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20th Century German Art

  • Name (text):
    20th Century German Art

    Word Count: 4

  • Kind of Event:
    Exhibition
  • Start Date:
    07-07-1938
  • End Date:
    27-08-1938
  • Introduction:

    The 20th Century German Art exhibition of 1938 gave visibility to artists who had been defamed at the Munich exhibition Entartete Kunst and were persecuted by the National Socialist regime.

    Word Count: 29

  • Content:

    In reaction to the National Socialist Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art) exhibition in Munich in 1937, plans were made in London for a counter-exhibition. Involved in the conception and organisation were the art historian Herbert Read, the artist Roland Penrose and the gallerist Nöel ‘Peter’ Norton (London Gallery) – she later left the organisation. The group cooperated with the Swiss collector and art dealer Irmgard Burchard, the art critic Oto Bihalji-Merin and the artist Richard P. Lohse (Frowein 1986, 35). The 20th Century German Art exhibition was planned to offer visibility to artists who had been defamed at the Munich exhibition and were persecuted by the National Socialist regime. At the same time, no work from the Entartete Kunst exhibition was shown (N. 1938).

    The organisers were advised by the art historian Edith Hoffmann, who was exiled in London. Furthermore, as Lucy Wasensteiner was able to show, there was collaboration with Paul Westheim and Charlotte Weidle in Paris and the Guggenheim Jeune Gallery in London (Wasensteiner 2018a, 59-61). It was thus an international network that was able to gather works from private collections, museums and galleries in London in a very short time. The exhibition venue, the New Burlington Galleries, was located on the fourth floor of a building at 5 Burlington Gardens in Mayfair. The International Surrealist Exhibition organised by Herbert Read, Roland Penrose and David Gascoyne had already taken place there in 1936. The Masters of French 19th Century Painting exhibition, curated by Alfred Flechtheim, was also held at the New Burlington Galleries in 1936, bringing together works from Manet to van Gogh and Cézanne (Flechtheim 1937). It was thus a well-established venue for modern art in London. Patrons of the show included the zoologist Julian Huxley, the architect Le Corbusier, the painter Pablo Picasso and the writer Virginia Woolf (20th Century German Art, invitation card).

    Although the exhibition had a staunchly political background, the back side of the invitation card pointed out that the art itself was apolitical: “The purpose of the Exhibition is to give a comprehensive survey of German Art of the twentieth century. The organisers of the Exhibition are, of course, aware that much of this art is now in official disfavour in the country of its origin, and that many of the artists are exiles. Their motives, however, are not political. They believe that art is a mode of expression appealing to mankind in its universal aspects, above time and race. They believe, therefore, that the art which has for many years been held in the highest esteem in Germany should not be completely neglected: that it has its place in the historical evolution of European painting and sculpture; and that it should be judged by the aesthetic standards which are proper to art.” (20th Century German Art, invitation card). As Cordula Frowein has pointed out, more radical political positions such as John Heartfield’s photomontages or Rudolf Schlichter's political works from the 1920s (Frowein 1986, 37) were not included in the exhibition.

