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Lilliput

  • Kind of Object:
    Magazine
  • Name:
    Lilliput
  • Creator (Person):
    Stefan Lorant
  • Year Start:
    1937
  • Year End:
    1960
  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    43–44 Shoe Lane, Holborn, London EC4.

  • Language:
    English
  • City:
    London (GB)
  • Introduction:

    The magazine Lilliput, founded by the émigré journalist Stefan Lorant in 1937, gave work to emigrated artists and photographers such as Kurt Hutton, Walter Suschitzky, Walter Trier and Edith Tudor-Hart.

    Word Count: 29

  • Content:

    The journalist Stefan Lorant (1901–1997), who was editor-in-chief of the daily newspaper Münchner Illustrierte Presse until 1933 and was imprisoned for political reasons, escaped to London via Budapest and Paris. Shortly after his arrival in 1934, Lorant began planning new image-based magazines, which were not yet as established in the English press landscape as they were in Germany. Lorant was a founding figure of photojournalistic news transmission in England. He conceived Weekly Illustrated (founded 1934), invented Lilliput (founded 1937) and Picture Post (founded 1938). Lorant’s work in London was linked to a revival of his former working relationships with photographers such as Kurt Hutton (né Kurt Hübschmann, 1893–1960), Felix H. Man (né Felix Sigismund Baumann, 1893–1985) and Tim N. Gidal (1909–1996), who had also emigrated to England as well as Fritz Goro with his wife Carola Gregor and Fritz Henle, who emigrated to the U.S. They and other local and émigré photographers such as Bill Brandt (1904–1983), Wolf Suschitzky (1912–2016) and Edith Tudor-Hart (1908–1973) worked for Lilliput.
    A satirical monthly magazine, named for the fictional island in Jonathan Swift’s novel Gulliver’s Travels, Lilliput was published in a small pocket format (19 x 12 cm), with literary contributions by Ernest Hemingway, Ferenc Molnar, Liam O'Flaherty, Upton Sinclair and Alfred Polgar and a visual emphasis on photography and drawing. The covers were instantly recognisable: The artist Walter Trier – who would also become a political artist for the emigrant newspaper Die Zeitung in the 1940s – drew almost 150 covers between 1937 and 1949, revolving around the pictorial motif of a couple with a dog, varying through the seasons with different activities and states of mind, in a kind of “pictorial diary” (Neuner-Warthorst 2006, 234). These cover images ignore daily political business and the war and tyranny taking place on the European continent, and focus instead on the interactions between man, woman and pet. Lilliput was a supremely portable magazine that could be read on the go – on public transport or on a day out. The content had to be entertaining and the visual humour immediately accessible.

    However, Lilliput was not an apolitical magazine. Alfred Polgar's short text “Fate in Five Words”, for example, raised the issue of the fate of refugees as homeless people with no possibility of return: “A long way ... From where?” (Polgar 1939, 411) In the pictorial section of the magazine, too, the foreign policy situation, especially National Socialism, was an ongoing theme, albeit treated in an entertaining manner.
    Lorant’s visual strategy for Lilliput was juxtaposition, which offered him opportunities for political partisanship and agitation. Lilliput worked with pairs of images in which new and often comical lines of connection were established between two photographs. Lorant probably adapted the idea of juxtapositions from the German cultural magazine Der Querschnitt and discovered their potential for the English market (Willimowski 2005, 314). The US pocket magazine Coronet, founded in 1936, gave also a model for the concept of juxtapositions.
    The juxtapositions functioned through formal analogies – a similar posture or facial expression – and a succinct caption that exposed relationships. Lorant was particularly fond of commenting on political developments in Nazi Germany at a time when most media in England were still keeping their distance. Lorant exposed the German political leadership in caricatures and photographs. On one double-page spread he commented on encounters in “Old Germany” and “New Germany”: in Old Germany two elderly ladies meet with hearty laughter, while the other photograph depicts the martial attitude of the new rulers. The uniformed Hitler and his deputy Rudolf Hess greet each other with a rigid Hitler salute, which was regularly mocked in Lilliput. In the juxtaposition, Lorant succeeds in bringing out the brutalisation of mores and the loss of humanity without losing sight of the grotesque appearance of the National Socialist leadership. The Minister of Propaganda encounters a subdued sea lion on a double page spread, Hitler’s angry body language is reflected in that of an enraged gorilla.
    As early as 1938, Stefan Lorant sold the magazine to Edward Hulton, but remained editor-in-chief. When Lorant emigrated to the USA in 1940, the editorship of Lilliput fell to Tom Hopkinson. The magazine continued until 1960, when it was absorbed into the pornographic men's magazine Men Only.

