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Ruth Staudinger

  • Given name:
    Ruth
  • Last name:
    Staudinger
  • Alternative names:

    Ruth (Staudinger-)Rozaffy, Ruth (Staudinger-)Davis, Ruth (Staudinger-)Schaffner

  • Date of Birth:
    27-10-1914
  • Place of Birth:
    Karlsruhe (DE)
  • Date of Death:
    15-03-1996
  • Place of Death:
    Nairobi (KE)
  • Profession:
    Art dealerCinematographerPhotographer
  • Introduction:

    Very few and only fragmentary details can be found on the German émigré photographer Ruth Staudinger, who emigrated in the mid-1930s to New York City. Her nomadic life was also characterisedd by several changes of name along the way.

    Word Count: 40

  • Signature Image:
    Hassoldt Davis (?), Ruth Staudinger Davis holds the mummified head of an executed Indochines (Davis, 1952, 22).
  • Content:

    Before emigrating to New York, Ruth Staudinger lived in Berlin, moving in the 1930s to Paris, where she studied art and photography. No more details are known of her first exilic life in Paris. But a hint of what she might have been up to comes via the German émigré photographer Josef Breitenbach, who also left Germany because of the political and racial problems there. During the 1930s Paris was an artistic, intellectual and cultural hub, where many German and European refugees went in search of a new home and the freedom to pursue a life as a photographer and artist. It is likely that Josef Breitenbach planned to open a photo school in Paris with Ruth Staudinger, but the plan was never realised (Breitenbach, 1996).

    Unlike her own, the lives of Ruth Staudinger's parents, Hans and Else Staudinger, are well documented. Hans Staudinger (1899–1980), was an economist and secretary of state at the Prussian trade ministry from 1929 to 1932, in Berlin. As a member of the Social Democrats, he was arrested in 1933 but, with the help of his wife Else Staudinger (1891–1966), was released. Else Staudinger managed the family's emigration, first to Paris and then, in 1934, to New York. From this, it can be deduced that Ruth Staudinger was probably also in Paris between 1933 and 1934 and emigrated with her family to New York. Hans Staudinger was able to continue his career as a professor of economics at the New School for Social Research, where in 1939 he became dean. Under the supervision of the German émigré Emil Lederer, former dean of the Institute of Economics, Else Staudinger eventually finished the PhD she had been working on at the University of Heidelberg. From her arrival in New York she was very engaged in helping other émigrés and founded a little group called “Selfhelp for German Emigres” at her home on West 11th Street. She had already been involved in efforts to alleviate human suffering through self help back in Berlin. Over the following years in New York, these activities expanded to become a proper organisation, partly staffed by volunteers and offering new émigrés assistance in starting a new life in New York. From 1936 the company's head office was at 44 East 23rd Street, but selfhelp centres were created in a number of other boroughs and cooperated with existing help organisations. In 1945 the Staudinger’s additionally founded "The American Council for Émigrés in the Professions"(ACEP), supporting refugee and persecuted intellectuals. It was located at 345 East 46th Street. During the 1950s, Josef Breitenbach, who emigrated to New York in 1941 and later was also at the New School for Social Research, noted in his address book, under "persons of the New School for Social Research" a “Mrs. and Dr. Staudinger 11 Washington Square”.

    How long Ruth Staudinger stayed in Paris and when she emigrated to New York it is not clear. But her name can be found in the book Women at Work. A Tour Among Careers. Published in 1939 by New York Career Tours in cooperation with the New York World’s Fair committee representing more than 30 nationalities, and state as well as regional professional women’s organisations, the book recounted in text and images the stories of 75 professional women from various fields who had gained entry into the business world. The five authors were all women and a number of women, including Ruth Staudinger-Rozaffy, were among the photographers who contributed. Some well-known names included the photographers Margarete Bourke-White, Berenice Abbot, Therese Bonney, Jackie Martin, Marvin Breckinrige and Elizabeth Hibs (Corley 1939, 62). Today the book fetches high prices at auctions and in antiquarian bookstores. As the World's Fair was an important cultural as well as political and economic event, other émigré photographers got commissions for the World's Fair or photographed the area on today's Flushing Meadows Park. Among them who were involved in commissions or made images of this event were Lilo Hess, Ruth Bernhard and Walter Sanders for Black Star photo agency, Carola Gregor, Andreas Feininger, Rolf Tietgens, Ernest Nash with for example a postcard series as well as many other émigré artists and intellectuals.