    The exhibition catalogue reads like a rollcall of established modernism, naming many of the exhibited artworks and their lenders. The 20th Century German Art exhibition of 1938 brought together more than 300 works by 64 artists, such as Otto Dix, Oskar Kokoschka, Käthe Kollwitz, Paula Modersohn-Becker and Kurt Schwitters. On display were Ernst Barlach’s Mother and Child (1920), Max Beckmann’s Triptych: Temptation (1937), Ernst Ludwig Kirchner’s Red Houses (1913), Wilhelm Lehmbruck’s Torso (1910) and Ludwig Meidner’s Portrait from the Goldberg private collection in Switzerland. In a second section of the catalogue, as an addendum, as it were, further participants were listed under the heading “Artists now working in England”, including Erna Auerbach, Martin Bloch and Hans Feibusch.
    The art historian Lucy Wasensteiner was able to identify the more than 90 lenders – including many private collectors (London 1938, 94-151): 20 loans came from the collection of the emigrated banker and collector Hugo Simon alone – including Erich Heckel’s Bathing Scene (1914). Others came from Theodor and Ellen Plaut and Erich and Senta Göritz – both couples had emigrated to England. Swiss collectors such as Sigmund Pollag and Walter and Alice Minnich also gave works. Some of the loans were for sale, including Max Liebermann’s Potato Gatherer (1874) loaned by the art dealer Max Stern, who had emigrated to London. Artists such as Willi Baumeister and Wassily Kandinsky were also among the lenders. The sculptor Benno Elkan, who had emigrated to Great Britain, was represented by three works, including the bust Head of Alfred Flechtheim (1912), a reference to the art dealer Flechtheim who had recently died in London. Elkan also lent two paintings by Karl Hofer and Oskar Kokoschka (London 1938, 130).
    Some of the artists featured in the 20th Century German Art exhibition had been presented four years earlier at the Exhibition of German Jewish Artists’ Work, among them Erna Auerbach, Max Liebermann and Benno Elkan. The Exhibition of German Jewish Artists’ Work was organised by Carl Braunschweig and held at the Parson’s Gallery in 1934. The two exhibitions could be read as snapshots of an art history in motion against a background of persecution and exile: Whereas the 1934 show captured a situation in transition – many of the exhibitors were not yet in exile, or had not yet perished – defamation and expulsion were already well advanced by 1938. In their own way, both exhibitions contributed to the visibility and perception of German (and Austrian) art under pressure in London in the 1930s.

    In 1938, Peter Thoene’s paperback Modern German Art was published by Penguin Books and, like the catalogue, was included in the price of admission to the 20th Century German Art exhibition (Elliott 2018, 153). Behind the pseudonym, Thoene was the art historian Oto Bihalji-Merin, who had emigrated to Switzerland. Originally from the Austro-Hungarian town of Semlin, the art historian and writer had lived in Berlin from 1924 and joined the circle of the journal Linkskurve around Johannes R. Becher. Bihalji-Merin later emigrated to Paris, fought in the Spanish Civil War and then went into exile in Switzerland (Raddatz 1988). There, Oto Bihalji-Merin wrote and published his book Modern German Art, for which Herbert Read contributed the introduction. In his text, Bihalji-Merin refers to the art-political situation in Nazi Germany, knowledgeably guiding the reader through the modern art movements in Germany of the past decades, their contradictions and rivalries, focusing on works by Otto Dix, Käthe Kollwitz and others. In his book, which comprises 108 pages and 32 illustrations, Bilhalji-Merin opens up a view of avant-garde German painting in the context of socio-historical and political conditions from the early 20th century to his present (Thoene 1938).

