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Ruth Bernhard

  • Given name:
    Ruth
  • Last name:
    Bernhard
  • Date of Birth:
    14-10-1905
  • Place of Birth:
    Berlin (DE)
  • Date of Death:
    18-12-2006
  • Place of Death:
    San Francisco (US)
  • Profession:
    Photographer
  • Introduction:

    Ruth Bernhard was a German émigré photographer who lived in New York from the 1920s to the 1940s. Beside her series on female nudes, her place in the photography network, as well as in the New York queer scene, is unknown and understudied.

    Word Count: 43

  • Signature Image:
    Lotte Jacobi, Ruth Bernhard, 1945, New York (© 2021. University of New Hampshire).
  • Content:

    During the 1920s and 1940s Ruth Bernhard lived at seven different locations in Manhattan, mostly Midtown Manhattan and Greenwich Village. Addresses where she stayed have been reconstructed via Margaretta Mitchell's memoir of her, Between Art & Life. (Mitchell 2000) As Mitchell's descriptions mostly do not contain exact dates and street numbers, the addresses given here are educated guesses. Nevertheless, it is clear that Ruth Bernhard lived in the artistic and cultural centre of New York. Midtown Manhattan was mostly the home of printing and the commercial and portrait photography business, whereas Greenwich Village was the centre of the young emerging art scene.

    Ruth Bernhard arrived in New York in 1927 at the age of 32 and joined her father Lucian Bernhard, a renowned graphic designer and visual artist whose new compositions and typography in advertising art and poster design had been very much appreciated back in Germany. Together with Rockwell Kent, Paul Poiret, Bruno Paul, and Erich Mendelsohn, in 1927 he opened a studio called Contempora in the Time Annex Building (229 West 43rd Street), expounding new ideas and concepts in interior design, visual art and architecture.

    After her arrival in New York, Ruth Bernhard became embedded in her father's artistic and prosperous network, took English lessons and was tutored in how to dress like an "American". During the 1920s, Bernhard had studied art history and typography at the Academy of Fine Arts in Berlin and worked in the portrait studio of Margaret Willinger. Encouraged by her father to pursue a career as a photographer, in 1929 she took up a position as darkroom assistant to Ralph Steiner on Delineator magazine, where she increased her knowledge of the practical and technical side of working with a camera. Nevertheless, she found darkroom work too constricting and soon left the assistant job. In 1930 she began experimenting and created still lifes of objects she bought at the Woolworth department store. “My first real photograph was Lifesavers, which, in the back of my mind, was an image that become fabric. It was inspired by the busy traffic on Fifth Avenue. And then I bought straws, dressmaker pins in rigid rows, and ribbons. So I began to enjoy photography. I worked at night making still lifes, and during the daytime I browsed around the neighbourhood. I have always worked best at night, when the world is quiet. For hours I would make light play across objects, or through glass against a with cloth. Thanks to my father my experiments were seen by art directors and magazine editors.” (Mitchell 2000, 36)
    In her image Lifesavers she captured the form and beauty of the simple round shapes of the ring-shaped sweets called Lifesavers. The play of light and shadow shows clearly the experiment with formal design and everyday objects. Looking closely, one can detect the details and imperfect otherness of each sweet. Lifesavers was her first photograph to be published (even if in portrait rather than landscape orientation), in the January 1931 issue of Advertising Arts magazine. Besides working for her father “draping silk of his own design on either mannequin or model to photograph it” (Mitchell 2000, 32) Bernhard made montages of her still life and model photographs. Ruth Bernhard won her first assignments during the 1930s photographing objects such as puppets and creating window displays for department stores like Macy’s or Saks. Interestingly also other emigrant artists as the German photographer Hermann Landshoff with a shoot on the rooftop of the department store or the Ukraine illustrator Vladimir Bobritsky (Bobri) as graphic advertiser worked for Saks. The advertisements were for example published in the magazine Gebrauchsgraphik, where also the German photographer Walter Sanders has contributed before his emigration.

    In addition, Ruth Bernhard photographed design and interior objects for Henry Dreyfuss, Gustave Jensen, Russell Wright and Frederick Kiesler, who were designer and architect colleagues of her father and “part of the modern movement in art and design, and I found myself in the middle of it” (Mitchell 2000, 37) – and also in the middle of a network of émigré designers and architects. Experimentation with light and shadow while focusing the object in a clear and natural environment can also be seen in the work of Ruth Bernhard. For her, experimenting with light was a major factor in her work: “Light is the reason for my photographing at all. It is a language that speaks to me. It reveals the subject and becomes an experience that matches my feelings. In that fusion I sense the life-force there in the subject and in myself. In that glow, I am in alive, madly in love with the world.” (Mitchell 2000, 5).

    In 1934 she was commissioned to photograph all the exhibited objects for the catalogue of the Machine Art exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art. She landed this commission and contact through the émigré architect and designer Jan Ruhtenberg, who lived in the apartment above her. Ruhtenberg, who was trained in furniture design in the 1920s in Berlin and, after his emigration to New York, became part the modern International Style circle, was responsible for exhibit selection, presentation and the visual design of Machine Art. Apart from this contribution, Ruhtenberg’s role in architecture and design in New York is overlooked and understudied. Bernhard enjoyed producing the photographs for the catalogue and described the experience thus: “I loved every minute of it. I worked on a table with a simple background. I used photo floods, a no.1 and no. 2 on stands. I used silver paper and white sheets to reflect light. I arranged jars and glass bottles. I just loved the way they looked. I saw beauty in the lights on objects.” (Mitchell 2000, 40). The assignment, with a paycheque of $400 (about $7 775 in 2021), was also well paid. During her work for the catalogue, Bernhard also created her first nude pictures. She was photographing a steel bowl when her friend Peggy Boone dropped in to visit her, took off her clothes and climbed into the bowl. “I was delighted that the curled-up nude resembled an embryo. It was a surprise, the work of my intuition.” (Mitchell 2000, 41). In 1936, her first nude was also published in the June issue of U.S. Camera.

    During the latter part of the 1920s Bernhard also began portraying her personal network and, also around this time, came out as lesbian. Her first lover was Patti Light "who was really a femme fatale for me. She was much older, a well-known painter, and she had a husband. I photographed her with a painting of him” (Mitchell 2000, 34). In Mitchell's memoir, Bernhard gave more details on queer meeting places in Manhattan, such as “Childs” in Times Square, “where there was tea dancing for girls in the afternoon. The space was always filled, with everyone in snappy clothes, dressed up, even sophisticated” (Mitchell 2000, 37–38). Through the photographer Berenice Abbott (living at 50 Commerce Street) and her friend and the art critic Elizabeth McCausland, she got in contact with the artistic and queer scene in Greenwich Village, where she also lived during the 1930s and later on in the 1940s. The queer and gendered spaces for émigré photographers are still understudied, so it is possible that Ruth Bernhard also had contact with other émigré photographers such as Rolf Tietgens and Rudy Burckhardt who were part of the queer network of intellectuals and artists in Greenwich Village and Chelsea. Her portraits of the novelist Patricia Highsmith, who was also a friend of Rolf Tietgens, suggests that this could be the case.

