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Marlborough Fine Art

  • Name:
    Marlborough Fine Art
  • Kind of Organisation:
    Art Gallery
  • Introduction:

    Marlborough Fine Art was founded in 1946 by the Viennese emigrants Harry Fischer and Frank Lloyd in the Mayfair district, focused on Impressionists, Modern and Contemporary Art.

    Word Count: 26

  • Content:

    Marlborough Fine Art was founded in 1946 by the Viennese emigrants Harry Fischer (né Heinrich Robert Fischer, 1903–1977) and Frank Lloyd (né Franz Kurt Levai, 1911–1998) in the Mayfair district. Lloyd’s parents were antique dealers; he himself worked in the oil business and amassed a private collection of modern art at an early age. He left this behind when he emigrated from Austria to Paris. After the occupation of France, Lloyd was interned. However, he managed to escape and make his way to London, where he was interned again as an enemy alien at Prees Heath Camp (Summers 2019). Harry Fischer ran an antiquarian bookshop and a publishing house in Vienna. After the so-called Anschluss, he arrived in London via Zagreb in 1939 (McEwan 1987, 74) and was also temporarily interned after the outbreak of war. Fischer and Lloyd met in the British army. Fischer worked at St. George’s Gallery, which had existed since 1943 and was run by the Viennese émigré Lea Bondi Jaray (Summers 2019).

    In 1946, Harry Fischer and Frank Lloyd founded their own business in Bond Street: the name Marlborough Fine Art was chosen because of its aristocratic connotations (Shirley 1973) – so, from the beginning, one aim was to attract a solvent prestige-conscious clientele. In 1948 David Somerset, later Duke of Beaufort, joined the gallery as a partner. With Somerset, Marlborough Fine Arts gained access to the aristocracy and private collectors who wanted to sell or acquire works (Anonymous 1959; Williamson 2017). Lloyd’s art collection, which he was able to locate in Vienna, formed the fundament for early gallery activities.
    Initially, Marlborough Fine Art focused on a modernism already established in London, dealing in French Impressionists and Post-Impressionists, for example, with exhibitions of August Renoir's paintings (1951), Gustave Courbet (1953), Mary Cassat (1953) and Constantin Guys (1956). Guys was a painter of modern life appreciated by Charles Baudelaire during his lifetime, but rarely shown in London. Lillian Browse of the Roland, Browse & Delbanco gallery published a relevant monograph with Faber & Faber in 1946 (Browse 1946). Marlborough Fine Art then gave Guys a presence in the city ten years later through an exhibition. International Classical Modernism was also present at Marlborough Fine Art, including works by Fernand Léger (1954) and Pablo Picasso (1954/55).

    From the early 1950s onwards – once the gallery had established and proved itself in the London art market – Marlborough Fine Art additionally developed a contemporary programme with a focus on British and international art and sculptors such as Henry Moore (1961) and Barbara Hepworth (1966), painters such as Jackson Pollock (1961), Graham Sutherland (1962), Lucian Freud (1963), R.B. Kitaj (1963) and Frank Auerbach (1967).
    In 1957 Marlborough Fine Art presented the Between space and earth: trends in modern Italian art exhibition, whose catalogue cover was designed by Lucio Fontana. From 1959, Marlborough Fine Art represented the painter Francis Bacon, whose career had previously been built by Erica Brausen and the Hanover Gallery. Erica Brausen had also worked at St. George’s Gallery and knew Lloyd and Fischer from that time.

    From the early 1960s, contemporary positions were presented at the gallery’s founding site, 17– 18 Bond Street, under the name Marlborough New London Gallery, while classical modernism was presented at an additional new site at 39 Bond Street (Carritt 1961). There, Lloyd, Fischer and Somerset excelled with exhibitions of German-speaking artists, showing Gabriele Münter (1960), Wassily Kandinsky (1961) and Kurt Schwitters (1963). In 1966, Homage to Kokoschka opened, its exhibition catalogue enclosed in a transparent cover on which a self-portrait of Oskar Kokoschka (1965) was printed.
    Marlborough Fine Art was instrumental in establishing German modern art in 1959 with Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition of Aid in World Refugee Year. In 1959, the UN proclaimed a World Refugee Year to draw attention to the situation in refugee camps. By hosting the Art in Revolt exhibition during World Refugee Year, Marlborogh Fine Art placed German modernism – similar to the 20th Century German Art show of 1938 at New Burlington Galleries – in the context of political art under threat. In 1962, Marlborough Fine Art presented the Painters of the Bauhaus exhibition.
    In 1963, the gallery opened a branch in New York, which contributed significantly to the recognition of American Abstract Expressionism (O'Doherty 1963). Marlborough Fine Art was also present with its own spaces in Rome, Zurich, Toronto and Montreal.
    In the early 1970s, gallery founders Harry Fischer and Frank Lloyd withdrew from their gallery. Fischer then founded the Fischer Fine Art gallery, which existed until 1992. Frank Lloyd’s descendants continue to run Marlborough Fine Art in London and other cities.