    Franz Marc’s painting Blue Horses (1911) was reproduced on the exhibition catalogue cover and on the invitation card, as well as in Thoene’s/Bihalji-Merin’s book. The painting had already been printed in Fritz Burger’s survey work Einführung in die moderne Kunst (Introduction to Modern Art) (1917), which played a major role in the recognition and dissemination of Expressionist art. Blue Horses went on to gain wide recognition and became a key image for the artist and for Expressionism. Curt Glaser acquired the painting at the first “Blaue Reiter” (Blue Rider) exhibition. Via the Karl Caspari Gallery (Munich) and the Kunstsalon Wolfsberg (Zurich) it wound up at the Karl Nierendorf Gallery in New York, where it was acquired by the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis/Minnesota in 1942. It became the symbolic painting of the 20th Century German Art exhibition in 1938. Numerous international shows, including the 50 Ans d'Art Moderne exhibition at the 1958 Brussels World's Fair, featured Blue Horses. (Dogramaci 2016).
    The 20th Century German Art exhibition attracted a large number of visitors. Several thousand people came to the opening and the show was extended several times, finally closing on 27 August 1938. In addition to positive press reviews in The Spectator and the Catholic Herald (Wasensteiner 1938b, 186), there were also negative and polemical voices, such as in The New Statesman and Nation newspaper, which reacted negatively above all to the distortions of form in Expressionism: “I must now state that in so far as the German Exhibition at the New Burlington Gallery is propaganda, it is, my opinion, extremely bad propaganda. People who got to see the Exhibition are only too likely to say: ‘If Hitler doesn’t like these pictures, it’s the best thing I’ve heard about Hitler.’ For the general impression made by the Show upon the ordinary public must be one of extraordinary ugliness. [...] These German painters in their passionate pursuit of expressiveness at any cost, use the utmost violence of colour and design. Emphasis is all. And the result is a combination of coarseness and hysteria, two of the chief qualities that make the Nazi régime so detestable.” (Mortimer 1938, 112) Visual habits were challenged, comparisons were drawn in the press to French art currently on the London art market: “Before their suppression or exile they [the exhibited German artists] formed the advance guard of modern German art, and to us who have been (artistically speaking) spoon-fed for so long from Paris this exhibition of a national spirit so different from that of France comes as a shock. What is called the ‘Expressionist’ movement is here seen to be the natural way of painting in post-war Germany. […] It is a disturbing show, and an intensely national one.” (N. 1938)

    The 20th Century German Art exhibition, which also attracted attention in the shape of a lecture by Max Beckmann and a recital by Paul Robeson (The Manchester Guardian, 3 August 1938, p. 18), lived on through the sale of some of the works: works by Max Liebermann, Franz Marc and Ernst Barlach went to the Whitworth Gallery (now Whitworth Art Gallery) in Manchester, including Barlach’s print Death (Kindertod) (1919; http://gallerysearch.ds.man.ac.uk/Detail/14764). The Whitworth Gallery was thus able to supplement an already existing bronze by Barlach (Staff Correspondents 1938). The London Society acquired Liebermann’s painting Professor Albert Einstein (London 1938, 96f.) Some works from the exhibition subsequently went on tour and were shown at the McLellan Galleries in Glasgow and at various locations in the United States, including the Milwaukee Art Institute, the Saint Louis City Art Museum and the Smith College Museum of Art in Northampton (Holz 1938).
    More than 20 years after 20th Century German Art exhibition, Marlborough Fine Art, founded by the émigré art dealers Harry Fischer and Frank Lloyd, presented in 1959 an exhibition titled Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition of Aid in World Refugee Year. By hosting the exhibition during World Refugee Year, Marlborogh Fine Art placed German modernism – similarly to the 20th Century German Art show of 1938 at New Burlington Galleries – in the context of political art under threat.

    Word Count: 1755

  • Signature Image:
    Invitation card to the 20th Century German Art exhibition, 1938, front cover with Franz Marc’s painting Blue Horses from 1911 (Akademie der Künste, Berlin, Heinz-Worner-Archiv 174).
  • Media:
    20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, cover (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).
    20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 4–5 (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).
    20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 8–9: Ernst Barlach’s Hunger (no. 2) was purchased by the to the Friends of the Whitworth Fund and presented to the Whitworth Gallery in Manchester (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).
    20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 10–11: Max Beckmann’s Triptych: Temptation (no. 18) was one of the signature works of the exhibition (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).
    20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 14–15: Benno Elkan’s Head of Alfred Flechtheim (1911) from the possession of the artist (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).
    20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, p. 47: Erna Auerbach, Martin Bloch, Georg Ehrlich and other artists are mentioned in a separate section of the catalogue titled “Artists now working in England” (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).
    20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 48–49: Hans Feibusch, Paul Hamann, Hein Heckroth, Tiza Hess, Walter Hoefner and other artists are mentioned in a separate section of the catalogue titled “Artists now working in England” (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).
    Peter Thoene [Oto Bihalji-Merin]. Modern German Art. Penguin Books, 1938, cover (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).
    Information on Peter Thoene [Oto Bihalji-Merin] in the book Modern German Art, 1938 (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).
    Reproduction of Franz Marc’s Blue Horses in Peter Thoene’s Modern German Art, 1938 (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).
    N. “Twentieth-Century German Art.” The Manchester Guardian, 7 July 1938, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).
    Article “Whitworth Acquisitions” in The Manchester Guardian, 29 July 1938, p. 13 mentioning acquisitions from the 20th Century German Art exhibition by the Whitworth Gallery in Manchester.
    Announcement for the exhibition in The Observer, 14 August 1938, p. 2 (Photo: Private Archive).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Dogramaci, Burcu. “Aufs richtige Pferd gesetzt! Zur frühen Geschichtsschreibung des Expressionismus.” Fritz Burger (1877–1916) – ‘eine neue Kunstgeschichte’ (Veröffentlichungen des Zentralinstituts für Kunstgeschichte in München, 43), edited by Ulrich Pfisterer, Dietmar Klinger Verlag, 2016, pp. 189–208.