    From 1935 to 1938 Ruth Bernhard lived in Los Angeles, where she had her own portrait studio on Wilshire Boulevard, in a quarter where there were many small studios. While exploring the city with her camera one day, she discovered a puppet theatre and a hospital for broken dolls and some of the photographs she took were included in her surrealistic montage Creation. During this time, she also met and worked with the photographer Ansel Adams. On 6 October, 1936, she put on an exhibition at the Jake Zeitlin Gallery (614 West Sixth Street, Los Angeles).

    After the three years on the West Coast, Ruth Bernhard returned to New York in 1938. “This was the same year that Beaumont Newhall published the first edition of his History of Photography, in which he mentioned only two women photographers, Berenice Abbott and Barbara Morgan. Others of us who were younger were just being discovered.” (Mitchell 2000, 50). In the same year, she had her first exhibition at the PM Gallery, for which Kurt Safranski wrote the announcement for her exhibition flyer, and also an exhibition at the Weyhe Gallery. Interestingly, the following year, she produced a reportage on the demolition on the World’s Fair for the Black Star picture agency, of which Kurt Safranski, Ernest Mayer and Kurt Kornfeld were the founders. The photos were also published in the Highway Traveler magazine. (Turrie 1941)

    Over the following years, several photographs were published in magazines such as U.S. Camera (June 1939, Annual 1940), The Complete Photographer (1939) and Popular Photography (July 1938, May 1941, November 1944). Popular Photography was an important magazine for émigré photographers, who were able to publish both their images from their previous times in Europe as well as newer photographs from their exile in New York. Among the émigré photographers published were Lucien Aigner, Erwin Blumenfeld, Josef Breitenbach, Alexey Brodovitch, Rudy Burckhardt, Alfred Eisenstaedt, Andreas Feininger, Philippe Halsman, Fritz Henle, Ruth Jacobi, Lilly Joss, Clemens Kalischer, George Karger, André Kértész, Hermann Landshoff, Lisa Larsen, Herbert Matter, Hansel Mieth, Lisette Model, Martin Munkacsi, Fritz Neugass, Walter Sanders, Kurt Safranski, Xanti Schawinsky, Rolf Tietgens, Werner Wolff, Roman Vishniac and Ylla. Her photostory for the November 1955 issue of Popular Photography titled "Beachcombers Art – You don’t need a scientific interest in shells to get photographic fun and information from them" focused at her photographs of shells which she considered excellent for teaching varieties of composition, light, shadow and forms. (Bernhard 1944) Her photographs gave these natural objects a surrealist and architectural appearance. She used both black and white film and Kodachrome. The same photographic and technical aesthetic can also be seen in her female nudes, which form abstract flowing shapes in black and white. Besides these artistic and experimental works, Bernhard also produced portraits during the 1940s, making visible the sociocultural and ethnic diversity of New York and its surroundings. Of the Russian émigré Alexandra Tolstoy, who came from Japan to New York, she said: “In the country she started a farm with large gardens, where her group lived and worked. I remember seeing Greek Orthodox priests in a church that was part of the complex where Russian refugees could find a home.” (Mitchell 2000, 50)

    During the 1940s she was in contact with photography and art colleagues such as Alfred Stieglitz, Geogria O’Keffe and Erica Anderson (who was a colleague of Ala Story), as well as with the theatre photographer Marcus Blechman (Forty East 56th Street), who produced portraits of her. In 1948, Ruth Bernhard moved with her friend Eveline Phimister to San Francisco and Los Angeles, working as photographer with her own studio. During the 1950s she belonged to the circle of photographers that included Edward Weston, Ansel Adams, Minor White, Dorothea Lange, Imogen Cunningham and Ruth Marion Baruch, carrying out surrealistic experiments, still lifes, ‘portraits’ of shells, leaves and female nudes. From the 1950s, there were also portraits of the Austrian émigré Rudi Gernreich, who established in Los Angeles and New York innovative unisex avantgarde fashion and is another understudied figure in the LGTB movement.

    During the 1950s and 1960s, after giving workshops and several lectures the years before, Ruth Bernhard started teaching a variety of classes and workshops. Beside private classes, she gave workshops in 1958 at the University of California, in 1971 a master class at the New York University and in 1973 lectures at the Columbia College. Furthermore, she had planned a book The Eye Beyond emphasizing her thoughts and technical notes with photographic examples on the camera as medium of self-exploration and self-expression. But the book was never published. In the 1970s, a decade in which women artists received more attention, Ruth Bernhard and a number of other female photographers also gained recognition through such exhibitions as Women in Photography, A historical survey (curators Margery Mann and Anne Noggle, San Francisco Museum of Art) and Recollections, Ten Woman Photographers at the International Center for Photography, where she met up with the émigré photographer Lotte Jacobi . It was also Lotte Jacobi who made some portraits of Ruth Bernhard. Nevertheless, “famous as she is today, in the 1970s Ruth was well known only to her small coterie of students, collectors and curators. I realized then that she and her generation of women photographers had essentially been left out of the written history of American photography” (Mitchell 2000, 2–3). This quote, from Margaretta Mitchell, who wrote Between Art & Life, a memoir of Ruth Bernhard, can now be somewhat revised. This century, a number of Bernhard's works, such as her female nudes, have been recognised, but it is still true that most of her work, along with that of the artistic, female and queer network in New York and Los Angeles, is still not yet sufficiently studied and could provide an important contribution to today's debates.

    Word Count: 2180

  • Media:
    Scrapbook and published work by Ruth Bernhard (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).
    Lifesavers by Ruth Bernhard, published in Advertisment Arts, January 1931 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).
    Still Life of dolls for Macy’s by Ruth Bernhard, published in Graphic Arts, 1931 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).
    Ruth Bernhard, Eighth Street Movie Theater, Frederick Kiesler-Architect, New York, 1946 (Diversity Corner is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0).
    Exhibition flyer for Ruth Bernhard Photographs, PM Gallery, 1938 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).
    Description of Ruth Bernhard Photographs exhibition, by Kurt Safranski, PM Gallery, 1938 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Bernhard, Ruth. "Beachcombers Art – You don’t need a scientific interest in shells to get photographic fun and information from them." Popular Photography, November 1944, pp. 49–51; 101–102.

    Displaced Visions. Émigré Photographers of the 20th Century, edited by Nissan N. Perez, exh. cat. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 2013.