    By acting strategically from the beginning, Marlborough Fine Art was able to contribute significantly to the establishment of contemporary art: Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art was already established in London through exhibitions and publications, so they had less trouble making a name for themselves with this art movement. Moreover, through David Somerset, they had close ties to aristocratic circles and thus to private collections of Impressionist art (Williamson 2017). Their growing recognition as gallery owners and art dealers then laid the foundation for a riskier commitment: on the one hand, to the art of their time and progressive artists such as Frank Auerbach, Francis Bacon and Lucian Freud, while, on the other hand, they were also able to advocate continental German-language modernism, which had only gained acceptance in England since the late 1950s. Until her death in 1954, the art historian Rosa Schapire, for example, had often struggled in vain for the recognition of Expressionist art in London.

    Word Count: 882

  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    17–18 Old Bond Street, Mayfair, London W1 (from early 1960s as Marlborough New London); 39 Old Bond Street, Mayfair, London W1 (from 1960); currently 6 Albemarle Street, Mayfair, London W1.

  • Signature Image:
    Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, cover (METROMOD Archive).
  • Media:
    Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, back cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, title page (METROMOD Archive).
    Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, pp. 136–137 with works by August Macke (METROMOD Archive).
    Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959, pp. 162–163 with works by Kurt Schwitters (METROMOD Archive).
    Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, cover (METROMOD Archive). Sales exhibition to mark the artist’s 80th birthday.
    Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, title page (METROMOD Archive). The catalogue indicates the international presence of the gallery.
    Homage to Kokoschka, exhibition catalogue, Marlborough Fine Art, 39 Old Bond Street, London, March-April 1966, p. 46: list of past exhibitions (METROMOD Archive).
    Report on the art market in England with an entry on Marlborough Fine Art (left column) in the Swiss magazine Du, no. 10, 1959, p. 53 (Photo: Private Archive). The entry mentions the gallery owners and their pre-exile life in Vienna.
    Advertisement announcing the Francis Bacon. Recent Paintings exhibition at Marlborough Gallery in 1960, The Manchester Guardian, 2 April 1960, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive). Bacon had left Hanover Gallery for Marlborough Gallery at the end of the 1950s.
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Anonymous. “Wer ist wer im Kunsthandel. England.” Du, vol. 19, no. 10, 1959, p. 53.

    Aronowitz, Richard, and Shauna Isaac. “Émigré Art Dealers and Collectors.” Insiders Outsiders. Refugees from Nazi Europe and their Contribution to British Visual Culture, edited by Monica Bohm-Duchen, Lund Humphries, 2019, pp. 129–135.

    Art in Revolt. Germany 1905–25. Exhibition in Aid of World Refugee Year, exh. cat. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1959.

    Browse, Lillian, editor. Constantin Guys. Faber & Faber, 1946.

    Carritt, David. “The Dizzy Success Story of the other House of Marlborough.” Evening Standard, 6 September 1961. Marlborough Gallery London, https://www.marlboroughgallerylondon.com/history. Accessed 14 April 2021.

    McEwan, Dorothea. “The Fischer Family Archive in London: A Description of the Holdings.” German History, no. 5, Autumn 1987, pp. 74-81.

    O’Doherty, Brian. “Art: Marlborough Opens Branch Here.” The New York Times, 2 October 1963. Marlborough Gallery London, https://www.marlboroughgallerylondon.com/history. Accessed 14 April 2021.

    Shirey, David L. “Frank Lloyd and the Marlborough: Art and Success.” The New York Times, 21 May 1973, https://www.nytimes.com/1973/05/21/archives/frank-lloyd-and-the-marlborough-art-and-success-sales-of-30million.html. Accessed 14 April 2021.

    Smith, Roberta. “Frank Lloyd, Prominent Art Dealer Convicted in the 70’s Rothko Scandal, Dies at 86.” The New York Times, 8 April 1998, https://www.nytimes.com/1998/04/08/arts/frank-lloyd-prominent-art-dealer-convicted-in-the-70-s-rothko-scandal-dies-at-86.html. Accessed 14 April 2021.

    Summers, Cherith. “Marlborough Fine Art.” Brave New Visions. The Émigrés who transformed the British Art World, exh. cat. Sotheby’s, St. George’s Gallery, London, 2019, p. 20. issuu, https://issuu.com/bravenewvisions/docs/brave_new_visions. Accessed 18 April 2021.