    Elliott, David. “Modern German Art 1938: The Book.” London 1938. Defending ‘degenerate’ Art. Mit Kandinsky, Liebermann und Nolde gegen Hitler, edited by Lucy Wasensteiner and Martin Faass, exh. cat. The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide, London, 2018a, pp. 152–160.

    Exhibition of 20th Century German Art, exh. cat. New Burlington Galleries, London, 1938.

    Exhibition of German-Jewish Artists’ Work: Painting – Sculpture – Architecture, exh. cat. Parsons Galleries, London, 1934.

    Flechtheim, Alfred. “Postscript.” James Laver. French Painting And The Nineteenth Century. B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1937, pp. 101–114.

    Frowein, Cordula. “Ausstellungsaktivitäten der Exilkünstler.” Kunst im Exil in Großbritannien 1933–1945, exh. cat. Neue Gesellschaft für bildende Kunst, Berlin, 1986, pp. 35–48.

    Hedley, Gill. “Three female gallerists who changed the course of British art.” 29 September 2016, Royal Academy of Arts, www.royalacademy.org.uk/article/movers-and-shakers-female-gallerists-british-art. Accessed 27 January 2021.

    Holz, Keith. “The United States tour of 20th Century (Banned) German Art.” London 1938. Defending ‘degenerate’ Art. Mit Kandinsky, Liebermann und Nolde gegen Hitler, edited by Lucy Wasensteiner and Martin Faass, exh. cat. The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide, London, 2018a, pp. 215–223.

    Lackner, Stephan, and Helen Adkins. “Exhibition of the 20th Century German Art.” Stationen der Moderne. Die bedeutenden Kunstausstellungen des 20. Jahrhunderts in Deutschland, edited by Eberhard Roters, exh. cat. Berlinische Galerie, Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 1988, pp. 315–337.

    London 1938. Defending ‘degenerate’ Art. Mit Kandinsky, Liebermann und Nolde gegen Hitler, edited by Lucy Wasensteiner and Martin Faass, exh. cat. The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide, London, 2018.

    Mortimer, Raymond. “German Artists.” The New Statesman and Nation, vol. 16, no. 286, 16 July 1938, pp. 112–113.

    N. “Twentieth-century German Art.” The Manchester Guardian, 7 July 1938, p. 7.

    Raddatz, Fritz J. “Ein glückliches Leben in der Hölle. Ein Gespräch mit Oto Bihalji-Merin.” Die Zeit, no. 22, 27 May 1988, pp. 37–39.

    Staff Correspondents. “Whitworth Acquisitions.” The Manchester Guardian, 29 July 1938, p. 13.

