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Rosa Schapire

  • Given name:
    Rosa
  • Last name:
    Schapire
  • Date of Birth:
    09-09-1874
  • Place of Birth:
    Brody (UA)
  • Date of Death:
    01-02-1954
  • Place of Death:
    London (GB)
  • Profession:
    Art Historian
  • Introduction:

    The art historian Rosa Schapire, a supporter of Expressionist art, contributed to the presence of Expressionist art in England with loans and donations from her art collections rescued to London.

    Word Count: 30

  • Signature Image:
    Ludwig Meidner, Portrait of Rosa Schapire, London, 1946, sketchbook 8 July 1945–13 September 1946, pencil on paper, 28 x 21 cm (© Ludwig Meidner-Archiv, Jüdisches Museum der Stadt Frankfurt am Main).
  • Content:

    The art historian Rosa Schapire was a central supporter of modern art in Germany, especially Expressionist art. The art historian, who came from Brody in Galicia and earned her doctorate in Heidelberg, lived in Hamburg as a freelance art historian from 1904. Schapire lectured and wrote books, articles and reviews, translating books from English, French and Polish (see e.g. Morris 1902; Chłe̜dowski 1910; Balzac 1923). Through the collector Gustav Schiefler, Schapire met the Expressionist artist Karl Schmidt-Rottluff around 1907, to whom she felt a lifelong commitment, about whom she wrote, and whose art she collected, exhibited and recommended. Schmidt-Rottluff in turn painted Schapire and designed furniture for her Hamburg appartment at Osterbekstr. 43 in 1921 (Beiersdorf 2017, 215). During the First World War, Rosa Schapire co-founded the Frauenbund zur Förderung deutscher bildender Kunst (Women’s Association for the Promotion of German Fine Art), which acquired modern art to donate to museums (Vasanta 2017). In the 1920s, Schapire was a co-founder of two magazines, Rote Erde and Kündung, a literary member of the Hamburg Secession association and a supporter of younger artists such as Emy Roeder, Franz Nölken and Walter Grammaté, for whom she often wrote the first ever monographic texts (Wietek 1964, 122–124).

    After 1933, Rosa Schapire was virtually unable to publish or give public lectures because of her Jewish background. In 1938, she spent an exploratory stay in London, where she met Gertrud Bing of the Warburg Institute, an institution that had existed as the Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Hamburg until 1933 and emigrated to London. When a planned emigration to the USA fell through, Schapire wrote an “SOS letter” to Fritz Saxl of the Warburg Institute, asking him to support her temporary stay in England (Dogramaci 2017, 232). In fact, Schapire managed to emigrate to London in August 1939, taking with her parts of her art collection containing works by Schmidt-Rottluff. Her books, however, which formed the intellectual foundation of her literary activity, were lost and stolen, as was her furniture designed by Schmidt-Rottluff: The container deposited for emigration in the port of Hamburg was confiscated. (Bruhns 1992, 276; Beiersdorf 2009, 262f.).

    In London, Schapire lived in precarious circumstances. She lived as a sub-tenant and moved several times. A district such as South Kensington, inhabited by many Poles, offered her memories of her own childhood: “South Kensington, the district where I live, is the Polish quarter, a lot of Poles live here in the house too, I have very friendly relations with some of them, with the result that I speak a lot of Polish again. I often have the feeling that the circle is beginning to close.” (Schapire 1949) In her accommodation at 21 Leinster Square in Bayswater, Schapire was visited by the Expressionist artist Ludwig Meidner, who was also in exile in London, and who drew her, thus providing a rare portrait from this period of her life.
    Schapire's principal criterion for choosing accommodation seems to have been proximity to the Victoria & Albert Museum Library, which was “eine zweite Heimat” (a second home) to Schapire (Schapire 1951). As a result, most of the lodgings, as far as can be reconstructed from her correspondence with her close friend Agnes Holthusen in Hamburg, were within a 30-minute walk of the museum. Here, Rosa Schapire read for her lectures and articles and conducted research work for other émigrés such as her brother-in-law Otto Neurath and the architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner, who taught at the University of Cambridge. Schapire worked on Pevsner's major project, his publication series The Buildings of England (Pevsner 1954, 111). However, Schapire’s commitment to Expressionism, especially to Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, met with little approval and even rejection in London. Works from her collection that she wanted to give to the Tate, the British Museum and the Victoria & Albert Museum were rejected by the museums (Beiersdorf 2009, 270; Behr 1998, 222). Thus, instead of the three paintings she had actually offered to the Tate Gallery, the art historian was only able to place one work there: Schmidt-Rottluff’s Woman with Bag (1915).