    Gefter, Philip. "Ruth Bernhard, Photographer, Dies at 101." The New York Times, 21 December 2006, p. 37.

    Gilbert, George. The Illustrated Worldwide Who’s Who of Jews in Photography. G. Gilbert, 1996.

    In Wonderland: The Surrealist Adventures of Women Artists in Mexico and the United States, edited by Ilene Susan Fort and Teresa Arcq, exh. cat Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, 2012.

    Maloney, Tom. U.S. Camera Annual 1940. Random House, 1940,

    Mitchell, Margaretta K., and Ruth Bernhard. Ruth Bernhard. Between Art & Life. Chronicle Books, 2000.

    Recollections. Ten Women of Photography, edited by Margaretta K. Mitchell, exh. cat. International Center for Photography, New York, 1979.

    Rosenblum, Naomi. A History of Women Photographers. Abbeville Press, 1994.

    Ruth Bernhard: Known and Unknown, edited by Constance W. Glenn, exh. cat. University Art Museum California State University, Long Beach, 1996.

    Ruth Bernhard. The Eternal Body. A collection of fifty nudes, edited by Margaretta Mitchell and Karen Sinsheimer, exh. cat. Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, 2011.

    Schenkar, Joan. The Talented Miss Highsmith. The Secret Life and Serious art of Patricia Highsmith. St. Martin’s Press, 2009.

    Summers, Claude J., editor. The Queer Encyclopedia of the Visual Arts. Cleis Press, 2004.

    Turin, Beatrice. "Where the World of Tomorrow Is But the Ghost of Yesterday." The Highway Traveler, vol. 13, no. 2, 1941, pp. 14–15; 42.  

    Women of Photography. A historical survey, edited by Margery Mann and Anne Noggle, exh. cat. San Francisco Museum of Art, San Francisco, 1975.

    Word Count: 269

  • Archives and Sources:

    Word Count: 33

  • Acknowledgements:

    My deepest thanks go to the Princeton Library and Special Collection for providing me with information and granting the images rights on Ruth Bernhard as well as to the University of New Hampshire.

    Word Count: 33

  • Author:
    Helene Roth
  • Exile:

    New York, US (1927–1935); New York, US (1938–1948).

  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    Roosevelt Hotel, East 45th Street, Turtle Bay, Manhattan, New York City (residence, 1927); East 59th Street, Central Park South / Sutton Place, Manhattan, New York City (residence and workplace, 1927–1930); 59th West Street between 5th and 6th Avenue, Central Park South, Manhattan, New York City (residence and workplace, 1930–1932); Bleeker Street curve of the EL, Greenwich Village, Manhattan, New York City (residence and workplace, 1932–1934); Corner 34th East Street and Lexington Avenue, Kips Bay, Manhattan, New York City (residence and workplace, 1934–1935); across the Armory Regiment Building between Lexington Avenue and corner East 26th Street, Kips Bay, Manhattan, New York City (residence and workplace, 1938–1944); South Washington Square, Madison Square District, Manhattan, New York City (residence and workplace, 1944–1948).

  • Metropolis:
    New York
  • Helene Roth. "Ruth Bernhard." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/2948/object/5138-8102959, last modified: 08-01-2022.
  • Hermann Landshoff
    Photographer

    Besides outdoor fashion shots, Hermann Landshoff was a portrait and street photographer. During his time in New York, he captured the cultural, artistic and intellectual émigré scene as well as his photographer colleagues.

    Word Count: 33

    Hermann Landshoff, Selfportrait, New York 1942 (© bpk / Münchner Stadtmuseum, Sammlung Fotografie / Archiv Landshoff).
    Hermann Landshoff, Die Fotografin Lisette Model, New York 1948 (© bpk / Münchner Stadtmuseum, Sammlung Fotografie / Archiv Landshoff).Hermann Landshoff, Der Grafikdesigner, Fotograf und Art Director Alexey Brodovitch in seiner Wohnung, 1942–45, New York (© bpk / Münchner Stadtmuseum, Sammlung Fotografie / Archiv Landshoff).
    New York
    Walter Sanders
    Photographer

    Walter Sanders was a German émigré photographer. In 1938 he arrived in New York, where he worked from 1939 until the end of his life for the Black Star agency and, from 1944, for Life magazine.

    Word Count: 33

    Portrait of Walter Sanders, Cuba, Havana, 1938 (Estate Walter Sanders).
    Walt Sanders and Alfred Kornfeld, son of Black Star cofounder Kurt Kornfeld. Sheldrake Lake, New Rochelle, NY, November 1939 (© Heirs of Kurt Kornfeld).First cover by Walter Sanders for Life, 26 June 1939 (Estate Walter Sanders).Letterhead with name Walter Suessmann, a reference to Echo and an address (Estate Walter Sanders).Photo of the Aquacade swim show by Walter Sanders for Black Star, reproduced in Life, 3 July 1939, p. 60 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Life goes to The Futurama.” Image of the General Motors Show by Walter Sanders in Life, 5 June 1939, p. 79 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Life visits Statue of Liberty.” Images by Walter Sanders published in Life, 2 June 1941, pp. 94–95 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Por las entrañas de una estatua.”. Images by Walter Sanders, MUNDO Argentino, June 1941 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“The Road Back to Berlin.” Images and text by Walter Sanders in Life, 10 November 1946, p. 29 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).Americans in Heidelberg, Life cover, Image by Walter Sanders, Life, 21 July 1947 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Kurt Safranski
    Picture AgentFounding MemberTeacherCartoonistPublisherIllustrator

    Kurt Safranski was one of the founding members of the Black Star photo agency, a teacher at the New School for Social Research and the author of photojournalistic articles and books.

    Word Count: 31

    Portrait of Kurt Safranski with his wife Maria and daughter Tina Safranski, photographer unknown, n.d. (© Heirs of Kurt Safranski).
    Cover of Selling Your Pictures by Kurt Safranski (Ziff Davis Publishing Company, 1940).Kurt Safranski “Backgrounds.” Minicam Photography, July 1945, pp. 52–53 (Photo: Helene Roth).Kurt Safranski. “Dr. Salomon.” Popular Photography, August 1948, pp. 56–57.Announcement of "Pictorial Journalism" course by Kurt Safranski in New School Bulletin, vol. 2, no. 9, 1944, p. 84 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Werner Wolff, K.S. Safranski’s Class in Pictorial Journalism, 1950 (New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection © Steven Wolff).Announcement of "Pictorial Journalism. Photographs as a Language and their special Problems" course by Kurt Safranski at the New School for Social Research, Spring 1949 (© The New School Archives and Special Collection, The New School, New York).
    New York
    Andreas Feininger
    PhotographerWriterEditor

    Andreas Feininger, was a German émigré photographer who arrived in New York with his wife Wysse Feininger in 1939. He started a lifelong career exploring the city's streets, working as a photojournalist and writing a large number of photography manuals.