    Summers, Cherith. “Exhibition of German-Jewish Artists’ Work: Painting – Sculpture – Architecture.” Brave New Visions. The Émigrés who transformed the British Art World, exh. cat. Sotheby’s, St. George’s Gallery, London, 2019, p. 14. issuu, https://issuu.com/bravenewvisions/docs/brave_new_visions. Accessed 25 February 2021.

    Thoene, Peter [Oto Bihalji-Merin]. Modern German art. Translated by Charles Fullman, Penguin Books, 1938.

    First Exhibition of 20th Century German Art, invitation card (Akademie der Künste, Berlin, Archiv Bildende Kunst, Heinz-Worner-Archiv, July 1938), 174.

    Wasensteiner, Lucy. “A British Statement against Nazi Policy? The Organisation of Twentieth Century German Art.” London 1938. Defending ‘degenerate’ Art. Mit Kandinsky, Liebermann und Nolde gegen Hitler, edited by Lucy Wasensteiner and Martin Faass, exh. cat. The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide, London, 2018a, pp. 59–66.

    Wasensteiner, Lucy. “The Public Response to 20th Century German Art.” London 1938. Defending ‘degenerate’ Art. Mit Kandinsky, Liebermann und Nolde gegen Hitler, edited by Lucy Wasensteiner and Martin Faass, exh. cat. The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide, London, 2018b, pp. 183–188.

    Wasensteiner, Lucy. The Twentieth Century German Art Exhibition. Answering Degenerate Art in 1930s London. Routledge, 2019. Taylor & Francis, doi: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351004145. Accessed 7 April 2021.

    Word Count: 521

  • Archives and Sources:

    Akademie der Künste, Berlin, Archiv Bildende Kunst, Heinz-Worner-Archiv.

    Word Count: 9

  • Acknowledgements:

    My deepest thanks go to Jennifer Garland at Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University, who provided me with a scan of the 20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue.

    Word Count: 29

  • Author:
    Burcu Dogramaci
  • Participants (selection):

    Ernst Barlach, Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Oskar Kokoschka, Käthe Kollwitz, Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Ludwig Meidner, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Kurt Schwitters.

    Word Count: 22

  • Exhibited Objects:

    Ernst Barlach, Mother and Child, 1920; Max Beckmann, Triptych: Temptation, 1937; Benno Elkan, Head of Alfred Flechtheim, 1912; Erich Heckel, Bathing Scene, 1914; Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Red Houses, 1913; Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Torso, 1910; Max Liebermann, Potato Gatherer, 1874; Ludwig Meidner, Portrait, n.d.

    Word Count: 36

  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    New Burlington Galleries, 5 Burlington Gardens, Mayfair, London W1.

  • Metropolis:
    London
  • Entry in process:
    no
  • Burcu Dogramaci. "20th Century German Art." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/1470/object/5141-11260411, last modified: 26-04-2021.
  • Kurt Schwitters
    ArtistPoet

    The artist and poet Kurt Schwitters lived in London between 1941 and 1945, where he stood in contact to émigré and local artists, before moving to the Lake District.

    Word Count: 27

    In 1933 Herbert Read reproduced Kurt Schwitters’s Grey-rose picture assemblage (1932) in his book Art Now. An Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture (METROMOD Archive).
    Kurt Schwitters, Red Wire Sculpture, 1944, Metal, plaster, stone, ceramics, dried fruit, wood, painted (Tate Collection, T05767, Photo © Tate, CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported)).Kurt Schwitters’s London address book, undated [1941/1945] (Sprengel Museum Hannover, Kurt Schwitters Archiv, Hannover, Leihgabe Kurt und Ernst Schwitters Stiftung, Hannover). On the right is the address of Abbo’s studio at Lambolle Road and a reference to the Abbo family in Sussex.Letter [draft?] from Kurt Schwitters to Jussuf Abbo, London, 23 December 1941 (Sprengel Museum Hannover, Kurt Schwitters Archiv, Hannover, Leihgabe Kurt und Ernst Schwitters Stiftung, Hannover). Schwitters writes: “I found you in the exhibition of the German League of Culture and am glad to have you in London. You remember our meetings in Berlin and at the Hanoversche Secession. I come from Norway, where I have been resident for 11 years. When and where can I see you one day?”Leaflet advertising the December exhibition held at the Modern Art Gallery on Masterpieces by Great Masters, also featuring Paintings and Sculptures by Kurt Schwitters, Modern Art Gallery Ltd., 1944 (Tate Archive, TGA 9510/4/8/1, Photo © Tate, CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported)).
    London
    Herbert Read
    Art HistorianArt CriticPoet