    The name Ruth Rozaffy appears without "Staudinger" in one of the book reviews for Women at Work, so it can be assumed that it is one and the same person. Ruth Staudinger likely got married either in Paris or New York. As the name Rozaffy is very rare, the connection might be the Hungarian artist and painter Didier (Didi) Roz(s)affy, who lived in Paris during the 1930s. Research reveals that a Ruth Rozaffy, together with the photographer Margarete Bourke White, held an exhibition at the American Artists School in November 1936 (Prints, vol.7/8, p. 110). A further mention of Ruth Rozaffy can be found in connection with an apartment rental published in The New York Times (16 November 1938, p. 42); the address listed was 24 West 59th Street.

    In 1939 a portrait made by Ruth Staudinger-Rozaffy appeared in the The New York Times, the subject being an Ecuadorian art student who had gained a fellowship at the New School for Social Research (Anonymous 1939a). A further connection with the New School, where Ruth's father and mother were very involved, was an exhibition there from 10 - 22 April the same year featuring photographs by Ruth Staudinger-Rozaffy (Anonymous 1939b, Anonymous 1939c). Yet another image dated 1939 can be found in the digital collection of the Lincoln School for Nurses photograph collection at the New York Public Library. The 1898-founded Lincoln School for Nurses offered training to black women at a time when such education was not commonly offered. Originally affiliated with the Lincoln Hospital and Home, in June 1925 the school was sold to the city of New York and a municipal hospital. From the proceeds of the sale, the Lincoln School for Nurses was rebuilt at a new location in 1929. The image Going on Duty by Staudinger-Rozaffy shows three Black nurses in front of the school building and can be seen today as a very important document on the equal rights of women in the profession. Other female photographers as Ellen Auerbach, Erika Stone or Lilly Joss Reich and Marion Palfi also made series about the urban life of the gender, social and ethnic diversity on the streets and institutions of New York City.

    Further photographic contributions to magazines by Staudinger Rozaffy can be found in 1940 and 1941. In 1940 one of her images appeared in Life magazine (24 June 1940, p. 32) and three were published in the U.S. Camera Annual of 1940. All images were photographed with a Rolleiflex. While Bedtime (Maloney 1940, 129) is a black and white image of a little girl holding a doll and a cuddly toy in her hands,
    More Fun Than the Circus (Maloney 1940, 130) focuses on a group of black girls and boys drinking together through straws from a bottle. Girls from telephone company taking exercise in American Women’s Association Gym (Maloney 1940, 178) is a view from above of a group of young women (mostly white) during a workout in a sports field, all stretching their arms in unison to the side. While the graphic design of this shot is reminiscent of images by the emigrant photographer Walter Sanders, all the photographs thematically represent children and young women and address the everyday life of different ethnic groups as well as the professional profiles of women. Women and children and the black community could be counted as social fringe groups, to which Rozaffy paid special attention and captured with her camera as equals. Other mainly female emigrant photographers such as Marion Palfi and Lilly Joss Reich pursued a similar thematic orientation in their photographs. The images published in U.S. Camera appeared alongside those of other German émigré photographers like Ruth Bernhard and Trude Fleischmann and established Ruth Staudinger-Rozaffy as a photographer of some renown during the 1940s. In 1941 a further image of hers was reproduced in the U.S. Camera Annual (Maloney 1941,56) and the same year she also provided the images for the reportage “Wiltwyck – Why Harlem Boys Learn Manhood” for The Layman’s Magazine of the Living Church (Anonymous 1941).

    The publication of her photographs in these magazines shows that during the 1930s and 1940s Ruth Staudinger-Rozaffy was able to restart her photographic career in New York and gained professional recognition. During World War II she worked as a photographer for the Free French Press and Information Center, which was located at 501 Madison Avenue. Unfortunately, no information on the work she did there is available.

    The next information available on Ruth Staudinger relates to the late 1940s and early 1950s. Probably towards the end of the 1940s she married the explorer, writer and traveller Hassoldt Davis, with whom she produced two documentary films and books about their travels during the 1950s. The first trip, documented in The Jungle and the Damned (1952), took place at the end of the 1940s and the beginning of the 1950s and involved an expedition to French Guyana in South America. The couple were commissioned by the French government and UNESCO to make a film and a detailed report. Ruth Staudinger(-Davis) was the expedition’s photographer. The second tour, in the mid-1950s, was to the Ivory Coast in West Africa and was recorded in a book (1955) and film (1956), both titled Sorcerers’ Village (1955). Focusing on tribal customs and ceremonies in Africa, the ethnological expedition was directed by Davis Hassoldt and photographed by Ruth Staudinger. Perhaps the couple met in 1946 while she was working for the Free French Press and Information Center. She photographed Hassoldt Davis when he returned to New York from a stint with the Free French Forces in Libya, Tunisia and Indochina (Desfor 1951, 33).