    Word Count: 39

    Portrait of Andreas Feininger by Fritz Henle, 1940/41, cropped detail (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).
    Portrait of Andreas Feininger by Fritz Henle, 1940/41 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Andreas Feininger, 1, Stockholm, 1937 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Andreas Feininger, Close Up Equipment, 365 West 20 St. New York, 1940 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Andreas Feininger, “An Amateur’s Wartime Darkroom.” U.S. Camera, April 1942, pp. 28–29 (Photo: Helene Roth).Scrapbook of Andreas Feininger with photographic essay “New York. A big spectacle in big pictures.” Life, 14 April 1941, pp. 86–87 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Scrapbook of Andreas Feininger with article and photographs by him. “Experimenting with Lights at Night.” Popular Photography, February 1947, pp. 44–45 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).“Feininger’s Workshop - photo facts in pictures. Unsharpness and its cause.” Popular Photography, May 1949, pp.54–55 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Lisette Model
    Photographer

    Lisette Model was an Austrian-born photographer who lived in New York with her husband Evsa Model after emigrating from France. Her street photographs capturing the curiosities of everyday life quickly caught the interest of museums and magazines.

    Word Count: 37

    Hermann Landshoff, Die Fotografin Lisette Model, New York 1948 (© bpk / Münchner Stadtmuseum, Sammlung Fotografie / Archiv Landshoff).
    Lisette Model at New School by Joe Covello, 1960s, New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection, NS.04.01.01:16 (© The New School Archives and Special Collection, The New School, New York, NY).Announcement of "The Small Camera In Photography Today" course by Lisette Model. New School Bulletin. Art Classes, vol. 9, no. 2, September 1951, front cover and p. 34 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Lisette Model's naturalisation papers. New York, Southern District, U.S District Court Naturalization Records, 1824–1946. Petitions for naturalization and petition evidence 1944 box 942, no 490001-490300 > image 702 of 1406; citing NARA microfilm publication M1972 (Family Research. © Southern District of New York Petitions for Naturalization, 1897–1944. Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685–2009, RG 21. National Archives at New York).Page with photos of the apartments at 55 Grove Street and 137 7th Avenue, published in Le Pommeré, 2010, pp. 58–59 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Fred Stein
    PhotographerLawyer

    Always accompanied by his camera, the German émigré photographer Fred Stein discovered New York City during the 1940s and 1950s. His pictures provide an human and multifaceted view of the metropolis.

    Word Count: 31

    Fred Stein, Self-portrait, 1941 (© Fred Stein Archive).
    Fred Stein, El at Water Street, 1946 (© Fred Stein Archive).Portrait Alvin Saunders Johnson by Fred Stein, New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection (© Fred Stein Archive). Children Photographs exhibition by Fred Stein, April 1947 (© Fred Stein Archive).Affidavit in Lieu of Passport (© Fred Stein Archive).Fred Stein, Anette Kolb, New York, 1945 (© Fred Stein Archive).Fritz Neugass. “The saga of the S.S. Winnipeg.” Modern Photography, July 1951, pp. 72–73 (Photo: Helene Roth).Black Star contract by Fred Stein, April 1, 1944 (© Fred Stein Archive).New York 1949 calendar by Fred Stein, Lumen Publisher (© Fred Stein Archive).Mixed articles and reviews on 5th Avenue photobook form Fred Stein's scrapbook (© Fred Stein Archive).Portrait of Fritz H. Landshoff (of Querido Publishing House) by Fred Stein, 1944 (© Fred Stein Archive).Portrait of Kurt Wolff (of publishing house Pantheon Books) by Fred Stein, 1959 (© Fred Stein Archive).Announcement by Pantheon Books from Fred Stein’s scrapbook (© Fred Stein Archive).Rapho Guillumette agency letter to Fred Stein, 1944 (© Fred Stein Archive).Cover of 5th Avenue photobook (Pantheon Books, 1947) by Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).
    New York
    Rolf Tietgens
    PhotographerEditorWriter

    Rolf Tietgens was a German émigré photographer who arrived in New York in 1938. Although, in the course of his photographic career, his artistic and surrealist images were published and shown at exhibitions, his work, today, is very little known.

    Word Count: 39

    Portrait of Rolf Tietgens, n.d. (© Keith de Lellis Gallery, New York).
    Der Hafen by Rolf Tietgens, Ehrmann Verlag, 1936.Rolf Tietgens. “What is Surrealism?” Minicam, July 1939, pp. 30–31 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photo by Rolf Tietgens of Streamliners at the World’s Fair published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 45 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photo by Rolf Tietgens of the Communication Mall at the World’s Fair 1939 published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 38 (Photo: Helene Roth).Rolf Tietgens. “Capture the ‘Life’ of the object.” Minicam, January 1940, pp. 46–47 (Photo: Helene Roth).Rolf Tietgens. “Capture the ‘Life’ of the object.” Minicam, January 1940, pp. 48–49 (Photo: Helene Roth).Felix Kraus. "Why Photographers experiment." Popular Photography, February 1945, pp. 28–29 (Photo: Helene Roth).Hans Arp. Human Concretion, 1935, limestone 73 x 49,5 x 45 cm, photograph by Rolf Tietgens and reproduced in Arp: On My Way. Poetry and Essays 1912–1947, edited by Robert Motherwell, Wittenborn, Schulz, 1948, pp. 130–131 (Photo: Helene Roth).Published photo by Rolf Tietgens (Feininger 1952, 116–117).Times Square. U.S.A. (1952) photobook by Rolf Tietgens, Keith de Lellis Gallery, 1992 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Lotte Jacobi
    Photographer

    In October 1935 the German émigré photographer Lotte Jacobi, together with her sister Ruth Jacobi, opened a photo studio on 57th Street. The two sisters had to leave their parents' photo studio in Berlin in the 1930s and emigrated to New York.

    Word Count: 41

    Lotte Jacobi, Self-portrait, New York, 1937 (© 2020. University of New Hampshire).
    Lotte Jacobi, Central Park, New York, 1936 (© 2020. University of New Hampshire).Lotte Jacobi, New York Stock Exchange, New York, 1938 (© 2020. University of New Hampshire).Lotte Jacobi, Ernst Fuhrmann, New York, 1942 (© 2021. University of New Hampshire).Lotte Jacobi, Hanya Holm dancing with troup, 1937 (© 2020. University of New Hampshire).Flyer for Lotte Jacobi’s exhibition at the Norlyst Gallery, 1948 (© 2020. University of New Hampshire).Willi Wolfradt. "Lichtbild-Schöpfungen." Aufbau, 15 October 1948, p. 19.Lotte Jacobi, Werner Wolff, 1943, New York (© 2021. University of New Hampshire).Lotte Jacobi, Ruth Bernhard, 1945, New York (© 2021. University of New Hampshire).
    New York
    Ruth Jacobi
    Photographer

    Ruth Jacobi was a German-speaking, Polish-born photographer who emigrated in 1935 to New York, where she opened a studio together with her sister Lotte Jacobi. She later had her own portrait studio.