    Word Count: 682

  • Signature Image:
    Lilliput, vol. 6, no. 2, 1940, cover by Walter Trier (METROMOD Archive).
  • Media:
    Lilliput, vol. 3, 1938, p. 10: “The Beautiful Llama”, Spohr, Cape Town and p. 11: “Mr. Neville Chamberlain”, photo: “, photo: Wide World, London (Photo: Private Archive).
    Lilliput, vol. 3, 1938, p. 223: “The Ruler of Germany”, photo: Keystone, London and p. 224: “The Terror of the Zoo”, photo: A. P., London (Photo: Private Archive).
    Lilliput, vol. 5, no. 4, 1939, cover by Walter Trier (METROMOD Archive).
    Lilliput, vol. 5, no. 4, 1939, contents for October (METROMOD Archive).
    Lilliput, vol. 5, no. 4, 1939, p. 322: “We shall conquer the world: German Propaganda Minister, Dr. Goebbels”, photo: Schall, Paris and p. 323: “Goodness! I’m all of a-tremble. Sea-lion in the Zoo”, photo: Keystone, London (METROMOD Archive).
    Lilliput, vol. 5, no. 4, 1939, p. 332: drawing by Walter Trier and p. 333: “Sea Spray” by T. Thompson (METROMOD Archive).
    Lilliput, vol. 5, no. 4, 1939, p. 411: “Fate in Five Words” by Alfred Polgar (METROMOD Archive). A short story on the homelessness of émigrés.
    Lilliput, vol. 6, no. 2, 1940, p. 148: “The Beauty of the snow: The painter who tries to capture it”, photo: Dulovits, Budapest and p. 149: “Three Stories” by Ferenc Molnar (METROMOD Archive).
    Lilliput, vol. 4, 1939, p. 426: “Should we have this? A beauty parlour for dogs”, photo: Edith Tudor-Hart, c. 1937 and p. 427: “Must we have this? A London slum”, photo: Edith Tudor-Hart, c. 1936 (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).
    Lilliput, vol. 6, 1940, p. 311: “London Snowstorm”, photo: Wolf Suschitzky (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).
    Advertisement for Lilliput in the first issue of Picture Post, vol. 1, 1938, p. 2 (Photo: Private Archive). Both magazines were founded by Stefan Lorant.
    Essay on Lilliput in the first issue of Picture Post, vol. 1, 1938, p. 73 (Photo: Private Archive).
    Advertisement for Lilliput in Picture Post, vol. 3, 1939, p. 2: overview on Walter Trier’s covers (Photo: Private Archive).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Dogramaci, Burcu. “Der Kreis um Stefan Lorant. Von der Münchner Illustrierten Presse zur Picture Post.” Netzwerke des Exils. Künstlerische Verflechtungen, Austausch und Patronage nach 1933, edited by Burcu Dogramaci and Karin Wimmer, Gebr. Mann Verlag, 2011, pp. 163–183.

    Dogramaci, Burcu, and Helene Roth. “Fotografie als Mittler im Exil: Fotojournalismus bei Picture Post in London und Fototheorie und -praxis an der New School for Social Research in New York.” Vermittler*innen zwischen den Kulturen, edited by Inge Hansen-Schaberg et al., special issue of Zeitschrift für Museum und Bildung, vol. 86–87, 2019, pp. 13–44.

    Hallett, Michael. Stefan Lorant. Godfather of Photojournalism. Scarecrow Press, 2006.

    Hopkinson, Amanda. “Picture Post: ‘Strongly political and anti-Fascist’.” Insiders Outsiders. Refugees from Nazi Europe and their Contribution to British Visual Culture, edited by Monica Bohm-Duchen, Lund Humphries, 2019, pp. 121–127.

    Lilliput, London, 1937–1960.

    Lorant, Stefan. “Introduction.” Idem. Chamberlain and the Beautiful Llama and 101 more juxtapositions. Hulton Press, 1940, pp. 7–13.

    Neuner-Warthorst, Antje. Walter Trier. Politik. Kunst. Reklame, edited by Hans Joachim Neyer, exh. cat. Wilhelm-Busch-Museum, Hannover, 2006.

    Osman, Colin. “Der Einfluß deutscher Fotografen im Exil auf die britische Pressefotografie.” Kunst im Exil in Großbritannien 1933–1945, exh. cat. Neue Gesellschaft für bildende Kunst, Berlin, 1986, pp. 83–87.