    The British art historian Herbert Read established himself as a central figure in the London artistic scene in the 1930s and was one of the outstanding supporters of exiled artists.

    Word Count: 30

    Howard Coster, Herbert Read, 1934 (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 5).
    Howard Coster, Herbert Read, 1934 (© National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG x19537).“Map showing where some of the people connected with the modern movement in art lived in Hampstead during the 1930s.” (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 9).Mall Studios behind Parkhill Road in Hampstead, occupied during the 1930s by Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson, Cecil Stephenson and Herbert Read (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 8).Herbert Read. Art Now. An Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture. Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1933, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    London
    Exhibition of German Jewish Artists’ Work: Painting – Sculpture – Architecture
    Exhibition

    The Exhibition of German Jewish Artists’ Work was organised in 1934 by Carl Braunschweig at the Parsons Galleries in Oxford Street and featured 220 works by German Jewish artists.

    Word Count: 27

    Advertisement “An Exhibition of Works of Art By German Jewish Artists” in The Observer 10 June 1934, p. 14 (Photo: Private Archive).
    Private Wire. “Our London Correspondence.” The Manchester Guardian, 6 June 1934, p. 10 (Photo: Private Archive).
    London
    Lindsay Drummond
    Publishing House

    The artist John Heartfield designed covers for the publishing house Lindsay Drummond, which had an anti-fascist programme and published books by emigrated authors such as Wilhelm Necker and Felix Langer.

    Word Count: 30

    Paul Duner’s A Year and a Day (Lindsay Drummond, 1942) tells the story of the author's flight from Belgium to England (METROMOD Archive, © The Heartfield Community of Heirs / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021). Cover design by John Heartfield.
    Jacob S. Worm-Müller’s Norway Revolts Against the Nazis (Lindsay Drummond, 1941) with a cover design by John Heartfield (METROMOD Archive, © The Heartfield Community of Heirs / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).Jacob S. Worm-Müller’s Norway Revolts Against the Nazis (Lindsay Drummond, 1941), title page (METROMOD Archive).Hans J. Rehfisch. In Tyrannos. Four Century of Struggle against Tyranny in Germany. Lindsay Drummond, 1943 (METROMOD Archive, © The Heartfield Community of Heirs / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021). First book publication of the émigré Club 43. Cover design by John Heartfield.Advertisement for Erika Mann’s School for Babarians. Education under the Nazis in The Manchester Guardian, 28 March 1939, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).Advertisement for Lindsay Drummond’s book series Europe under the Nazis in Freie Deutsche Kultur, no. 2, 1942, p. 14 (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Advertisement for Edith Hoffmann’s Chagall. Watercolours 1942–46, Lindsay Drummond, 1947 in The Manchester Guardian, 13 January 1950, p. 4 (Photo: Private Archive).
    London
    Roland, Browse & Delbanco
    GalleryArt Dealer

    Émigré art historians and art dealers, Henry Roland and Gustav Delbanco, along with Lillian Browse, opened their Mayfair gallery, Roland, Browse & Delbanco, in 1945.