    Tanfield, Paul. “The Fine Art of Making Money.” Daily Mail, 4 October 1960. Marlborough Gallery London, https://www.marlboroughgallerylondon.com/history. Accessed 14 April 2021.

    Williamson, Marcus. “David Somerset, society grandee.” The Independent, 22 August 2017, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/david-somerset-society-grandee-a7900761.html. Accessed 14 April 2021.

    Word Count: 268

  • Author:
    Burcu Dogramaci
  • Date of Founding:
    1946
  • Participants (selection):

    Harry Fischer, Frank Lloyd, David Somerset.

  • Metropolis:
    London
  • Entry in process:
    no
  • Burcu Dogramaci. "Marlborough Fine Art." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/1470/object/5145-11259521, last modified: 12-05-2021.
  • Kurt Schwitters
    ArtistPoet

    The artist and poet Kurt Schwitters lived in London between 1941 and 1945, where he stood in contact to émigré and local artists, before moving to the Lake District.

    Word Count: 27

    In 1933 Herbert Read reproduced Kurt Schwitters’s Grey-rose picture assemblage (1932) in his book Art Now. An Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture (METROMOD Archive).
    Kurt Schwitters, Red Wire Sculpture, 1944, Metal, plaster, stone, ceramics, dried fruit, wood, painted (Tate Collection, T05767, Photo © Tate, CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported)).Kurt Schwitters’s London address book, undated [1941/1945] (Sprengel Museum Hannover, Kurt Schwitters Archiv, Hannover, Leihgabe Kurt und Ernst Schwitters Stiftung, Hannover). On the right is the address of Abbo’s studio at Lambolle Road and a reference to the Abbo family in Sussex.Letter [draft?] from Kurt Schwitters to Jussuf Abbo, London, 23 December 1941 (Sprengel Museum Hannover, Kurt Schwitters Archiv, Hannover, Leihgabe Kurt und Ernst Schwitters Stiftung, Hannover). Schwitters writes: “I found you in the exhibition of the German League of Culture and am glad to have you in London. You remember our meetings in Berlin and at the Hanoversche Secession. I come from Norway, where I have been resident for 11 years. When and where can I see you one day?”Leaflet advertising the December exhibition held at the Modern Art Gallery on Masterpieces by Great Masters, also featuring Paintings and Sculptures by Kurt Schwitters, Modern Art Gallery Ltd., 1944 (Tate Archive, TGA 9510/4/8/1, Photo © Tate, CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported)).
    London
    Herbert Read
    Art HistorianArt CriticPoet

    The British art historian Herbert Read established himself as a central figure in the London artistic scene in the 1930s and was one of the outstanding supporters of exiled artists.

    Word Count: 30

    Howard Coster, Herbert Read, 1934 (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 5).
    Howard Coster, Herbert Read, 1934 (© National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG x19537).“Map showing where some of the people connected with the modern movement in art lived in Hampstead during the 1930s.” (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 9).Mall Studios behind Parkhill Road in Hampstead, occupied during the 1930s by Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson, Cecil Stephenson and Herbert Read (Art in Britain 1930–40 1965, 8).Herbert Read. Art Now. An Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture. Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1933, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    London
    20th Century German Art
    Exhibition

    The 20th Century German Art exhibition of 1938 gave visibility to artists who had been defamed at the Munich exhibition Entartete Kunst and were persecuted by the National Socialist regime.

    Word Count: 29

    Invitation card to the 20th Century German Art exhibition, 1938, front cover with Franz Marc’s painting Blue Horses from 1911 (Akademie der Künste, Berlin, Heinz-Worner-Archiv 174).
    20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, cover (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 4–5 (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 8–9: Ernst Barlach’s Hunger (no. 2) was purchased by the to the Friends of the Whitworth Fund and presented to the Whitworth Gallery in Manchester (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 10–11: Max Beckmann’s Triptych: Temptation (no. 18) was one of the signature works of the exhibition (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 14–15: Benno Elkan’s Head of Alfred Flechtheim (1911) from the possession of the artist (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, p. 47: Erna Auerbach, Martin Bloch, Georg Ehrlich and other artists are mentioned in a separate section of the catalogue titled “Artists now working in England” (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).20th Century German Art exhibition catalogue, 1938, pp. 48–49: Hans Feibusch, Paul Hamann, Hein Heckroth, Tiza Hess, Walter Hoefner and other artists are mentioned in a separate section of the catalogue titled “Artists now working in England” (Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University).Peter Thoene [Oto Bihalji-Merin]. Modern German Art. Penguin Books, 1938, cover (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).Information on Peter Thoene [Oto Bihalji-Merin] in the book Modern German Art, 1938 (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).Reproduction of Franz Marc’s Blue Horses in Peter Thoene’s Modern German Art, 1938 (Universität Hamburg, Walter A. Berendsohn Forschungsstelle für deutsche Exilliteratur).N. “Twentieth-Century German Art.” The Manchester Guardian, 7 July 1938, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).Article “Whitworth Acquisitions” in The Manchester Guardian, 29 July 1938, p. 13 mentioning acquisitions from the 20th Century German Art exhibition by the Whitworth Gallery in Manchester.Announcement for the exhibition in The Observer, 14 August 1938, p. 2 (Photo: Private Archive).
    London
    Roland, Browse & Delbanco
    GalleryArt Dealer