    After Hassoldt Davis's death in 1959, Ruth Staudinger may have married the French painter Michael Cadoret de L’Epinneguin, through whom she became part of the European art community. Then in 1963 she married Joseph Halle Schaffner (?–1972) a banker who was also a member of the graduate faculty of the New School for Social Research and an executive director of the Emergency Committee for Émigré Scientists in 1945. A newspaper article of The New York Times reveals that Joseph Halle Schaffner donated a $1 million fund to help refugee scholars, with two further gifts of $10, 000 (Anonymous 1959).

    During the 1970s Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy became an art dealer. Her first gallery was on Melrose Avenue in Los Angeles but, in the 1980s, the Ruth Schaffner Gallery moved to State Street in Santa Barbara. In 1984 she also moved to Nairobi with possibly her fifth husband Adama Diawara and in 1985 acquired Nairobi's only gallery at the time from its founders Jony Waite, Robin Anderson and David Hart. This became the legendary Gallery Watatu, which supported young African artists (Günther 2014).

    Word Count: 1764

  • Media:
    Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, Going on duty, 1939 (Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Photographs and Prints Division, The New York Public Library Digital Collections).
    Page with collected addresses of colleagues at the New School for Social Research in New York by Josef Breitenbach (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).
    Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, New York Bedtime, published in U.S. Camera 1940, p. 129 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, More Fun Than Circus, published in U.S. Camera 1940, p. 130 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, Girls from telephone company taking exercises in American Woman’s Association Gym, published in U.S. Camera 1940, p. 178 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    “Wiltwyck – Why Harlme Boys Learn Manhood” article with images by Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy (Anonymous 1941, 18–19).
    Article on Ruth Staudinger and Hassoldt Davis (Desfor 1951, 33).
    Cover of The Jungle and the Damned (Davis, 1952) (Photo: Helene Roth).
    First page of The Jungle and the Damned (Davis 1952) (Photo: Helene Roth).
    First page of Scorcerer’s Village, published by Hassoldt Davis and Ruth Staudinger-Davis, Duell Sloan and Pearce, 1956 (Photo: Helene Roth).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Anonymous. "Ecuador Art Scholar In Surprise Arrival." The New York Times, 9 March 1939.

    Anonymous. “Openings Of The Week.” The New York Times, 9 April 1939, p. 147.

    Anonymous. “Openings Of The Week.” The New York Times, 16 April 1939, p. 10.

    Anonymous. “Wiltwyck – Why Harlem Boys Learn Manhood.” The Layman’s Magazine of the Living Church, no. 14, March 1941, pp. 18–19.

    Anonymous. “Fund Begun to Help Refugee Scholars.” The New York Times, 21 November 1969, p. 55.

    Anonymous. “Dr. Else Staudinger Dies at 76; Helped Thousands of Refugees.” The New York Times, 13 March 1966, p. 86.

    Anonymous. “Joseph Halle Schaffner Is Dead; Hart, Schaffner, Marx Director.” The New York Times, 11 August 1972, p. 32.

    Corley, Pauline. “Heralding New Books.” The Miami Herald, 12 March 1939, p. 62.

    Davis, Hassoldt. The Jungle and the Damned. Duell, Sloan and Pearce 1952.

    Davis, Hassoldt. Scorcerers' Village. Duell, Sloan and Pearce 1956.

    Desfor, Irving. “Camera News.” Journal and Courier, 20 January 1951, p. 33.

    Friedman, Lawrence J. The Lives of Erich Fromm. Love’s Prophet. Columbia University Press, 2014.

    Günther, Philipp, et al., editors. Sanaa Mtaani. Art in the City. Einblicke in die gegenwärtige Kunst Nairobis. Kastner & Callwey, 2014.

    Josef Breitenbach. Photographien. Zum 100. Geburtstag, edited by T.O. Immisch et al., exh. cat. Staatliche Galerie Mortizburg Halle (Saale) / Fotomuseum im Münchner Stadtmuseum, Munich, 1996.

    Maloney, Tom. U.S. Camera. Annual 1940. Random House, 1940.

    Maloney, Tom. U.S. Camera. Annual 1941. Random House, 1941.

    Staudinger, Else. A tribute to Else Staudinger. American Council for Emigrés in the Professions, Inc., 1966.