    Word Count: 31

    Lotte Jacobi, Ruth Jacobi mit Brille, c. 1935, New York (© 2021. University of New Hampshire).
    Lotte Jacobi, Ruth Jacobi, c. 1935, New York (© 2021. University of New Hampshire).A Study in Doll Heads by Ruth Jacobi-Roth published in "Salon Section. Four Of A Kind." Popular Photography, December 1937, p. 48 (Photo: Helene Roth).Sisters by Ruth Jacobi-Roth for the "Salon Section. Twins." Popular Photography, February 1938, pp. 46–47 (Photo: Helene Roth).Ruth Jacobi-Roth, Grapes, published in the “Picture of the Months” section of Popular Photography, March 1938, p. 42 (Photo: Helene Roth).Ruth Jacobi-Roth, Doll, published in "Salon Section." Popular Photography, March 1938, p. 53 (Photo: Helene Roth).Montage of three pelicans by Ruth Jacobi-Roth published in "Salon Section 1-2-3." Popular Photography, March 1939, p. 47 (Photo: Helene Roth).Head by Ruth Jacobi-Roth published in Maloney 1940, p. 138 (Photo: Helene Roth).Hafen-Romantik und Wolkenkratzer (image by Jacobi, Berlin) and Schönheit der Wolkenkratzer (image by E.O. Hoppé, Mauritius) in New York, published in Leitich 1932, pp. 14–15 (Archive Helene Roth).Das arme New York (image by Jacobi, Berlin); Trödelladen im Italienerviertel (image by Scherl) New York, published in Leitich 1932, pp. 56–57 (Archive Helene Roth).Medical Center, die größte Klinik der Welt (am oberen Hudson) (image by Presse-Photo, Berlin); Tausendäugige Häuserfront (image by Jacobi, Berlin), New York, published in Leitich 1932, pp. 48–49 (Archive Helene Roth).Ruhepause bei den Grabsteinen der Trinity Church (image by Scherl); Auch ein Platz für Mittagsruhe (image by Jacobi, Berlin); Orangedrink nach heißer Bahnhfahrt (image by Ewing Galloway, N.Y); Ein Fünfcentstück öffnet die Drehtür zur Untergrundbahn (image by Ewing Galloway, N.Y), published in Leitich 1932, pp. 16–17 (Archive Helene Roth).
    New York
    Fritz Henle
    Photographer

    Fritz Henle was a German Jewish photographer who emigrated in 1936 to New York, where he worked as a photojournalist for various magazines. He also published several photobooks of his travels throughout North America and Asia.

    Word Count: 35

    Portrait of Fritz Henle by Herbert Matter, New York, 1937 (© Estate Fritz Henle).
    Fritz Henle, New York at Night, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).Fritz Henle, New York Reflections, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).Fritz Henle, The L Train on Wall Street, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).Fritz Henle, Brooklyn Bridge and Baby Carriage, New York, 1936's-1950 (© 2021.Fritz Henle Estate)Fritz Henle, New York Skaters from the RCA Building, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).Fritz Henle, New York Art Critic at Washington Square, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).“The American Legion takes New York City.” Life, 4 October 1937, pp. 24f.Photographs by Fritz Henle for the reportage “Memo to: Walter Wander, Subject: 52nd Street.” Life, 29 November 1937, pp. 64–67 (Photo: Helene Roth).Cover of Paris photobook by Fritz Henle (Ziff Davis, 1947).“Men who love Paris. Fritz Henle and Elliot Paul combine pictures and text in a handsome book about their favorite city.” Popular Photography, January 1947, pp. 60–61.Norris Harkness. "Simplicity. Fritz Henle’s fashion shots prove that the easy way is often the most effective." Popular Photography, August 1944, pp. 36–37.Victor Kepler. “There’s adventure in night photography.” Popular Photography, August 1942, pp. 28–29.Cover of Fritz Henle’s rollei (Hastings House, 1950).Cover photo by Fritz Henle, Life, 30 July 1939.
    New York
    Kurt Kornfeld
    PublisherPicture AgentFounding Member

    Kurt Kornfeld was a publisher and literary agent and a founding member of the Black Star photo agency in New York City after his emigration in 1936 to New York.

    Word Count: 29

    Portrait of Kurt Kornfeld, 2 May 1938, New York (© Heirs of Kurt Kornfeld).
    Visitenkarte von Kurt A. Kornfeld, Black Star, Strand Palace Hotel, London an Erich Salomon, n.d (Erich Salomon Archiv, © Sammlung Berlinische Galerie, Erworben durch das Land Berlin aus Mitteln des Bundesministeriums des Innern, Bonn, 1980, Repro: Anja Elisabeth Witte).
    New York
    Ernest Mayer
    Picture AgentFounding MemberPublisher

    Ernest Mayer was co-founder of the Black Star Publishing Company photo agency, which built a network for émigré photographers and the American magazine scene from the mid-1930s until the end of the 1950s.

    Word Count: 34

    Portrait of Ernest Mayer at the Black Star Office, December 1936, New York (© Heirs of Kurt Kornfeld).
    Signature by Ernest Mayer in a letter to Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).Walt Sanders and Alfred Kornfeld, son of Black Star cofounder Kurt Kornfeld. Sheldrake Lake, New Rochelle, NY, November 1939 (© Heirs of Kurt Kornfeld).
    New York
    Ruth Staudinger
    PhotographerCinematographerArt dealer

    Very few and only fragmentary details can be found on the German émigré photographer Ruth Staudinger, who emigrated in the mid-1930s to New York City. Her nomadic life was also characterisedd by several changes of name along the way.

    Word Count: 40

    Hassoldt Davis (?), Ruth Staudinger Davis holds the mummified head of an executed Indochines (Davis, 1952, 22).
    Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, Going on duty, 1939 (Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Photographs and Prints Division, The New York Public Library Digital Collections).Page with collected addresses of colleagues at the New School for Social Research in New York by Josef Breitenbach (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, New York Bedtime, published in U.S. Camera 1940, p. 129 (Photo: Helene Roth).Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, More Fun Than Circus, published in U.S. Camera 1940, p. 130 (Photo: Helene Roth).Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, Girls from telephone company taking exercises in American Woman’s Association Gym, published in U.S. Camera 1940, p. 178 (Photo: Helene Roth).“Wiltwyck – Why Harlme Boys Learn Manhood” article with images by Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy (Anonymous 1941, 18–19).Article on Ruth Staudinger and Hassoldt Davis (Desfor 1951, 33).Cover of The Jungle and the Damned (Davis, 1952) (Photo: Helene Roth).First page of The Jungle and the Damned (Davis 1952) (Photo: Helene Roth).First page of Scorcerer’s Village, published by Hassoldt Davis and Ruth Staudinger-Davis, Duell Sloan and Pearce, 1956 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Carola Gregor
    PhotographerSculptor

    The German émigré photographer Carola Gregor was an animal and child photographer and published some of her work in magazines and books. Today her work and life are almost forgotten.

