Archive).Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, pp. 2–3: Foreword by Herbert Read. (METROMOD Archive).Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, pp. 8–9 (METROMOD Archive).Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, pp. 14–15 (METROMOD Archive).
    London
    Farewell Dinner for Walter Gropius
    Dinner

    Friends and colleagues came together on 9 March 1937 to send off the architect Walter Gropius and his wife Ise Gropius, who had decided to leave for the United States.

    Word Count: 28

    László Moholy-Nagy, Bill of Fare, farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius, London, March 1937, front page (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).
    László Moholy-Nagy, Bill of Fare, farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius, London, March 1937 (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).László Moholy-Nagy, Bill of Fare, farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius, London, March 1937, Alphabetical List of Guests (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).Portrait of Walter Gropius, London, c. 1937 (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia). This photo was included in the Bill of Fare farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius designed by László Moholy-Nagy.
    London
    20th Century German Art
    Exhibition

    The 20th Century German Art exhibition of 1938 gave visibility to artists who had been defamed at the Munich exhibition Entartete Kunst and were persecuted by the National Socialist regime.

    Word Count: 29

    Invitation card to the 20th Century German Art exhibition, 1938, front cover with Franz Marc’s painting Blue Horses from 1911 (Akademie der Künste, Berlin, Heinz-Worner-Archiv 174).
    20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, cover (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 4–5 (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 8–9: Ernst Barlach’s Hunger (no. 2) was purchased by the to the Friends of the Whitworth Fund and presented to the Whitworth Gallery in Manchester (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 10–11: Max Beckmann’s Triptych: Temptation (no. 18) was one of the signature works of the exhibition (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 14–15: Benno Elkan’s Head of Alfred Flechtheim (1911) from the possession of the artist (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, p. 47: Erna Auerbach, Martin Bloch, Georg Ehrlich and other artists are mentioned in a separate section of the catalogue titled “Artists now working in England” (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 48–49: Hans Feibusch, Paul Hamann, Hein Heckroth, Tiza Hess, Walter Hoefner and other artists are mentioned in a separate section of the catalogue titled “Artists now working in England” (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).Peter Thoene [Oto Bihalji-Merin]. Modern German Art. Penguin Books, 1938, cover (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).Information on Peter Thoene [Oto Bihalji-Merin] in the book Modern German Art, 1938 (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).Reproduction of Franz Marc’s Blue Horses in Peter Thoene’s Modern German Art, 1938 (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).N. “Twentieth-Century German Art.” The Manchester Guardian, 7 July 1938, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).Article “Whitworth Acquisitions” in The Manchester Guardian, 29 July 1938, p. 13 mentioning acquisitions from the 20th Century German Art exhibition by the Whitworth Gallery in Manchester.Announcement for the exhibition in The Observer, 14 August 1938, p. 2 (Photo: Private Archive).
    London
    Modern Art Gallery
    Art Gallery

    The Modern Art Gallery, founded by the émigré painter, sculptor and writer Jack Bilbo, was a forum for the presentation of modern art, specialising in the work of emigrant artists.

    Word Count: 30

    Cover of Jack Bilbo’s The Moderns. Past – Present – Future, published in 1945 under The Modern Art Gallery Ltd imprint (Bilbo 1945).
    Jack Bilbo’s Modern Art Gallery was located at 24 Charles II Street, St. James’s, London SW1 from 1943 (Bilbo 1948, 16).Leaflet advertising the December exhibition held at the Modern Art Gallery on Masterpieces by Great Masters, also featuring Paintings and Sculptures by Kurt Schwitters, Modern Art Gallery Ltd., 1944 (Tate Archive, TGA 9510/4/8/1, Photo © Tate, CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported)).Page with works by László Moholy-Nagy, Kurt Schwitters and Henry Moore in Jack Bilbo’s The Moderns. Past – Present – Future, 1945 (Bilbo 1945, 28).Title page of Jack Bilbo’s book An Autobiography, 1948 (Bilbo 1948).Lunch at Jack Bilbo’s Modern Art Gallery (Bilbo 1948, 17).
    London
    Thames & Hudson
    Publishing House

    The emigrants Eva Feuchtwang (later Eva Neurath) and Walter Neurath founded the Thames & Hudson publishing house in 1949, which published art history books, photo books and collection catalogues.

    Word Count: 28

    Julian Huxley and Wolf Suschitzky. Kingdom of the Beasts. Thames & Hudson, 1956, bastard title (METROMOD Archive).
    Julian Huxley and Wolf Suschitzky. Kingdom of the Beasts. Thames & Hudson, 1956, pp. 157–158 (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky)
    London
    The Warburg Institute
    Research Institute

    The Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Warburg in Hamburg achieved a new presence in London after 1933 under the name The Warburg Institute as a research institution with a library and photo archive.

    Word Count: 29

    The Warburg Institute, Reading Room, Imperial Institute Building, London, c. 1952 (© The Warburg Institute).
    The Warburg Institute, Reading Room, Thames House, London, c. 1934/36 (© The Warburg Institute).The Warburg Institute, Reading Room, Woburn Square, London, c. 1958 (© The Warburg Institute).
    London
    Faber & Faber
    Publishing House

    Faber & Faber shows the importance of publishing houses as supporters of contemporary art movements and of the contribution of emigrants, helping to popularise their art and artistic theories.