    Nevertheless, Schapire was able to contribute to the visibility of Expressionist art by lending works from her collection. For an exhibition on the “Fauves” and their German contemporaries, she lent two paintings to the Roland, Browse & Delbanco Gallery in 1951. As early as 1948, Schapire had been asked to loan two works by Schmidt-Rottluff for an exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London, co-founded in 1947 by the painter Roland Penrose and the art critique Herbert Read among others. However, Schapire had great success as a mediator of German modernism outside London, at the Leicester Art Gallery, where Peter Tomory worked from 1951 to 1954, championing European continental art. The exhibitions he curated were drawn from the collections of émigrés such as Thekla Hess and Rosa Schapire, including the Schmidt-Rottluff Exhibition. Graphic Works & Stone Carvings in September 1953, which featured 40 prints by Schapire and 20 cut stones owned by the artist (see Schapire 1953). In the same year, E.H. Ramsden’s book Sculpture Theme and Variations. Towards a contemporary aesthetic (1953) featured illustrations of two sculptures by Karl Schmidt-Rottluff owned by the art historian. So it was only after many years in the British Isles that her efforts to promote Expressionist art began to show results.

    Since the end of the war, Schapire had resumed correspondence with Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Art historians from Germany also began to seek her out, which can be attributed to the rapid recognition of Expressionism and especially of Brücke art in the post-war period: Leopold Reidemeister of the Wallraff-Richartz Museum, Walter Passarge of the Kunsthalle Mannheim, Adolf Jannasch, head of the Office of Fine Arts at the Berlin Senate, and the Frankfurt gallery owner Hanna Bekker vom Rath met her in London (Schapire 1954; Wietek 1964, 127). These meetings seem to have brought her closer to Germany again. Although Schapire herself did not return, she decided to donate bundles of prints and postcards in her possession to German museums.

    A few years after the end of the Second World War, Schapire resumed her publishing activities in her English exile. For the newly founded English-language art journal Eidos. A Journal of Painting, Sculpture and Design, Schapire wrote reviews mainly of German-language literature, such as monographs on the artists Otto Müller or Paul Klee. Schapire’s text on Paul Ortwin Rave's Kunstdiktatur im Dritten Reich (Art Dictatorship in the Third Reich, Hamburg 1949) brought to the attention of the British public a German-language book on the confiscation of “Degenerate Art”, which they would not otherwise have been aware of (Schapire 1950). Schapire also wrote texts for the English-language art and architecture magazine Le Connoisseur and worked for Architectural Review. However, it was only through her work for the German art journal Die Weltkunst that the art historian was again able to write more frequently about her preferred epoch – modernism. From 1952 to 1954, Schapire was the London correspondent for Die Weltkunst and wrote more than 30 exhibition and book reviews aimed primarily at lay people and collectors interested in art. She thus reported for a German audience that, after years in which modernism was only seen and exhibited through the defamatory perspective of National Socialism, now needed to be reintroduced to the art of the avant-gardes. (For a full list of Rosa Schapire’s writings, see Dogramaci/Sandner 2017, 257–268).
    On 1 February 1954, Rosa Schapire died in the Tate Gallery during a visit. Seven days later, she was cremated at the inter-denominational Golders Green Crematorium (Beiersdorf 2009, 276), where numerous other émigrés were also cremated, including Alfred Flechtheim, Sigmund and Anna Freud, Ernö Goldfinger. Schapire’s estate was organised by Nikolaus Pevsner and the art dealer Gustav Delbanco, and parts of the collection were given to English and international museums.