    Picture Post, London, 1938–1957.

    Schumann, Klaus. “Der Mann mit den sechs Leben. Die ungewöhnliche Karriere des Stefan Lorant.” Süddeutsche Zeitung, 14/15 December 1985.

    Willimowski, Thomas. Stefan Lorant – Eine Karriere im Exil. wvb, 2005.

    Word Count: 218

  • Author:
    Burcu Dogramaci
  • Metropolis:
    London
  • Entry in process:
    no
  • Burcu Dogramaci. "Lilliput." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/1470/object/5140-11260467, last modified: 12-05-2021.
  • Edith Tudor-Hart
    Photographer

    The Viennese photographer Edith Tudor-Hart emigrated to England in 1933 and made a name with her photographs focusing on questions of class, social exclusion and the lives of marginalised people.

    Word Count: 29

    Edith Tudor-Hart took a series of photographs of the construction and opening of Lawn Road Flats in 1934 (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).
    Edith Tudor-Hart, Lawn Road Flats’ Christmas card, 1934, cover (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Edith Tudor-Hart, Lawn Road Flats’ Christmas card, 1934, inside (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Edith Tudor-Hart, Gee Street, Finsbury, London, c. 1936, in Wal Hannington’s The Problem of the Distressed Areas, Left Book Club Edition, 1937, pl. 23 (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Lilliput, vol. 4, 1939, p. 426: “Should we have this? A beauty parlour for dogs”, photo: Edith Tudor-Hart, c. 1937 and p. 427: “Must we have this? A London slum”, photo: Edith Tudor-Hart, c. 1936 (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Margery Spring Rice. Working-Class Wives. Their Health and Conditions. Penguin Press, 1939, cover with photograph by Edith Tudor-Hart (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Margery Spring Rice. Working-Class Wives. Their Health and Conditions. Penguin Press, 1939, pl. 2–4: photographs by Edith Tudor-Hart (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).
    London
    John Heartfield
    ArtistGraphic DesignerFotomonteur (mounter of photographs)

    After escaping from his first exile in Prague in December 1938, the political artist John Heartfield lived in London since 1950, working for Picture Post and the publisher Lindsay Drummond.

    Word Count: 28

    Richard St. Barbe Baker. Africa drums. Lindsay Drummond, 1943, cover design by John Heartfield (METROMOD Archive, © The Heartfield Community of Heirs / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).
    London
    Wolf Suschitzky
    PhotographerCinematographer

    The Viennese Wolf Suschitzky made a career as a photographer and cinematographer after emigrating to London in 1935.

    Word Count: 17

    Animal and Zoo Magazine, vol. 3, no. 6, 1938, cover photograph by Wolf Suschitzky (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).
    Animal and Zoo Magazine, vol. 3, no. 6, 1938, p. 29 with photographs by Wolf Suschitzky (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Animal and Zoo Magazine, vol. 3, no. 6, 1938, p. 30 with photographs by Wolf Suschitzky (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Animal and Zoo Magazine, vol. 3, no. 2, 1938, pp. 14–15 with photographs by Wolf Suschitzky (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Wolf Suschitzky (photographs) and Julian Huxley (text). Kingdom of the Beasts. Thames and Hudson, 1956, pp. 84–85 (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Wolf Suschitzky. Photographing Animals. The Studio, 1941, cover (© Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Wolf Suschitzky. Photographing Animals. The Studio, 1941, p. 21 (© Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Wolf Suschitzky. Photographing Children. The Studio, 1940, cover (© Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Wolf Suschitzky. Photographing Children. The Studio, 1940, p. 53 (© Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).Lilliput, vol. 6, 1940, p. 311: “London Snowstorm”, photo: Wolf Suschitzky (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky).
    London
    We make History
    Book

    In 1940, émigré artist Richard Ziegler, using the pseudonym Robert Ziller, published the book We Make History with the Allen & Unwin publishing house in London.