    Word Count: 30

    Portrait of Carola Gregor (cutout of her papers of naturalisation).
    Petitions for naturalization from the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York of Carola Gregor (Naturalizations, box 1018-1020, cert. no. 513486-513958, 9-12 Apr 1945, Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685 - 2009, RG 21. National Archives at New York, familysearch.org).Homer- The Hydrophobic Duck by Carola Gregor published in U.S. Camera 1943, p. 63 (Photo: Helene Roth).Portrait of Fritz Goro by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 13 September 1937, p. 104 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photograph of Amazonian birds by Carola Gregor for the brochure Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939, pp. 11–12 (Photo: Helene Roth).Mending Nets by Carola Gregor, published in Popular Photography, October 1942, p. 40 (Photo: Helene Roth).A gleaming spider by Carola Gregor, published in Popular Photography, August 1948, pp. 81–82 (Photo: Helene Roth).Reportage “Liger. A lion and a tigress produce a new kind of zoo baby” with images by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 20 September 1948, p. 109 (Photo: Helene Roth).Reportage “Liger. A lion and a tigress produce a new kind of zoo baby” with images by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 20 September 1948, pp. 111–112 (Photo: Helene Roth).War Manpower Commission. Farm labor poster distributed to Department of Agriculture. Photograph by Carola Gregor (Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives).
    New York
    Rudy Burckhardt
    PhotographerFilmmakerPainter

    Rudy Burckhardt was a Swiss-born photographer, filmmaker and painter who emigrated from Basle to New York City in 1935. He was well networked within the emerging Abstract Expressionist art scene of 1940s' and 50s'.

    Word Count: 33

    Rudy Burckhardt, Selftportrait, New York 1937 (© VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).
    Announcement for an exhibition by Rudy Burkhardt at the Photo League Gallery in Brooklyn Eagle, 30 September 1948, p. 18.Jaqueline Judge. “Rudi Burckhardt … photographer of everyday life.” Popular Photography, January 1949, pp. 52–53 (Photo: Helene Roth).Rudy Burckhardt, Portrait of the painter Willem de Kooning, New York 1937/38 (© VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).Rudy Burckhardt, Building Front Detail with Acanthus Molding in Doorway, New York City, 1938 (© VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).
    New York
    New York World's Fair postcard View of the Constitution Mall looking toward statue of George Washington and Trylon and Perisphere
    Postcard

    Shortly after the arrival in New York in 1939, photographs by the German émigré Ernest Nash were used and reproduced for postcards of the New York’s World’s Fair.

    Word Count: 29

    New York World's Fair postcard View of the Constitution Mall looking toward statue of George Washington and Trylon and Perisphere, photograph by Ernest Nash, East and West Publishing Company, 1939 (Private Archive Helene Roth).
    Backside of New York World's Fair postcard View of the Constitution Mall looking toward statue of George Washington and Trylon and Perisphere, photograph by Ernest Nash, East and West Publishing Company, 1939 (Private Archive Helene Roth).Ernest Nash, New York World’s Fair 1939, Perisphere (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, New York, World’s Fair 1939, Constitution Mall, Trylon and Perisphere (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Photo by Rolf Tietgens of Streamliners at the World’s Fair published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 45 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photo by Rolf Tietgens of the Communication Mall at the World’s Fair 1939 published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 38 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photo of the Aquacade swim show by Walter Sanders for Black Star, reproduced in Life, 3 July 1939, p. 60 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Life goes to The Futurama.” Image of the General Motors Show by Walter Sanders in Life, 5 June 1939, p. 79 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).Photograph of Amazonian birds by Carola Gregor for the brochure Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939, p. 13 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photograph of Amazonian birds by Carola Gregor for the brochure Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939, pp. 11–12 (Photo: Helene Roth).Demolition of the World’s Fair by Ruth Bernhard. Reprint of the reportage “Where the World of Tomorrow Is But the Ghost of Yesterday.” The Highway Traveler, vol. 13, no. 2, April-May 1941, pp. 14–15 (© Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Today’s area of the World’s Fair, Flushing Meadows-Corona Park with the Unisphere (where the Trylon and Perisphere stood) (Photo: Helene Roth, 2019).
    New York
    Black Star Agency
    Photo Agency

    The German émigrés Kurt S(z)afranski, Ern(e)st Mayer and Kurt Kornfeld founded Black Star in 1936. The photo agency established was a well-run networking institution in New York.

    Word Count: 31

    Letterhead of Black Star (Black Star Archive. Ryerson Image Center, Photo: Helene Roth).
    Logo and Stamp of Black Star Photo Agency (Photo: Helene Roth, 2019).Description of Black Star in a photographic guide (Ahlers, Arvel W.. Where & how to sell your pictures. Photography Publishing Corp., 1953, p. 45).Werner Wolff, K.S. Safranski’s Class in Pictorial Journalism, 1950 (New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection © Steven Wolff).Facade and entrance of the Graybar Building on Lexington Avenue (Photo: Helene Roth, 2018).Cover of Selling Your Pictures by Kurt Safranski (Ziff Davis Publishing Company, 1940).Black Star contract by Fred Stein, April 1, 1944 (© Fred Stein Archive).Announcement of "Pictorial Journalism. Photographs as a Language and their special Problems" course by Kurt Safranski at the New School for Social Research, Spring 1949 (© The New School Archives and Special Collection, The New School, New York).Letterhead with the logo and address of Black Star (© Fred Stein Archive).
    New York
    Leco Photo Service
    Photo Lab

    Leco Photo Service was a photofinishing lab, highly-frequented and a contact hub for émigré photographers and photo agencies during the 1930s and 1940s, as well as a provider of employment for women in the photo industry.

    Word Count: 36

    Advertisment Leco Photo Service (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Leco Photo Service mentioned in Etna Kelley. “Woman in Photography.”, Popular Photography, June 1945, pp. 23 (Photo: Helene Roth).Article on Leco Photo Service by Etna Kelley. “Photofinishing Plus.” Popular Photography, February 1947, pp. 84–85 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    New School for Social Research
    Academy/Art SchoolPhoto SchoolUniversity / Higher Education Institute / Research Institute

    During the 1940s and 1950s emigrated graphic designers and photographers, along with artists and intellectuals, were given the opportunity to held lectures and workshops at the New School for Social Research.