    Word Count: 1260

  • Media:
    First number of Eidos art magazine with two reviews by Rosa Schapire, no. 1, May–June 1950, cover (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).
    First number of Eidos art magazine with Schapire’s book reviews “Otto Mueller, Freiburg” and “Paul Klee. Handzeichnungen II. 1921–1930, Bergen”, vol. 1, no. 1, May-June 1950, p. 48 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).
    Rosa Schapire. “Matisse in der Tate Gallery.” Die Weltkunst, vol. 23, no. 4, 1953, p. 11 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).
    Rosa Schapire. “Mexikanische Kunst in der Tate Gallery.” Die Weltkunst, vol. 23, no. 9, 1953, H. 9, p. 3 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).
    Rosa Schapire’s reviews “Deutsche Expressionisten in Leicester” and “Josef Herman bei Roland Browse and Delbanco” in art magazine Die Weltkunst, vol. 23, no. 21, 1953, p. 3 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).
    Rosa Schapire. “Russische Emigrantenkünstler aus Paris in London.” Die Weltkunst, vol. 24, no. 2, 1954, p. 4 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).
    Rosa Schapire’s last published essay “Wall-Paintings in the Alexanderkirche at Wildeshausen” in The Connoisseur, vol. 133, no. 535, 1954, p. 9 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Balzac, Honoré de. Vater Goriot. Translated by Rosa Schapire, Rowohlt, 1923.

    Behr, Shulamith. “Anatomy of the Woman as Collector and Dealer in the Weimar Period. Rosa Schapire and Johanna Ey.” Visions of the “Neue Frau”. Women and the Visual Arts in Weimar Germany, edited by Marsha Meskimmon and Shearer West, Scolar Press, 1995, pp. 96–107.

    Behr, Shulamith. “Dr. Rosa Schapire. Art Historian and Critic in Exile.” Keine Klage über England? Deutsche und österreichische Exilerfahrungen in Großbritannien 1933–1945 (Publications of the Institute of Germanic Studies, University of London, 72), edited by Charmian Brinson et al., Iudicium, 1998, pp. 215–223.

    Beiersdorf, Leonie. “‘Wieder Boden unter den Füssen’ – Rosa Schapire in England (1939–1954).” Rosa. Eigenartig grün. Rosa Schapire und die Expressionisten, edited by Sabine Schulze, exh. cat. Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg, Hamburg, 2009, pp. 250–281.

    Beiersdorf, Leonie. “Zur Bedeutung der Kunstsammlung von Rosa Schapire.” Rosa und Anna Schapire – Sozialwissenschaft, Kunstgeschichte und Feminismus um 1900, edited by Burcu Dogramaci and Günther Sandner, Aviva, 2017, pp. 211–228.

    Bruhns, Maike. “Rosa Schapire und der Frauenbund zur Förderung deutscher bildenden Kunst.” Avantgarde und Publikum: Zur Rezeption avantgardistischer Kunst in Deutschland 1905–1933, edited by Henrike Junge, Böhlau, 1992, pp. 269–282.

    Chłe̜dowski, Kazimierz. Der Hof von Ferrara. Translated by Rosa Schapire, G. Müller, 1919.

    Dogramaci, Burcu. “Still Fighting for Modern Art. Rosa Schapire in England.” Rosa und Anna Schapire – Sozialwissenschaft, Kunstgeschichte und Feminismus um 1900, edited by Burcu Dogramaci and Günther Sandner, Aviva, 2017, pp. 229–256.

    Dogramaci, Burcu, and Günther Sandner, editors. Rosa und Anna Schapire – Sozialwissenschaft, Kunstgeschichte und Feminismus um 1900. Aviva, 2017.

    Morris, William. Die Geschichte der glänzenden Ebene auch das Land der Lebenden oder das Reich der Unsterblichen genannt. Translated by Rosa Schapire, Seemann, 1902.