    Émigré art historians and art dealers, Henry Roland and Gustav Delbanco, along with Lillian Browse, opened their Mayfair gallery, Roland, Browse & Delbanco, in 1945.

    Word Count: 24

    Sickert 1860–1942, exh. cat. Roland, Browse & Delbanco, London, 1960, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Sickert 1860–1942, exh. cat. Roland, Browse & Delbanco, London, 1960, title page and p. 1 (METROMOD Archive).Sickert 1860–1942, exh. cat. Roland, Browse & Delbanco, London, 1960, pp. 4–5 (METROMOD Archive).Sickert 1860–1942, exh. cat. Roland, Browse & Delbanco, London, 1960, pp. 16–17, mentioning two books by Lillian Browse on Sickert (METROMOD Archive).Advertisement for the Sickert exhibition at Roland, Browse & Delbanco in 1946 in The Observer, 26 May 1946, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).Advertisement for the Rodin: Sculptures and Drawings exhibition at Roland, Browse & Delbanco in 1953 in The Manchester Guardian, 22 April 1953, p. 5 (Photo: Private Archive).Announcement for the Henry Moore. Drawings and Maquettes and Pajetta: Paintings exhibitions at Roland, Browse & Delbanco in 1957 in The Manchester Guardian, 14 October 1957, p. 5 (Photo: Private Archive).Announcement for the Philip Sutton. Recent Paintings and Margaret Kaye. Fabric Collages and Drawings exhibition, at Roland, Browse & Delbanco in 1960 in The Guardian, 27 June 1960, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).
    London
    Hanover Gallery
    Art Gallery

    The Hanover Gallery was founded by Erica Brausen and dedicated to interwar modernism and contemporary art, supporting the early careers of Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud and Niki de Saint Phalle.

    Word Count: 30

    Sculpture, exh. cat. Hanover Gallery, London, 1959, cover (METROMOD Archive). The group exhibition presented established artists and works of a younger generation: Arp, César, Clatworthy, Effront, Kemény, Maillol, Marini, Picasso amongst others.
    Sculpture, exh. cat. Hanover Gallery, London, 1959, title page (METROMOD Archive).Sculpture, exh. cat. Hanover Gallery, London, 1959, double page with works of Kemény (METROMOD Archive).Sculpture, exh. cat. Hanover Gallery, London, 1959, double page with works of Maillol (METROMOD Archive).Ian Stuart. Sculpture, exh. cat. Hanover Gallery, London, 1964, cover (METROMOD Archive).Ian Stuart. Sculpture, exh. cat. Hanover Gallery, London, 1964, title page (METROMOD Archive).Private Wire. “Our London Correspondence.” The Manchester Guardian, 9 June 1948, p. 4 (Photo: Private Archive). Article on the Hanover Gallery’s opening exhibition Graham Sutherland.Pendennis. “Table Talk.” The Observer, 13 November 1949, p. 5 (Photo: Private Archive). A critical review of Francis Bacon’s exhibition at Hanover Gallery 1949 under the headline “Art for the Few”.Review by Eric Newton on the Paul Klee exhibition at Hanover Gallery in The Manchester Guardian, 20 June 1956, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).Eric Newton. “Fantasy in Art: Bacon, Wols, and Felix Kelly.” The Guardian, 12 June 1959, p. 3 (Photo: Private Archive). A review on Francis Bacon’s last exhibition at Hanover Gallery in 1959.Report on the art market in England with an entry on the Hanover Gallery (centre column) in the Swiss magazine Du, no. 10, 1959, p. 53 (Photo: Private Archive).
    London
    Modern Art Gallery
    Art Gallery

    The Modern Art Gallery, founded by the émigré painter, sculptor and writer Jack Bilbo, was a forum for the presentation of modern art, specialising in the work of emigrant artists.