    Word Count: 24

    Sickert 1860–1942, exh. cat. Roland, Browse & Delbanco, London, 1960, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Sickert 1860–1942, exh. cat. Roland, Browse & Delbanco, London, 1960, title page and p. 1 (METROMOD Archive).Sickert 1860–1942, exh. cat. Roland, Browse & Delbanco, London, 1960, pp. 4–5 (METROMOD Archive).Sickert 1860–1942, exh. cat. Roland, Browse & Delbanco, London, 1960, pp. 16–17, mentioning two books by Lillian Browse on Sickert (METROMOD Archive).Advertisement for the Sickert exhibition at Roland, Browse & Delbanco in 1946 in The Observer, 26 May 1946, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).Advertisement for the Rodin: Sculptures and Drawings exhibition at Roland, Browse & Delbanco in 1953 in The Manchester Guardian, 22 April 1953, p. 5 (Photo: Private Archive).Announcement for the Henry Moore. Drawings and Maquettes and Pajetta: Paintings exhibitions at Roland, Browse & Delbanco in 1957 in The Manchester Guardian, 14 October 1957, p. 5 (Photo: Private Archive).Announcement for the Philip Sutton. Recent Paintings and Margaret Kaye. Fabric Collages and Drawings exhibition, at Roland, Browse & Delbanco in 1960 in The Guardian, 27 June 1960, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).
    London
    Marlborough Fine Art
    Art Gallery

    Marlborough Fine Art was founded in 1946 by the Viennese emigrants Harry Fischer and Frank Lloyd in the Mayfair district, focused on Impressionists, Modern and Contemporary Art.

    Word Count: 26

    Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, back cover (METROMOD Archive).Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, title page (METROMOD Archive).Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, pp. 136–137 with works by August Macke (METROMOD Archive).Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, pp. 162–163 with works by Kurt Schwitters (METROMOD Archive).Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, cover (METROMOD Archive). Sales exhibition to mark the artist’s 80th birthday.Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, title page (METROMOD Archive). The catalogue indicates the international presence of the gallery.Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, p. 46: list of past exhibitions (METROMOD Archive).Report on the art market in England with an entry on Marlborough Fine Art (left column) in the Swiss magazine Du, no. 10, 1959, p. 53 (Photo: Private Archive). The entry mentions the gallery owners and their pre-exile life in Vienna.Advertisement announcing the Francis Bacon. Recent Paintings exhibition at Marlborough Gallery in 1960, The Manchester Guardian, 2 April 1960, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive). Bacon had left Hanover Gallery for Marlborough Gallery at the end of the 1950s.
    London
    Thames & Hudson
    Publishing House

    The emigrants Eva Feuchtwang (later Eva Neurath) and Walter Neurath founded the Thames & Hudson publishing house in 1949, which published art history books, photo books and collection catalogues.

    Word Count: 28

    Julian Huxley and Wolf Suschitzky. Kingdom of the Beasts. Thames & Hudson, 1956, bastard title (METROMOD Archive).
    Julian Huxley and Wolf Suschitzky. Kingdom of the Beasts. Thames & Hudson, 1956, pp. 157–158 (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky)
    London
    Faber & Faber
    Publishing House

    Faber & Faber shows the importance of publishing houses as supporters of contemporary art movements and of the contribution of emigrants, helping to popularise their art and artistic theories.

    Word Count: 29

    Klee. With an Introduction and Notes by Herbert Read. The Faber Gallery. Faber & Faber, 1948, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Klee. With an Introduction and Notes by Herbert Read. The Faber Gallery. Faber & Faber, 1948, pp. 2–3 (METROMOD Archive).
    London
    Gerty Simon
    Photographer

    The Berlin photographer Gerty Simon established a studio in Chelsea, London. Her solo exhibition Camera Portraits from 1935 featured a distinctive portrait of the émigré art dealer Alfred Flechtheim (shown above).