    Pevsner, Nikolaus. “Rosa Schapire (gest.).” Kunstchronik, vol. 7, no. 4, 1954, pp. 111–112.

    Rainbird, Sean. “Andauernde Vernachlässigung – Rosa Schapire und die Rezeption deutscher Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts in Grossbritannien.” Rosa. Eigenartig grün. Rosa Schapire und die Expressionisten, edited by Sabine Schulze, exh. cat. Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg, Hamburg, 2009, pp. 282–299.

    Schapire, Rosa. Letter to Agnes Holthusen. Agnes Holthusen Papers (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Deutsches Kunstarchiv, Nuremberg, 26 December 1949), I, C-9.

    Schapire, Rosa. “Paul Ortwin Rave: Kunstdiktatur im Dritten Reich, Hamburg 1949 (review).” Eidos. A Journal of Painting, Sculpture and Design, edited by E.H. Ramsden and Margot Eates, vol. 1, no. 2, 1950, pp. 47–48.

    Schapire, Rosa. Letter to Agnes Holthusen. Agnes Holthusen Papers (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Deutsches Kunstarchiv, Nuremberg, 15 April 1951), I, C-10.

    Schapire, Rosa. “Deutsche Expressionisten in Leicester.” Die Weltkunst, vol. 23, no. 21, 1953, p. 3.

    Schapire, Rosa. Letter to Agnes Holthusen. Agnes Holthusen Papers (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Deutsches Kunstarchiv, Nuremberg, 15 January 1954), XR ABK 421.

    Schmidt-Rottluff Exhibition. Graphic Works & Stone Carvings, exh. cat. Leicester Museums & Art Gallery, Leicester, 1953.

    Vasanta, Parvati. “‘Aber unsere Ziele haben wir höher gesteckt’ – Rosa Schapire und der Frauenbund zur Förderung deutscher bildender Kunst.” Rosa und Anna Schapire – Sozialwissenschaft, Kunstgeschichte und Feminismus um 1900, edited by Burcu Dogramaci and Günther Sandner, Aviva, 2017, pp. 161–174.

    Weikop, Christian. “The British reception of Brücke and German Expressionism.” New Perspectives on Brücke Expressionism. Bridging History, edited by Christian Weikop, Ashgate, 2011, pp. 237–276.

    Wendland, Ulrike. “Schapire, Rosa.” Idem. Biographisches Handbuch deutschsprachiger Kunsthistoriker im Exil. Leben und Werk der unter dem Nationalsozialismus verfolgten und vertriebenen Wissenschaftler (vol. 2), Saur, 1999, pp. 594–598.

    Wietek, Gerhard. “Dr. phil. Rosa Schapire.” Jahrbuch der Hamburger Kunstsammlungen, vol. 9, 1964, pp. 114–160.

    Word Count: 529

  • Acknowledgements:

    My deepest thanks go to Erik Riedel from Ludwig Meidner-Archiv at Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt am Main for providing me with the portrait of Rosa Schapire.

    Word Count: 26

  • Author:
    Burcu Dogramaci
  • Exile:

    London, UK (1939–1954).

  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    21 Leinster Square, Bayswater, London W2 (residence, 1945–1947); 20 Barkston Gardens, Kensington, London SW5 (residence, 1947–1950); 5 Kingsbridge Road, Kensington, London W10 (residence, 1951); 19 Bolton Gardens, Kensington, London SW5 (residence, 1951); 74 Hornton Street, Kensington, London W8 (residence, 1953); 31 Nevern Place, Earls Court, London SW5 (residence, 1953).

  • Metropolis:
    London
  • Burcu Dogramaci. "Rosa Schapire." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/1470/object/5138-7554315, last modified: 28-04-2021.
  • Herbert Read
    Art HistorianArt CriticPoet

    The British art historian Herbert Read established himself as a central figure in the London artistic scene in the 1930s and was one of the outstanding supporters of exiled artists.