    Word Count: 31

    Werner Wolff, K.S. Safranski’s Class in Pictorial Journalism, 1950 (New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection © Steven Wolff).
    Announcement of "Art Applied to Graphic Journalism, Advertising, Design, Fashion" course by Alexey Brodovitch, published in New School Bulletin. Art Classes, 1942/43, p. 11 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Announcement of "Pictorial Journalism" course by Kurt Safranski in New School Bulletin, vol. 2, no. 9, 1944, p. 84 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Announcement of "The Small Camera In Photography Today" course by Lisette Model. New School Bulletin. Art Classes, vol. 9, no. 2, September 1951, front cover and p. 34 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Lisette Model at New School by Joe Covello, 1960s, New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection, NS.04.01.01:16 (© The New School Archives and Special Collection, The New School, New York, NY).Portrait Alvin Saunders Johnson by Fred Stein, New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection (© Fred Stein Archive).Flyer of “New Architecture and City Planning” symposium by Paul Zucker (© The New School Archives and Special Collection, The New School, New York, NY).
    New York
    Norlyst Gallery
    GalleryArt Gallery

    Founded in 1943 by the American painter and art collector Elenore Lust, the Norlyst Gallery represented a cross section of contemporary painting, photography and other media focusing on surrealist and abstract expressionist styles and promoting women artists and photographers.

    Word Count: 38

    Flyer for the Captured Light exhibition (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:29).
    Announcement for the Captured Light exhibition (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:29).Flyer for Lotte Jacobi’s exhibition at the Norlyst Gallery, 1948 (© 2020. University of New Hampshire).Willi Wolfradt. "Lichtbild-Schöpfungen." Aufbau, 15 October 1948, p. 19.
    New York
    Weyhe Gallery
    Art Gallery

    Opened in 1919 by the German-born art dealer Erhard Weyhe opened a bookstore and gallery space specialised in contemporary European artists and was the first to specialise in prints.

    Word Count: 28

    Address of Weyhe Gallery (Photo: Helene Roth).
    "Ylla." The New Yorker, 14 February 1942, pp.11f.
    New York
    JJK Copy-Art
    Photo LabPhoto StudioPhoto Supplier

    JJK Copy-Art was a photo studio and photofinishing service founded in 1929 by the Jewish Austrian émigré James J. Kriegsmann (1909–1994) and was located at 165 West 46th Street.

    Word Count: 26

    Logo of JJK Copy-Art (Billboard, 26 January 1963, p. 50).
    Advertisement for JJK Copy-Art in Billboard, 26 January 1963, p. 50.Advertisement for JJK Copy-Art with slogan “We Deliver What We Advertise” (Billboard, 3 June 1950, p. 27).Advertisement for JJK Copy-Art with slogan “There Is No Business Than Show Business” (Billboard, 11 April 1953, p. 5)Apology announcement by James J. Kriegsmann in Billboard, 17 April 1943, p. 5Page from a magazine about the Cotton Club with a portrait of Bill Robertson by James J. Kriegsmann (Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, 1936) 2013.46.25.270a-e.
    New York
    Spiratone
    Photo Supplier

    Spiratone was a photo company and photo supplier founded in 1941 by the Austrian émigré family Hans (1888–1944) and Paula Spira (?–?) and their son Fred Spira (1924–2007).

    Word Count: 24

    Logo and address of Spiratone in Popular Photography, June 1947, p. 104.
    Advertisement in Minicam, vol. 5, no. 1, September 1941 p. 73; 84; 100Advertisement for Spiratone in Popular Photography, October 1949, p. 5.
    New York
    American-British Art Center
    Art Center

    The émigré gallerist Ala Story left London for New York around 1940, where she co-founded the American-British Art Center, which introduced British and US artists to the public.

    Word Count: 27

    Article on the opening of the American British Art Center, 44 West 56th Street in New York in The Herald Statesman, 28 January 1941, p. 8 (Photo: Private Archive).
    Article on “Art Exhibit At Bar Harbor. Recent Photographs of Bombed London By Cecil Beaton” in The Bangor Daily News, 11 August 1941, p. 10 (Photo: Private Archive). The article describes the activities of the American British Art Center founded by Ala Story for the benefit of the London art scene, which was isolated and shaken by the war.
    New York
    Werner Wolff
    Photographer

    Werner Wolff was forced to leave Germany in 1936 due to his Jewish background and emigrated via Hamburg to New York, where he could follow his career as photographer and photojournalist.

    Word Count: 30

    Lotte Jacobi, Werner Wolff, 1943, New York (© 2021. University of New Hampshire).
    “Speaking of Pictures. Mrs. Roosevelt Takes Voice Lessons.” Life, 13 March 1939, pp. 6–9 (Photo: Helene Roth).Agreement between Black Star and Werner Wolff, 1947 (The Family of Werner Wolff © Ryerson Image Center).Camera Features stamp (The Family of Werner Wolff © Ryerson Image Center).Contact sheets for reportage on Empire State Building by Werner Wolff, 1946 (The Family of Werner Wolff © Ryerson Image Center).Rear side of contact sheets for reportage on Empire State Building by Werner Wolff, 1946 (The Family of Werner Wolff © Ryerson Image Center).Text for reportage on Empire State Building, written by Werner Wolff, 1946 (The Family of Werner Wolff © Ryerson Image Center).List of images and description for reportage on Empire State Building, written by Werner Wolff, 1946 (The Family of Werner Wolff © Ryerson Image Center).“Daredevil at Work” reportage by Werner Wolff in Popular Photography, September 1946, p. 39 (Photo: Helene Roth).Werner Wolff, K.S. Safranski’s Class in Pictorial Journalism, 1950 (New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection © Steven Wolff).
    New York
    Josef Breitenbach
    Photographer

    On arriving in New York in 1941, the German photographer Josef Breitenbach tried to restart as a portrait, street and experimental photographer, as well as a teacher of photo-history and techniques.

    Word Count: 30

    Fred Stein, Joseph Breitenbach, n.d. (© Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933-1945, Frankfurt am Main).
    Fred Stein, Backside portrait Joseph Breitenbach, n.d. (© Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933-1945, Frankfurt am Main).Attestation of Identity of Josef Breitenbach, Agen, September 1940 (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:5).Affidavit for Josef Breitenbach, April 1941 (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:12).Address book Josef Breitenbach, New York (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Page with collected addresses of photographers in New York by Josef Breitenbach (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Page with collected addresses of colleagues at the New School for Social Research in New York by Josef Breitenbach (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Application for use of photographic equipment by Josef Breitenbach, 1942 (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:12).Business card Josef Breitenbach (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Letter from Fortune Magazine, 1942 (© Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:4, Center for Creative Photography, The University of Arizona).
    New York
    Alexey Brodovitch
    PhotographerArt DirectorGraphic Designer

    Alexey Brodovitch was a Belarus-born émigré graphic artist, art director and photographer who, from 1933, worked in New York for Harper’s Bazaar magazine and at the New School for Social Research.