    Word Count: 29

    Klee. With an Introduction and Notes by Herbert Read. The Faber Gallery. Faber & Faber, 1948, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Klee. With an Introduction and Notes by Herbert Read. The Faber Gallery. Faber & Faber, 1948, pp. 2–3 (METROMOD Archive).
    London
    Julian Huxley
    ZoologistPhilosopherWriter

    Julian Huxley was the director of London Zoo from 1935 to 1942 and worked closely with emigrant photographers, artists and architects, including Berthold Lubetkin, Erna Pinner and Wolf Suschitzky.

    Word Count: 27

    Editorial by Julian Huxley in the first issue of Animal and Zoo Magazine, no. 1, 1936, p. 6 (METROMOD Archive).
    Charlotte Wolff. Studies in Hand-Reading. Chatto & Windus, 1936, p. 77: Reading Julian and Aldous Huxley’s hands (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Charlotte Wolff. “The Form and Dermatoglyphs of the Hands and Feet of certain Anthropoid Apes”. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, Series A, 1937, Part 3, 347 + Plate (Library of the Zoological Institute, University of Hamburg). At the zoo’s behest, Charlotte Wolff applied chirology to the primates at London Zoo.“Young Artists in the Zoo” reads the headline to this photo essay on the Animal Art Studio at London Zoo, published in the Animal and Zoo Magazine, vol. 2, no. 11, 1938, p. 18–19 (METROMOD Archive).Julian Huxley and Ludwig Koch. Animal Language. Photographs by Ylla. Country Life, 1938, cover (METROMOD Archive). Two records of animal voices were included with this sound book.Erna Pinner. “Map of geographical distribution.” Julian S. Huxley. Zoo. Official Guide to the Gardens and Aquarium of the Zoological Society of London, 1937, pp. 102–103 (ZSL Library, London, Original © Erna Pinner).Julian Huxley and Wolf Suschitzky. Kingdom of the Beasts. Thames & Hudson, 1956, pp. 157–158 (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky)László Moholy-Nagy, Bill of Fare, farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius, London, March 1937: List of Toasts naming Julian Huxley as chairman of the event (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, @ László Moholy-Nagy).
    London
    Marlborough Fine Art
    Art Gallery

    Marlborough Fine Art was founded in 1946 by the Viennese emigrants Harry Fischer and Frank Lloyd in the Mayfair district, focused on Impressionists, Modern and Contemporary Art.

    Word Count: 26

    Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, back cover (METROMOD Archive).Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, title page (METROMOD Archive).Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, pp. 136–137 with works by August Macke (METROMOD Archive).Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, pp. 162–163 with works by Kurt Schwitters (METROMOD Archive).Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, cover (METROMOD Archive). Sales exhibition to mark the artist’s 80th birthday.Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, title page (METROMOD Archive). The catalogue indicates the international presence of the gallery.Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, p. 46: list of past exhibitions (METROMOD Archive).Report on the art market in England with an entry on Marlborough Fine Art (left column) in the Swiss magazine Du, no. 10, 1959, p. 53 (Photo: Private Archive). The entry mentions the gallery owners and their pre-exile life in Vienna.Advertisement announcing the Francis Bacon. Recent Paintings exhibition at Marlborough Gallery in 1960, The Manchester Guardian, 2 April 1960, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive). Bacon had left Hanover Gallery for Marlborough Gallery at the end of the 1950s.
    London
    Freie Deutsche Kultur
    Newsletter

    The Free German League of Culture was an association of emigrant artists and authors who organised exhibitions, concerts and lectures. The events were announced in the Freie Deutsche Kultur newsletter.

    Word Count: 30

    Announcement for the Camp-Art in Kanada exhibition, 1941, Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 4, 1941, p. 3, detail (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).
    “Wir haben ein Haus.” Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 12, 1939, p. 6 (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).36 Upper Park Road – the clubhouse of the Free German League of Culture from 1939 (Photo: Julia Winckler, 2008, originally used in Brinson/Dove 2010).Announcement for the Camp-Art in Kanada exhibition, 1941, Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 4, 1941, p. 3: Introductory Words by John Heartfield and Herbert Lieske (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Advertisements in Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 4, 1941, p. 11: From boardinghouses to typewriters, from modern furniture wanted to Wiener and Berliner bakeries (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Announcement for The Story of London Town exhibition, 1941, Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 7, 1941, p. 3 (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Advertisements in Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 2, 1942, p. 14: Lindsay Drummond publishing house, the Central Books Ltd. bookshop, the Laterndl theatre and cabaret, The Austrian Theatre and “What the Stars Foretell” – a new cabaret revue of the Free German League of Culture (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Review of the Mid-European Art exhibition (1944) at Leicester Museum and Art Gallery by Oskar Kokoschka in Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 5, 1944, p. 3. The page includes a reproduction of Erich Kahn’s Flüchtlinge, announcements of a lecture by Francis Klingender and life classes by the sculptor Paul Hamann (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Article on “Samson Schames – Bilder und Mosaiken” at the Civil Defence Artists’ Exhibition (1944) in Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 10, 1944, p. 13 (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).
    London