    Word Count: 30

    Gerty Simon, Portrait of Alfred Flechtheim, London, c. 1935 (The Bernard Simon Estate, Wiener Holocaust Library Collections).
    Gerty Simon, Portrait of Lotte Lenya, London, c. 1935 (The Bernard Simon Estate, Wiener Holocaust Library Collections).Gerty Simon’s business card in London (The Bernard Simon Estate, Wiener Holocaust Library Collections).Invitation to the private view of Gerty Simon’s London Personalities exhibition, London 1934 (The Bernard Simon Estate, Wiener Holocaust Library Collections).
    London
    Julian Huxley
    ZoologistPhilosopherWriter

    Julian Huxley was the director of London Zoo from 1935 to 1942 and worked closely with emigrant photographers, artists and architects, including Berthold Lubetkin, Erna Pinner and Wolf Suschitzky.

    Word Count: 27

    Editorial by Julian Huxley in the first issue of Animal and Zoo Magazine, no. 1, 1936, p. 6 (METROMOD Archive).
    Charlotte Wolff. Studies in Hand-Reading. Chatto & Windus, 1936, p. 77: Reading Julian and Aldous Huxley’s hands (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945, Frankfurt am Main).Charlotte Wolff. “The Form and Dermatoglyphs of the Hands and Feet of certain Anthropoid Apes”. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, Series A, 1937, Part 3, 347 + Plate (Library of the Zoological Institute, University of Hamburg). At the zoo’s behest, Charlotte Wolff applied chirology to the primates at London Zoo.“Young Artists in the Zoo” reads the headline to this photo essay on the Animal Art Studio at London Zoo, published in the Animal and Zoo Magazine, vol. 2, no. 11, 1938, p. 18–19 (METROMOD Archive).Julian Huxley and Ludwig Koch. Animal Language. Photographs by Ylla. Country Life, 1938, cover (METROMOD Archive). Two records of animal voices were included with this sound book.Erna Pinner. “Map of geographical distribution.” Julian S. Huxley. Zoo. Official Guide to the Gardens and Aquarium of the Zoological Society of London, 1937, pp. 102–103 (ZSL Library, London, Original © Erna Pinner).Julian Huxley and Wolf Suschitzky. Kingdom of the Beasts. Thames & Hudson, 1956, pp. 157–158 (© The Estate of Wolfgang Suschitzky)László Moholy-Nagy, Bill of Fare, farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius, London, March 1937: List of Toasts naming Julian Huxley as chairman of the event (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, @ László Moholy-Nagy).
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    Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949
    Exhibition

    In 1949, a joint exhibition of works by Ludwig and Else Meidner opened at the Ben Uri Art Gallery. It was the first solo exhibition of the artists in London.

    Word Count: 29

    Ludwig and Else Meidner at the exhibition opening at the Ben Uri Art Gallery, London, October 1949, photographer unknown (© Ludwig Meidner-Archiv, Jüdisches Museum der Stadt Frankfurt am Main).
    Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, 1949, cover (© Ben Uri Archive).Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, 1949, p. 1 (© Ben Uri Archive).Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, 1949, pp. 2–3 (© Ben Uri Archive).Ludwig Meidner, Drawings 1920–1922 and 1935–49, Else Meidner, Paintings and Drawings 1935–1949, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, 1949, p. 4 (© Ben Uri Archive).Else Meidner, Self-portrait with chin propped up, 1938, charcoal, 65,0 x 50,0 cm, Ludwig Meidner Archiv, Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt (© Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt, CC BY SA 4.0).Else Meidner, Self-portrait, 1952, charcoal, 68,3 x 52,8 cm, Ludwig Meidner Archiv, Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt (© Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt, CC BY SA 4.0).Ludwig Meidner, Portrait of Rosa Schapire, London, 1946, sketchbook 8 July 1945–13 September 1946, pencil on paper, 28 x 21 cm (© Ludwig Meidner-Archiv, Jüdisches Museum der Stadt Frankfurt am Main).Else Meidner exhibition, invitation card, Ben Uri Art Gallery, London, 1972 (© Ben Uri Archive).Else Meidner, exh. cat. Ben Uri Art Gallery, London, 1972, cover (© Ben Uri Archive).
    London