    Word Count: 30

    Howard Coster, Herbert Read, 1934 (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 5).
    Howard Coster, Herbert Read, 1934 (© National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG x19537).“Map showing where some of the people connected with the modern movement in art lived in Hampstead during the 1930s.” (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 9).Mall Studios behind Parkhill Road in Hampstead, occupied during the 1930s by Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson, Cecil Stephenson and Herbert Read (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 8).Herbert Read. Art Now. An Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture. Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1933, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    London
    Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things
    Booklet

    Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things is a booklet written in 1946 by the emigrated architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner with the aim of aesthetic education and teacher training.

    Word Count: 26

    Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, title page (METROMOD Archive).Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, pp. 2–3: Foreword by Herbert Read. (METROMOD Archive).Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, pp. 8–9 (METROMOD Archive).Nikolaus Pevsner. Visual Pleasures from Everyday Things. An attempt to establish criteria by which the aesthetic qualities of design can be judged. Council for Visual Education (C.V.E.), 1946, pp. 14–15 (METROMOD Archive).
    London
    Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949
    Exhibition

    In 1949, a joint exhibition of works by Ludwig and Else Meidner opened at the Ben Uri Art Gallery. It was the first solo exhibition of the artists in London.

    Word Count: 29

    Ludwig and Else Meidner at the exhibition opening at the Ben Uri Art Gallery, London, October 1949, photographer unknown (© Ludwig Meidner-Archiv, Jüdisches Museum der Stadt Frankfurt am Main).
    Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, 1949, cover (© Ben Uri Archive).Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, 1949, p. 1 (© Ben Uri Archive).Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, 1949, pp. 2–3 (© Ben Uri Archive).Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, 1949, p. 4 (© Ben Uri Archive).Else Meidner, Self-portrait with chin propped up, 1938, charcoal, 65,0 x 50,0 cm, Ludwig Meidner Archiv, Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt (© Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt, CC BY SA 4.0).Else Meidner, Self-portrait, 1952, charcoal, 68,3 x 52,8 cm, Ludwig Meidner Archiv, Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt (© Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt, CC BY SA 4.0).Ludwig Meidner, Portrait of Rosa Schapire, London, 1946, sketchbook 8 July 1945–13 September 1946, pencil on paper, 28 x 21 cm (© Ludwig Meidner-Archiv, Jüdisches Museum der Stadt Frankfurt am Main).Else Meidner exhibition, invitation card, Ben Uri Art Gallery, London, 1972 (© Ben Uri Archive).Else Meidner, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, London, 1972, cover (© Ben Uri Archive).
    London
    Golders Green Crematorium
    Crematorium

    Numerous emigrants were cremated in Golders Green Crematorium after their death, including the gallerist Alfred Flechtheim, the psychoanalyst Anna Freud, the architect Ernö Goldfinger and the art historian Rosa Schapire.

    Word Count: 30

    Golders Green Crematorium, Hoop Lane, London, 2011 (Mark Ahsmann, CC BY-SA 3.0 , via Wikimedia Commons).
    Urns with the ashes of Sigmund and Martha Freud and other family members, Ernest George Columbarium, part of Golders Green Crematorium (JHvW, CC BY-SA 3.0 , via Wikimedia Commons).
    London
    Roland, Browse & Delbanco
    GalleryArt Dealer

    Émigré art historians and art dealers, Henry Roland and Gustav Delbanco, along with Lillian Browse, opened their Mayfair gallery, Roland, Browse & Delbanco, in 1945.