    Word Count: 25

    Robert Ziller [Richard Ziegler]. We Make history. Allen & Unwin, 1940, cover (Photo: Private Archive).
    Robert Ziller [Richard Ziegler]. We Make history. Allen & Unwin, 1940, n.p.: Joseph Goebbels (Photo: Private Archive).Robert Ziller [Richard Ziegler]. We Make history. Allen & Unwin, 1940, n.p.: Rudolf Hess (Photo: Private Archive).Robert Ziller [Richard Ziegler]. We Make history. Allen & Unwin, 1940, n.p.: Baldur von Schirach (Photo: Private Archive).Robert Ziller [Richard Ziegler]. We Make history. Allen & Unwin, 1940, n.p., Franz von Papen (Photo: Private Archive).Robert Ziller [Richard Ziegler], Quislings (I.): “Qui mange du Papen, en meurt", in Die Zeitung, 29 March 1941, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive).Robert Ziller [Richard Ziegler]. We Make history, Allen & Unwin, 1940, n.p.: Adolf Hitler (Photo: Private Archive).
    London
    “The Life of a Station.”
    Photoessay

    Photographer Tim N. Gidal’s first reportage for Picture Post magazine after his emigration to London was devoted to Victoria Station, observing travellers and their companions as they depart and arrive.

    Word Count: 31

    Tim N. Gidal. “The Life of a Station.” Picture Post, vol. 2, no. 6, 11 February 1939, pp. 13.
    Tim N. Gidal. “The Life of a Station.” Picture Post, vol. 2, no. 6, 11 February 1939, pp. 14–15.Tim N. Gidal. “The Life of a Station.” Picture Post, vol. 2, no. 6, 11 February 1939, pp. 16–17.Tim N. Gidal. “The Life of a Station.” Picture Post, vol. 2, no. 6, 11 February 1939, pp. 18–19.Tim N. Gidal. “The Life of a Station.” Picture Post, vol. 2, no. 6, 11 February 1939, pp. 20–21.Picture Post, vol. 2, no. 6, 11 February 1939, cover (Private Archive). Issue containing Tim N. Gidal’s photo-essay “The Life of a Station”.Picture Post, vol. 2, no. 6, 11 February 1939, list of contents (Private Archive). Tim N. Gidal’s photo-essay “The Life of a Station” appears at the top.
    London
    Lighting for Photography. Means and Methods
    Photo guideBook

    Lighting for Photography from 1940 by the émigré photographer Walter Nurnberg was one of a number of successful photo guides produced by Andor Kraszna-Krausz’s Focal Press publishing house.

    Word Count: 28

    Walter Nurnberg. Lighting for Photography. Means and Methods. Focal Press, 1942, 2nd edition, cover (Photo: Private Archive).
    Walter Nurnberg. Lighting for Photography. Means and Methods. Focal Press, 1942, 2nd edition, pp. 94–95 (Photo: Private Archive).Walter Nurnberg. Lighting for Photography. Means and Methods. Focal Press, 1942, 2nd edition, pp. 160–161 (Photo: Private Archive).Walter Nurnberg. Lighting for Photography. Means and Methods. Focal Press, 1942, 2nd edition, pp. 244–245 (Photo: Private Archive).
    London
    Tim Gidal
    PhotographerPublisherArt Historian

    Tim Gidal was a German-Jewish photographer, publisher and art historian emigrating in 1948 emigrated to New York. Besides his teaching career, he worked as a photojournalist and, along with his wife Sonia Gidal, published youth books.

    Word Count: 35

    Portrait of Tim Gidal, n.d. (© Tim Gidal Archiv. Steinheim Institut. Photo: Horst Hahn).
    Cover of My village in Austria by Sonia and Tim Gidal (Pantheon, 1956).Plan of the village printed in My village in Austria by Sonia and Tim Gidal (Pantheon, 1956).Title page of My Village in India by Sonia and Tim Gidal (Pantheon, 1956).Announcement for “The New Grand Tour” course by Tim Gidal. New School Bulletin, vol. 13, no. 18, Spring 1956, p. 30 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Announcement for “Picture Reporting Through The Ages” course by Tim Gidal. New School Bulletin, vol. 13, no. 18, Spring 1956, p. 49 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Letter from Tim Gidal to Clara W. Mayer, 1957/58 ( © Clara Mayer Papers. Gidal, Nahum T., 1957-1958, Box: 4, Folder: 27. The New School Archives, Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Fritz Henle
    Photographer

    Fritz Henle was a German Jewish photographer who emigrated in 1936 to New York, where he worked as a photojournalist for various magazines. He also published several photobooks of his travels throughout North America and Asia.