    Thompson, Howard. “Screen: A Documentary; ‘Sorcerers’ Villageʼ Is Set in Africa.” The New York Times, 3 July 1958. Accessed 6 April 2021.

    Word Count: 246

  • Archives and Sources:

    Word Count: 88

  • Author:
    Helene Roth
  • Exile:

    New York, US (1935–1970s).

  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    24 West 59th Street, Central Park South, New York (residence?, 1938); 33 Inwood Road, Inwood, New York City (residence, 1940–?); 501 Madison Avenue, Midtown Manhattan, New York (workplace, Free French Press and Information Center, 1941–1945?); 71 Washington Square, Greenwich Village, New York (residence of her parents, Hans and Else Staudinger, 1950s).

  • Metropolis:
    New York
  • Helene Roth. "Ruth Staudinger." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/2948/object/5138-11021558, last modified: 05-11-2021.
  • Walter Sanders
    Photographer

    Walter Sanders was a German émigré photographer. In 1938 he arrived in New York, where he worked from 1939 until the end of his life for the Black Star agency and, from 1944, for Life magazine.

    Word Count: 33

    Portrait of Walter Sanders, Cuba, Havana, 1938 (Estate Walter Sanders).
    Walt Sanders and Alfred Kornfeld, son of Black Star cofounder Kurt Kornfeld. Sheldrake Lake, New Rochelle, NY, November 1939 (© Heirs of Kurt Kornfeld).First cover by Walter Sanders for Life, 26 June 1939 (Estate Walter Sanders).Letterhead with name Walter Suessmann, a reference to Echo and an address (Estate Walter Sanders).Photo of the Aquacade swim show by Walter Sanders for Black Star, reproduced in Life, 3 July 1939, p. 60 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Life goes to The Futurama.” Image of the General Motors Show by Walter Sanders in Life, 5 June 1939, p. 79 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Life visits Statue of Liberty.” Images by Walter Sanders published in Life, 2 June 1941, pp. 94–95 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Por las entrañas de una estatua.”. Images by Walter Sanders, MUNDO Argentino, June 1941 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“The Road Back to Berlin.” Images and text by Walter Sanders in Life, 10 November 1946, p. 29 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).Americans in Heidelberg, Life cover, Image by Walter Sanders, Life, 21 July 1947 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Josef Breitenbach
    Photographer

    On arriving in New York in 1941, the German photographer Josef Breitenbach tried to restart as a portrait, street and experimental photographer, as well as a teacher of photo-history and techniques.

    Word Count: 30

    Fred Stein, Joseph Breitenbach, n.d. (© Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933-1945, Frankfurt am Main).
    Fred Stein, Backside portrait Joseph Breitenbach, n.d. (© Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933-1945, Frankfurt am Main).Attestation of Identity of Josef Breitenbach, Agen, September 1940 (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:5).Affidavit for Josef Breitenbach, April 1941 (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:12).Address book Josef Breitenbach, New York (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Page with collected addresses of photographers in New York by Josef Breitenbach (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Page with collected addresses of colleagues at the New School for Social Research in New York by Josef Breitenbach (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Application for use of photographic equipment by Josef Breitenbach, 1942 (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:12).Business card Josef Breitenbach (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Letter from Fortune Magazine, 1942 (© Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:4, Center for Creative Photography, The University of Arizona).
    New York
    Rolf Tietgens
    PhotographerEditorWriter

    Rolf Tietgens was a German émigré photographer who arrived in New York in 1938. Although, in the course of his photographic career, his artistic and surrealist images were published and shown at exhibitions, his work, today, is very little known.

    Word Count: 39

    Portrait of Rolf Tietgens, n.d. (© Keith de Lellis Gallery, New York).
    Der Hafen by Rolf Tietgens, Ehrmann Verlag, 1936.Rolf Tietgens. “What is Surrealism?” Minicam, July 1939, pp. 30–31 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photo by Rolf Tietgens of Streamliners at the World’s Fair published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 45 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photo by Rolf Tietgens of the Communication Mall at the World’s Fair 1939 published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 38 (Photo: Helene Roth).Rolf Tietgens. “Capture the ‘Life’ of the object.” Minicam, January 1940, pp. 46–47 (Photo: Helene Roth).Rolf Tietgens. “Capture the ‘Life’ of the object.” Minicam, January 1940, pp. 48–49 (Photo: Helene Roth).Felix Kraus. "Why Photographers experiment." Popular Photography, February 1945, pp. 28–29 (Photo: Helene Roth).Hans Arp. Human Concretion, 1935, limestone 73 x 49,5 x 45 cm, photograph by Rolf Tietgens and reproduced in Arp: On My Way. Poetry and Essays 1912–1947, edited by Robert Motherwell, Wittenborn, Schulz, 1948, pp. 130–131 (Photo: Helene Roth).Published photo by Rolf Tietgens (Feininger 1952, 116–117).Times Square. U.S.A. (1952) photobook by Rolf Tietgens, Keith de Lellis Gallery, 1992 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Marion Palfi
    Photographer