    Word Count: 31

    Hermann Landshoff, Der Grafikdesigner, Fotograf und Art Director Alexey Brodovitch in seiner Wohnung, 1942–45, New York (© bpk / Münchner Stadtmuseum, Sammlung Fotografie / Archiv Landshoff).
    Announcement of Alexey Brodovitch “Advertising Design” course at the Pennsylvanian Museum School for Industrial Art (The Philadelphia Inquirer, 24 September 1933, p. 30).Announcement of the Design Laboratory by Alexey Brodovitch at the New School of Social Research (© Clara Meyer Papers. Brodovitch, Alexey, 1949-1959, Box: 1, Folder: 35. The New School Archives).Announcement of "Art Applied to Graphic Journalism, Advertising, Design, Fashion" course by Alexey Brodovitch, published in New School Bulletin. Art Classes, 1942/43, p. 11 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Cover of Ballet by Alexey Brodovitch (J.J. Augustin, 1945).Design of a lamp by Alexey Brodovitch (St. Louis Post Dispatch, 25 March 1951, p. 103).
    New York
    Vladimir Bobritsky
    PainterScene DesignerGraphic ArtistMusician

    Bobritsky worked at the Theatre des Petits Champs, where he successfully dealt with stage designs and costumes, at the same time he participated in the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople.

    Word Count: 31

    Promotional photograph of Vladimir Bobri (1898–1986), illustrator, author and editor of Guitar Review magazine, 1950. Self-scan from Guitar Review magazine, Winter 1987, no. 8 (The entire contents of the GUITAR REVIEW unless otherwise noted are copyrighted © 1985 by ALBERT AUGUSTINE LTD).
    Promotional photograph of Vladimir Bobri (1898–1986), illustrator, author and editor of Guitar Review magazine, 1950. Self-scan from Guitar Review magazine, Winter 1987, no. 8 (The entire contents of the GUITAR REVIEW unless otherwise noted are copyrighted © 1985 by ALBERT AUGUSTINE LTD).Vladimir Bobritsky decorates the shawl of Vera Strelsky, a former member of the Russian Imperial Ballet (Star Tribune (Minneapolis, Minnesota), 13 January 1924, p. 86).Illustrations by Vladimir Bobritsky, Mentor, June 1930 (Chris Mullen, fulltable.com).
    Istanbul
    Lilly Joss
    Photographer

    Lilly Joss was an émigré freelance photographer in New York. She worked for the Black Star photo agency and magazines and was also a portrait and theatre photographer.

    Word Count: 28

    Portrait of Lilly Joss, detail from an article, published in Barbara Green. “Magazine Photographer Lilly Joss.” The Camera, March 1948, p. 42 (Private Archive Helene Roth).
    Frühling im Central Park series. Junges Paar mit Kinderwagen by Lilly Joss, New York, 1944 (© Wien Museum / kunstdokumentation.com).“The Kid’s spoke up” article with images by Lilly Joss, The Los Angeles Times, 4 February 1945, p. 79 (Photo: Helene Roth).Four images by Lilly Joss for the “Spring 1944” reportage, Life 24 April 1944, pp. 96–97 (Photo: Helene Roth).Two little boys in a Chinese kindergarten by Lilly Joss for the “Salon Section”, Popular Photography, March 1945, pp.46–47 (Photo: Helene Roth).Joss Reich, Lilly. The Viennese Pastry Cookbook. From Vienna With Love over 200 authentic recipes for classic pastries and warm desserts. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1970.
    New York
    Ylla
    Photographer

    Ylla was an Austrian-born photographer who emigrated to New York in 1941. Specialising in animal photography, she produced not only studio photographs, but also shot outside on urban locations in the metropolis.

    Word Count: 31

    "Speaking of Pictures … this is the work of the Bachrach of Dog Photography.”, images by Ylla and published in Life, 17 November 1947, pp. 18–19. (Photo: Helene Roth).“Babytime at the Zoo”, images by Ylla, Life,14 May 1944, p. 43. (Photo: Helene Roth).“Ylla’s cameras tells. A tale of two kittens ... .” Popular Photography, Dezember 1951, pp. 50–51 (Photo: Helene Roth).Profile photo of terrier by Ylla (Camilla Koffler), ca. 1938, published on the cover of U.S. Camera, October 1940 ( © Waverley123 (Pryor Dodge) at the English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons).Advertisement in The New Yorker (November 14, 1953, p. 184) for Ylla’s book Animal’s in Africa (Photo: Helene Roth).Published photograph by Ylla Back to Methusala, Regent's Park London for U.S. Camera. Annual 1943, edited by Tom Malloney, Radom House, 1943, p. 90.Fritz Neugass. “The saga of the S.S. Winnipeg.” Modern Photography, July 1951, pp. 72–73 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Ala Story
    GalleristCuratorArt CollectorMuseums Director

    Originally from Vienna, Ala Story worked for galleries such as Redfern and Storran, opened the Stafford Gallery in 1938 and developed it into the British Art Centre.

    Word Count: 26

    William Dole, Ala’s Story, 1971, collage, 34.9 x 30.8 cm, Santa Barbara Museum of Art (SBMA, Gift of Margaret P. Mallory, Object number 1991.154.9, © artist or artist’s estate). The collage is dedicated to the life and work of Ala Story in Vienna, London, New York and Santa Barbara and is a visual transcultural narrative.
    A 1937 Storran Gallery receipt for works by Modigliani, Hitchens and Picasso. Ala Story and Eardley Knollys as representatives of Storran Gallery are mentioned under the gallery’s address (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Storran_Gallery_1937.jpg).Article mentioning the “newly opened Stafford Gallery”, one of the galleries Ala Story worked at or founded in London. The Manchester Guardian, 1 November 1938, p. 14 (Photo: Private Archive).Article on the foundation of the British Art Centre at the Stafford Gallery in The Manchester Guardian, 30 September 1939, p. 8 (Photo: Private Archive).Article on the first exhibition of the “self-help club” British Art Centre at Stafford Gallery in The Observer, 19 November 1939, p. 8 (Photo: Private Archive). It is emphasised that Ala Story selected fresh works from artists’ studios.Advertisement for the This War as I See It exhibition at the Stafford Gallery (British Art Centre), The Observer, 14 April 1940, p. 17 (Photo: Private Archive).Ala Story obituary in The Berkshire Eagle, Pittsfield, Mass., 7 April 1972, p. 13 (Photo: Private Archive).
    London