    Word Count: 24

    Sickert 1860–1942, exh. cat. Roland, Browse & Delbanco, London, 1960, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Sickert 1860–1942, exh. cat. Roland, Browse & Delbanco, London, 1960, title page and p. 1 (METROMOD Archive).Sickert 1860–1942, exh. cat. Roland, Browse & Delbanco, London, 1960, pp. 4–5 (METROMOD Archive).Sickert 1860–1942, exh. cat. Roland, Browse & Delbanco, London, 1960, pp. 16–17, mentioning two books by Lillian Browse on Sickert (METROMOD Archive).Advertisement for the Sickert exhibition at Roland, Browse & Delbanco in 1946 in The Observer, 26 May 1946, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).Advertisement for the Rodin: Sculptures and Drawings exhibition at Roland, Browse & Delbanco in 1953 in The Manchester Guardian, 22 April 1953, p. 5 (Photo: Private Archive).Announcement for the Henry Moore. Drawings and Maquettes and Pajetta: Paintings exhibitions at Roland, Browse & Delbanco in 1957 in The Manchester Guardian, 14 October 1957, p. 5 (Photo: Private Archive).Announcement for the Philip Sutton. Recent Paintings and Margaret Kaye. Fabric Collages and Drawings exhibition, at Roland, Browse & Delbanco in 1960 in The Guardian, 27 June 1960, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).
    London
    Marlborough Fine Art
    Art Gallery

    Marlborough Fine Art was founded in 1946 by the Viennese emigrants Harry Fischer and Frank Lloyd in the Mayfair district, focused on Impressionists, Modern and Contemporary Art.

    Word Count: 26

    Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, back cover (METROMOD Archive).Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, title page (METROMOD Archive).Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, pp. 136–137 with works by August Macke (METROMOD Archive).Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, pp. 162–163 with works by Kurt Schwitters (METROMOD Archive).Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, cover (METROMOD Archive). Sales exhibition to mark the artist’s 80th birthday.Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, title page (METROMOD Archive). The catalogue indicates the international presence of the gallery.Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, p. 46: list of past exhibitions (METROMOD Archive).Report on the art market in England with an entry on Marlborough Fine Art (left column) in the Swiss magazine Du, no. 10, 1959, p. 53 (Photo: Private Archive). The entry mentions the gallery owners and their pre-exile life in Vienna.Advertisement announcing the Francis Bacon. Recent Paintings exhibition at Marlborough Gallery in 1960, The Manchester Guardian, 2 April 1960, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive). Bacon had left Hanover Gallery for Marlborough Gallery at the end of the 1950s.
    London
    The Warburg Institute
    Research Institute

    The Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Warburg in Hamburg achieved a new presence in London after 1933 under the name The Warburg Institute as a research institution with a library and photo archive.

    Word Count: 29

    The Warburg Institute, Reading Room, Imperial Institute Building, London, c. 1952 (© The Warburg Institute).
    The Warburg Institute, Reading Room, Thames House, London, c. 1934/36 (© The Warburg Institute).The Warburg Institute, Reading Room, Woburn Square, London, c. 1958 (© The Warburg Institute).
    London
    Anna Freud
    Psychoanalyst

    The psychoanalyst Anna Freud and her partner Dorothy Burlingham-Tiffany opened the War Nursery research and care facility in Hampstead in January 1941 under the impact of the bombing of London.

    Word Count: 29

    Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham, Jackson Nursery, Vienna, 1937 (© Freud Museum London).
    Dorothy Burlingham and Anna Freud. Annual Report of a Residential War Nursery. Hampstead Nursery, 1942, title page (Photo: Private Archive).Dorothy Burlingham and Anna Freud. Annual Report of a Residential War Nursery. Hampstead Nursery, 1942 (Photo: Private Archive). Page with addresses of Hampstead Nursery.Dorothy Burlingham and Anna Freud. Kriegskinder. Jahresbericht des Kriegskinderheims Hampstead Nurseries. Imago Publishing, 1949, cover (Photo: Private Archive). German version of Annual Report of a Residential War Nursery from 1942.Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham, Cork, 1949 (© Freud Museum London).Dorothy Burlingham and Anna Freud. Anstaltskinder. Imago Publishing, 1950, title page (Photo: Private Archive). German version of Infants without Families, 1943.Installation view from the Freud Museum London: Anna Freud at her loom, Walberswick, Suffolk, c. 1960s, Weaving Shuttles of Anna Freud, Crocheted scarf made by Anna Freud (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2018. Courtesy of the Freud Museum London).Freud House at Maresfield Gardens (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2018).
    London