    Marion Palfi was a German émigré photographer who lived in New York from the 1940s to the 1960s. Her photographic engagement in social and political topics made her name for her use of the camera to draw attention to social injustices.

    Word Count: 41

    Selfportrait of Marion Palfi (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Marion Palfi Archive).
    Advertisement “Ein bischen tätige Liebe” for a cigarette brand with photograph of Marion Palfi and Aribert Mog (1904–1941). Modenschau. Illustrierte Monats-Zeitschrift für Heim und Gesellschaft, no. 202, October 1929, p. 43.Cover of Ebony with photograph by Marion Palfi (Ebony, 1 November 1945).Review of Marion Palfi's Suffer Little Children by Eleanor Roosevelt published in Des Moines Tribune, 10 December 1952, p. 20.Article on Marion Palfi in Aufbau magazin (Craemer 1949).Cover of Suffer Little Children by Marion Palfi (Oceana Publications, 1952).Announcement of Marion Palfi’s course at the New School for Social Research. New School for Bulletin, vol. 17, no. 2, 2 September 1959, p. 46 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).
    New York
    Ernest Nash
    PhotographerArchaeologistLawyer

    Ernest Nash was a German born photographer, who pursued his photographic as well as an archeologic interest in Roman architecture after his emigration to New York in 1939. Besides this research interest, he also worked as a portrait photographer and publisher.

    Word Count: 40

    Portrait of Ernest Nash, Neapel, 3/4 march 1939 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).
    Announcement of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash (J.J. Augustin, 1944).Announcement of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash (J.J. Augustin, 1944).First page of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash, J.J. Augustin, 1944 (Photo: Helene Roth).Page of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash, J.J. Augustin, 1944. Left side: New York, Columbia University. Right side: Rome, Pantheon (Photo: Helene Roth).Page of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash, J.J. Augustin, 1944. Left side: New York, U.S. Sub-Treasury Building. Right side: Paestum, Temple of Neptune (Photo: Helene Roth).Ernest Nash, New York, Washington Square, 1939 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, New York, United States Subtreasury Building, 1939 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, Burns Bros on the East River, New York, 1939 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, Portrait of Béla Bartók, New York, between late 1940 and 1945 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, Portrait of Ditta Bartók-Pásztory, New York, between late 1940 and 1945 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, New York World’s Fair 1939, Perisphere (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, New York, World’s Fair 1939, Constitution Mall, Trylon and Perisphere (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Information by J.J. Augustin about the new release of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash (J.J. Augustin, 1944).
    New York
    Carola Gregor
    PhotographerSculptor

    The German émigré photographer Carola Gregor was an animal and child photographer and published some of her work in magazines and books. Today her work and life are almost forgotten.

    Word Count: 30

    Portrait of Carola Gregor (cutout of her papers of naturalisation).
    Petitions for naturalization from the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York of Carola Gregor (Naturalizations, box 1018-1020, cert. no. 513486-513958, 9-12 Apr 1945, Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685 - 2009, RG 21. National Archives at New York, familysearch.org).Homer- The Hydrophobic Duck by Carola Gregor published in U.S. Camera 1943, p. 63 (Photo: Helene Roth).Portrait of Fritz Goro by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 13 September 1937, p. 104 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photograph of Amazonian birds by Carola Gregor for the brochure Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939, pp. 11–12 (Photo: Helene Roth).Mending Nets by Carola Gregor, published in Popular Photography, October 1942, p. 40 (Photo: Helene Roth).A gleaming spider by Carola Gregor, published in Popular Photography, August 1948, pp. 81–82 (Photo: Helene Roth).Reportage “Liger. A lion and a tigress produce a new kind of zoo baby” with images by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 20 September 1948, p. 109 (Photo: Helene Roth).Reportage “Liger. A lion and a tigress produce a new kind of zoo baby” with images by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 20 September 1948, pp. 111–112 (Photo: Helene Roth).War Manpower Commission. Farm labor poster distributed to Department of Agriculture. Photograph by Carola Gregor (Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives).
    New York
    Trude Fleischmann
    Photographer

    Trude Fleischmann was an Austrian-Jewish portrait and dance photographer who emigrated in 1939 to New York, where she opened a studio in Midtown Manhattan with the photographer Frank Elmer.