    Word Count: 35

    Portrait of Fritz Henle by Herbert Matter, New York, 1937 (© Estate Fritz Henle).
    Fritz Henle, New York at Night, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).Fritz Henle, New York Reflections, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).Fritz Henle, The L Train on Wall Street, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).Fritz Henle, Brooklyn Bridge and Baby Carriage, New York, 1936's-1950 (© 2021.Fritz Henle Estate)Fritz Henle, New York Skaters from the RCA Building, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).Fritz Henle, New York Art Critic at Washington Square, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).“The American Legion takes New York City.” Life, 4 October 1937, pp. 24f.Photographs by Fritz Henle for the reportage “Memo to: Walter Wander, Subject: 52nd Street.” Life, 29 November 1937, pp. 64–67 (Photo: Helene Roth).Cover of Paris photobook by Fritz Henle (Ziff Davis, 1947).“Men who love Paris. Fritz Henle and Elliot Paul combine pictures and text in a handsome book about their favorite city.” Popular Photography, January 1947, pp. 60–61.Norris Harkness. "Simplicity. Fritz Henle’s fashion shots prove that the easy way is often the most effective." Popular Photography, August 1944, pp. 36–37.Victor Kepler. “There’s adventure in night photography.” Popular Photography, August 1942, pp. 28–29.Cover of Fritz Henle’s rollei (Hastings House, 1950).Cover photo by Fritz Henle, Life, 30 July 1939.
    New York
    Carola Gregor
    PhotographerSculptor

    The German émigré photographer Carola Gregor was an animal and child photographer and published some of her work in magazines and books. Today her work and life are almost forgotten.

    Word Count: 30

    Portrait of Carola Gregor (cutout of her papers of naturalisation).
    Petitions for naturalization from the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York of Carola Gregor (Naturalizations, box 1018-1020, cert. no. 513486-513958, 9-12 Apr 1945, Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685 - 2009, RG 21. National Archives at New York, familysearch.org).Homer- The Hydrophobic Duck by Carola Gregor published in U.S. Camera 1943, p. 63 (Photo: Helene Roth).Portrait of Fritz Goro by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 13 September 1937, p. 104 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photograph of Amazonian birds by Carola Gregor for the brochure Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939, pp. 11–12 (Photo: Helene Roth).Mending Nets by Carola Gregor, published in Popular Photography, October 1942, p. 40 (Photo: Helene Roth).A gleaming spider by Carola Gregor, published in Popular Photography, August 1948, pp. 81–82 (Photo: Helene Roth).Reportage “Liger. A lion and a tigress produce a new kind of zoo baby” with images by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 20 September 1948, p. 109 (Photo: Helene Roth).Reportage “Liger. A lion and a tigress produce a new kind of zoo baby” with images by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 20 September 1948, pp. 111–112 (Photo: Helene Roth).War Manpower Commission. Farm labor poster distributed to Department of Agriculture. Photograph by Carola Gregor (Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives).
    New York
    Die Zeitung
    Newspaper

    From 1941 to 1945, the émigré German-language newspaper Die Zeitung was published in London, reporting on the war on the continent and on the situation in Germany.

    Word Count: 25

    Front page of Die Zeitung, 7 April 1941 (Photo: Private Archive).
    Robert Ziller [Richard Ziegler], Quislings (I.): “Qui mange du Papen, en meurt", in Die Zeitung, 29 March 1941, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive).Robert Ziller [Richard Ziegler], Quislings (IV.) Tiso: Das Vorbild des Balkan-Quislings [Model of the Balkan Quisling], in Die Zeitung, 17 April 1941, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive).Robert Ziller [Richard Ziegler], “Seit vielen Monaten war ich zum Schweigen verurteilt” [For many months I had been condemned to silence], in Die Zeitung, 2 July 1941, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive).Robert Ziller [Richard Ziegler], B.D.M., in Die Zeitung, 8 July 1941, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive).Robert Ziller [Richard Ziegler], Mussolini, in Die Zeitung, 6 August 1941, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive).Robert Ziller [Richard Ziegler], Heinrich Himmler, in Die Zeitung, 27 October 1944, p. 4 (Photo: Private Archive).Walter Trier, Des Führers Ahnengalerie [The Führer’s Ancestral Gallery] in Die Zeitung, 3 September 1941, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive).Walter Trier, Der Führer: “Komm nur weiter, wir sind sicher bald oben!” [Keep coming, I’m sure we’ll be up there soon!] in Die Zeitung, 22 September 1941, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive).Walter Trier, Die Ingredientien einer Hitlerrede [The Ingredients of a Hitler Speech], in Die Zeitung, 3 January 1942, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive).Walter Trier, Himmler, Dr. Petiot: “Was? Lumpige 54 Morde? Anfänger!” [What? A measly 54 murders? Rookie!] in Die Zeitung, 3 January 1942, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive). Walter Trier’s final illustration for Die Zeitung, dedicated to a fictional conversation between a serial killer (Petiot) and a mass murderer (Himmler).
    London