    Word Count: 30

    Cover of Jack Bilbo’s The Moderns. Past – Present – Future, published in 1945 under The Modern Art Gallery Ltd imprint (Bilbo 1945).
    Jack Bilbo’s Modern Art Gallery was located at 24 Charles II Street, St. James’s, London SW1 from 1943 (Bilbo 1948, 16).Leaflet advertising the December exhibition held at the Modern Art Gallery on Masterpieces by Great Masters, also featuring Paintings and Sculptures by Kurt Schwitters, Modern Art Gallery Ltd., 1944 (Tate Archive, TGA 9510/4/8/1, Photo © Tate, CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported)).Page with works by László Moholy-Nagy, Kurt Schwitters and Henry Moore in Jack Bilbo’s The Moderns. Past – Present – Future, 1945 (Bilbo 1945, 28).Title page of Jack Bilbo’s book An Autobiography, 1948 (Bilbo 1948).Lunch at Jack Bilbo’s Modern Art Gallery (Bilbo 1948, 17).
    London
    St. George’s Gallery
    Art Gallery

    In 1943, the art dealer Lea Bondi Jaray, with support of Otto Brill, also exiled from Vienna, took over St. George’s Gallery in Mayfair, exhibiting contemporary British and continental art.

    Word Count: 30

    Honoré Daumier. Lithographs, exh. cat. St. George’s Gallery, London, June 1946, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Honoré Daumier. Lithographs, exh. cat. St. George’s Gallery, London, June 1946, p. 5 with Denys Sutton’s essay “Honoré Daumier” (METROMOD Archive).Honoré Daumier. Lithographs, exh. cat. St. George’s Gallery, London, June 1946, p. 8–9 (METROMOD Archive).Announcement of the Waldemar Stabell exhibition at St. George’s Gallery, London, in The Observer, 19 January 1947, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).Review of the exhibition of Mary Swanzy and Mary Krishna at St. George’s Gallery, London, in The Observer, 30 March 1947, p. 2 (Photo: Private Archive).Review of The New Generation exhibition with Lucian Freud, John Craxton and William Scott at St. George’s Gallery, London, in The Observer, 11 May 1947, p. 2 (Photo: Private Archive).Announcement of The Known and Unknown Paintings by British and Continental artists exhibition at St. George’s Gallery, London, in The Observer, 17 August 1947, p. 7 (Photo: Private Archive).
    London
    Rosa Schapire
    Art Historian

    The art historian Rosa Schapire, a supporter of Expressionist art, contributed to the presence of Expressionist art in England with loans and donations from her art collections rescued to London.

    Word Count: 30

    Ludwig Meidner, Portrait of Rosa Schapire, London, 1946, sketchbook 8 July 1945–13 September 1946, pencil on paper, 28 x 21 cm (© Ludwig Meidner-Archiv, Jüdisches Museum der Stadt Frankfurt am Main).
    First number of Eidos art magazine with two reviews by Rosa Schapire, no. 1, May–June 1950, cover (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).First number of Eidos art magazine with Schapire’s book reviews “Otto Mueller, Freiburg” and “Paul Klee. Handzeichnungen II. 1921–1930, Bergen”, vol. 1, no. 1, May-June 1950, p. 48 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).Rosa Schapire. “Matisse in der Tate Gallery.” Die Weltkunst, vol. 23, no. 4, 1953, p. 11 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).Rosa Schapire. “Mexikanische Kunst in der Tate Gallery.” Die Weltkunst, vol. 23, no. 9, 1953, H. 9, p. 3 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).Rosa Schapire’s reviews “Deutsche Expressionisten in Leicester” and “Josef Herman bei Roland Browse and Delbanco” in art magazine Die Weltkunst, vol. 23, no. 21, 1953, p. 3 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).Rosa Schapire. “Russische Emigrantenkünstler aus Paris in London.” Die Weltkunst, vol. 24, no. 2, 1954, p. 4 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).Rosa Schapire’s last published essay “Wall-Paintings in the Alexanderkirche at Wildeshausen” in The Connoisseur, vol. 133, no. 535, 1954, p. 9 (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich).
    London
    Faber & Faber
    Publishing House

    Faber & Faber shows the importance of publishing houses as supporters of contemporary art movements and of the contribution of emigrants, helping to popularise their art and artistic theories.

    Word Count: 29

    Klee. With an Introduction and Notes by Herbert Read. The Faber Gallery. Faber & Faber, 1948, cover (METROMOD Archive).
    Klee. With an Introduction and Notes by Herbert Read. The Faber Gallery. Faber & Faber, 1948, pp. 2–3 (METROMOD Archive).
    London