    Word Count: 28

    Portrait of Trude Fleischmann by Annie Schulz published in Die Bühne, vol. 265, January 1931, p. 15 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Declaration of intention of Trude Fleischmann, April 1939. New York, Southern District, U.S District Court Naturalization Records, 1824–1946, Petitions for naturalization and petition evidence 1944 box 927, no 485551-485750 (© Southern District of New York Petitions for Naturalization, 1897-1944. Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685–2009, RG 21. National Archives at New York).Trude Fleischmann, Adriadic Wash Line, before 1939 published in U.S. Camera 1940, p. 131 (Photo: Helene Roth).Trude Fleischmann, Arthur Toscanini und Robert Haas, 1946, New York (© Wien Museum / Foto Birgit und Peter Kainz).Trude Fleischmann, Robert Haas bei der Arbeit in New York City, 1940s/1950s (© Wien Museum / Foto Birgit und Peter Kainz).Trude Fleischmann, Group portrait behind the scene of “Players from Abroad”, New York, 1947/48 (© Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933-1945, Frankfurt am Main).Announcement of an exhibition by Trude Fleischmann at the New School for Social Research published in New School Bulletin, no. 13, 13 April 1943 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-03-01-02. The New School Archives).Trude Fleischmann, Portrait of Gert von Gontard, Elisabeth Bergner and Felix Gerstmann for the performance Iphigenie auf Tauris,New York, 1947/48 (© Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933-1945, Frankfurt am Main).
    New York
    5th Avenue
    Photobook

    5th Avenue was the first photobook by Fred Stein and was created in 1947 with the publishing house Pantheon Books.

    Word Count: 19

    Cover of 5th Avenue photobook (Pantheon Books, 1947) by Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).
    First page of 5th Avenue (Pantheon Books, 1947) by Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).Page of 5th Avenue (Pantheon, 1947) by Fred Stein.Last page of 5th Avenue (Pantheon Books, 1947) by Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).Cover of the French edition 5th Avenue (Querido, 1947) by Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).Mixed articles and reviews on 5th Avenue photobook form Fred Stein's scrapbook (© Fred Stein Archive).Page from Fred Stein’s scrapbook showing Pantheon Books Catalogue (Fall 1946, Spring 1947), which includes 5th Avenue (© Fred Stein Archive).Portrait of Fritz H. Landshoff (of Querido Publishing House) by Fred Stein, 1944 (© Fred Stein Archive).Portrait of Kurt Wolff (of publishing house Pantheon Books) by Fred Stein, 1959 (© Fred Stein Archive).
    New York
    New York World's Fair postcard View of the Constitution Mall looking toward statue of George Washington and Trylon and Perisphere
    Postcard

    Shortly after the arrival in New York in 1939, photographs by the German émigré Ernest Nash were used and reproduced for postcards of the New York’s World’s Fair.

    Word Count: 29

    New York World's Fair postcard View of the Constitution Mall looking toward statue of George Washington and Trylon and Perisphere, photograph by Ernest Nash, East and West Publishing Company, 1939 (Private Archive Helene Roth).
    Backside of New York World's Fair postcard View of the Constitution Mall looking toward statue of George Washington and Trylon and Perisphere, photograph by Ernest Nash, East and West Publishing Company, 1939 (Private Archive Helene Roth).Ernest Nash, New York World’s Fair 1939, Perisphere (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, New York, World’s Fair 1939, Constitution Mall, Trylon and Perisphere (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Photo by Rolf Tietgens of Streamliners at the World’s Fair published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 45 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photo by Rolf Tietgens of the Communication Mall at the World’s Fair 1939 published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 38 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photo of the Aquacade swim show by Walter Sanders for Black Star, reproduced in Life, 3 July 1939, p. 60 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Life goes to The Futurama.” Image of the General Motors Show by Walter Sanders in Life, 5 June 1939, p. 79 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).Photograph of Amazonian birds by Carola Gregor for the brochure Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939, p. 13 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photograph of Amazonian birds by Carola Gregor for the brochure Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939, pp. 11–12 (Photo: Helene Roth).Demolition of the World’s Fair by Ruth Bernhard. Reprint of the reportage “Where the World of Tomorrow Is But the Ghost of Yesterday.” The Highway Traveler, vol. 13, no. 2, April-May 1941, pp. 14–15 (© Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Today’s area of the World’s Fair, Flushing Meadows-Corona Park with the Unisphere (where the Trylon and Perisphere stood) (Photo: Helene Roth, 2019).
    New York
    Christmas Exhibition of The Center for European Immigrant's Art and Handicraft
    Anonymus. "Gifts by refugees." Daily News, 30 November 1939, p. 108.
    L. W. "Emigrierte Künstler stellen aus." Aufbau, 15 November 1939, p. 14.
    Andreas Feininger
    PhotographerWriterEditor

    Andreas Feininger, was a German émigré photographer who arrived in New York with his wife Wysse Feininger in 1939. He started a lifelong career exploring the city's streets, working as a photojournalist and writing a large number of photography manuals.

    Word Count: 39

    Portrait of Andreas Feininger by Fritz Henle, 1940/41, cropped detail (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).
    Portrait of Andreas Feininger by Fritz Henle, 1940/41 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Andreas Feininger, 1, Stockholm, 1937 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Andreas Feininger, Close Up Equipment, 365 West 20 St. New York, 1940 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Andreas Feininger, “An Amateur’s Wartime Darkroom.” U.S. Camera, April 1942, pp. 28–29 (Photo: Helene Roth).Scrapbook of Andreas Feininger with photographic essay “New York. A big spectacle in big pictures.” Life, 14 April 1941, pp. 86–87 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Scrapbook of Andreas Feininger with article and photographs by him. “Experimenting with Lights at Night.” Popular Photography, February 1947, pp. 44–45 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).“Feininger’s Workshop - photo facts in pictures. Unsharpness and its cause.” Popular Photography, May 1949, pp.54–55 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Ruth Bernhard
    Photographer

    Ruth Bernhard was a German émigré photographer who lived in New York from the 1920s to the 1940s. Beside her series on female nudes, her place in the photography network, as well as in the New York queer scene, is unknown and understudied.

    Word Count: 43

    Lotte Jacobi, Ruth Bernhard, 1945, New York (© 2021. University of New Hampshire).
    Scrapbook and published work by Ruth Bernhard (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Lifesavers by Ruth Bernhard, published in Advertisment Arts, January 1931 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Still Life of dolls for Macy’s by Ruth Bernhard, published in Graphic Arts, 1931 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Ruth Bernhard, Eighth Street Movie Theater, Frederick Kiesler-Architect, New York, 1946 (Diversity Corner is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0).Exhibition flyer for Ruth Bernhard Photographs, PM Gallery, 1938 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Description of Ruth Bernhard Photographs exhibition, by Kurt Safranski, PM Gallery, 1938 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).
    New York
    Erika Stone
    Photographer

    Erika Stone is a German émigré, who moved to New York with her parents and sister in December 1936, at the age of 12. She went on to carve out a career as photographer.

    Word Count: 32

    Portrait of Erika Stone, 1951 (© Erika Stone, Courtesy of Katarina Doerner Photographs, Brooklyn, NY).
    Letter in which Erika Stone (Klopfer) is honoured as photo contest winner for Life magazine, November 1926, 1951Erika Stone, Bowery Beauties, New York, 1946 ( © Erika Stone, Courtesy of Katarina Doerner Photographs, Brookly, NY).Erika Stone, Harlem Street Photographer, NYC, ca. 1950 ( "Lot 182: Erika Stone" by sfcamerawork is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0).
    New York
    Ellen Auerbach
    Photographer

    When she arrived in New York in 1937, the German-born photographer Ellen Auerbach (formerly Rosenberg) had already passed through exile stations in Palestine and Great Britain.

    Word Count: 25

    Ellen Auerbach, Selbstportrait, cropped detail (Ellen Auerbach auf einer Liege sitzend, sich selbst im Spiegel fotografierend), New York 1950 (©Akademie der Künste, Berlin / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).
    Ellen Auerbach, Selbstportrait. (Ellen Auerbach auf einer Liege sitzend, sich selbst im Spiegel fotografierend), New York 1950 (©Akademie der Künste, Berlin / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).Cover of Life magazine, with image Two Years Old by Ellen Auerbach, Life, 28 November 1938 (Photo: Helene Roth).The dancer Renate Schottelius photographed by Ellen Auerbach ( "Ellen Auerbach - Robert Mann Gallery" by Erika_Herzog is licensed under CC BY 2.0).
    New York
    Lilo Hess
    Photographer

    The German émigré Lilo Hess was an animal photographer working for the Museum for Natural History and the Bronx Zoo, as well being a freelance photographer and publisher of children's books.

    Word Count: 31

    Portrait of Lilo Hess (Commire 1973, p. 112).
    Portrait of Lilo Hess – Life, 6 September 1943, p. 21 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photography by Lilo Hess – Fotografische Rundschau, vol. 72, 1935, p. 323 (Photo: Helene Roth).Book cover Odd Pets (Crowell, 1951).Front of the book Odd Pets (Crowell, 1951).Inside of the book Odd Pets (Crowell, 1951).Photo of drinking gibbons at the Bronx Zoo, photographed by Lilo Hess (Life, 13 December 1948, p. 126).
    New York
    Lilly Joss
    Photographer

    Lilly Joss was an émigré freelance photographer in New York. She worked for the Black Star photo agency and magazines and was also a portrait and theatre photographer.

    Word Count: 28

    Portrait of Lilly Joss, detail from an article, published in Barbara Green. “Magazine Photographer Lilly Joss.” The Camera, March 1948, p. 42 (Private Archive Helene Roth).
    Frühling im Central Park series. Junges Paar mit Kinderwagen by Lilly Joss, New York, 1944 (© Wien Museum / kunstdokumentation.com).“The Kid’s spoke up” article with images by Lilly Joss, The Los Angeles Times, 4 February 1945, p. 79 (Photo: Helene Roth).Four images by Lilly Joss for the “Spring 1944” reportage, Life 24 April 1944, pp. 96–97 (Photo: Helene Roth).Two little boys in a Chinese kindergarten by Lilly Joss for the “Salon Section”, Popular Photography, March 1945, pp.46–47 (Photo: Helene Roth).Joss Reich, Lilly. The Viennese Pastry Cookbook. From Vienna With Love over 200 authentic recipes for classic pastries and warm desserts. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1970.
    New York
    Black Star Agency
    Photo Agency

    The German émigrés Kurt S(z)afranski, Ern(e)st Mayer and Kurt Kornfeld founded Black Star in 1936. The photo agency established was a well-run networking institution in New York.

    Word Count: 31

    Letterhead of Black Star (Black Star Archive. Ryerson Image Center, Photo: Helene Roth).
    Logo and Stamp of Black Star Photo Agency (Photo: Helene Roth, 2019).Description of Black Star in a photographic guide (Ahlers, Arvel W.. Where & how to sell your pictures. Photography Publishing Corp., 1953, p. 45).Werner Wolff, K.S. Safranski’s Class in Pictorial Journalism, 1950 (New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection © Steven Wolff).Facade and entrance of the Graybar Building on Lexington Avenue (Photo: Helene Roth, 2018).Cover of Selling Your Pictures by Kurt Safranski (Ziff Davis Publishing Company, 1940).Black Star contract by Fred Stein, April 1, 1944 (© Fred Stein Archive).Announcement of "Pictorial Journalism. Photographs as a Language and their special Problems" course by Kurt Safranski at the New School for Social Research, Spring 1949 (© The New School Archives and Special Collection, The New School, New York).Letterhead with the logo and address of Black Star (© Fred Stein Archive).
    New York
    New School for Social Research
    Academy/Art SchoolPhoto SchoolUniversity / Higher Education Institute / Research Institute

    During the 1940s and 1950s emigrated graphic designers and photographers, along with artists and intellectuals, were given the opportunity to held lectures and workshops at the New School for Social Research.

    Word Count: 31

    Werner Wolff, K.S. Safranski’s Class in Pictorial Journalism, 1950 (New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection © Steven Wolff).
    Announcement of "Art Applied to Graphic Journalism, Advertising, Design, Fashion" course by Alexey Brodovitch, published in New School Bulletin. Art Classes, 1942/43, p. 11 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Announcement of "Pictorial Journalism" course by Kurt Safranski in New School Bulletin, vol. 2, no. 9, 1944, p. 84 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Announcement of "The Small Camera In Photography Today" course by Lisette Model. New School Bulletin. Art Classes, vol. 9, no. 2, September 1951, front cover and p. 34 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Lisette Model at New School by Joe Covello, 1960s, New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection, NS.04.01.01:16 (© The New School Archives and Special Collection, The New School, New York, NY).Portrait Alvin Saunders Johnson by Fred Stein, New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection (© Fred Stein Archive).Flyer of “New Architecture and City Planning” symposium by Paul Zucker (© The New School Archives and Special Collection, The New School, New York, NY).
    New York