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Rolf Tietgens

  • Given name:
    Rolf
  • Last name:
    Tietgens
  • Alternative names:

    Rolf Tietjens, Rolf Teitjens

  • Date of Birth:
    08-11-1911
  • Place of Birth:
    Hamburg (DE)
  • Date of Death:
    11-12-1984
  • Place of Death:
    New York City (US)
  • Profession:
    EditorPhotographerWriter
  • Introduction:

    Rolf Tietgens was a German émigré photographer who arrived in New York in 1938. Although, in the course of his photographic career, his artistic and surrealist images were published and shown at exhibitions, his work, today, is very little known.

    Word Count: 39

  • Signature Image:
    Portrait of Rolf Tietgens, n.d. (© Keith de Lellis Gallery, New York).
  • Content:

    Rolf Tietgens, who had been expected to take over the family shipping company Tietgens & Robertson, completed a commercial apprenticeship in Hamburg. He then made a trip to Chicago in the spring of 1933 to complete his commercial training with an American business partner. However, the trip and the new cultural experiences convinced Tietgens, on his return to Hamburg in 1934, to drop out of commercial training and earn a living as a photographer. In 1933, he visited the 1933 World’s Fair in Chicago, in which Native Americans from reserves in the south-west put on performances for tourists. This tragic distortion of indigenous culture and way of life, presented for the entertainment of Western tourists, prompted Tietgens to explore indigenous cultures. He undertook a number of journeys to the reserves, in the course of which he took a large number of photographs that became the basis for his first photobook, Die Regentrommel (Der Graue Verlag). It was published in 1935 in Berlin and included examples of Native American poetry (Tietgens 1935). In 1936 the book was confiscated by the National Socialist regime.

    In February 1935, Tietgens moved to Berlin and tried to start a career as a professional photographer. He may have studied photography at the Reimann School of Art and Design, founded by Albert Reimann and Hugo Häring in 1902. The school had created a new department for film and photography in 1928. During the 1930s the school was repeatedly the target of National Socialist attacks, as Albert Reimann came from a Jewish family. Reiman emigrated to London and opened in 1937 a branch of the Reiman School in London. During the 1930s Tietgens was able to publish a few of his photographs in the magazines Querschnitt and Photo-Graphik. In the February 1936 issue of Querschnitt, his “Indianer von morgen” (“Indians of tomorrow”) article was published, consisting of the first two chapters of his photobook Die Regentrommel (The Rain Drum). In April 1936 his article “April, wie es keiner kennt” (“April, as no one knows”) contained images of urban Berlin created in the aesthetics of the New Vision (Querschnitt, April 1936). While working on a new photobook project on Hamburg harbour, several pictures from his “Hamburger Hafenbilder” (“Pictures of the Port of Hamburg”) were reproduced in Photo-Graphik in October 1938. It was to be his last reportage before emigrating to the United States in December 1938 (Köhn 2011).

    Tietgens was part of the network of the painter Eduard Bargheer and the photographer Herbert List, with the three men photographing one another and experimenting with the new abstract languages of photography that reflected the liberal avant-garde atmosphere of the 1920s and early 1930s in Germany and especially Hamburg and Berlin. With the Gestapo engaged in special commissions against homosexuals from the middle of 1936 at the latest, Tietgens, Bargheer and List were in danger of arrest and persecution, their lives at serious risk. While List first fled to Switzerland, then Italy and later Greece and Bargheer to Florence, Rolf Tietgens decided to emigrate to the U.S. at the end of December 1938 and arrived on 5 January 1939 in New York (Lorenz/Rosenkranz 2005).

    Quite soon after his arrival in New York a second article appeared in Photo-Graphik, in the January 1939 issue. “Photographische Gestaltung” (“Photographic Design”) was accompanied by an introductory text and six images by Tietgens. In the article the 27-year-old émigré photographer explained that the camera was for him not only a medium for capturing objective reality but also for giving expression to an idea living within him; an idea that had been awakened in him by an appearance in the outside world (Tietgens 1939a). For the visualisation of his subjective experiences, Tietgens also made use of technical means of design and photographic experiments, such as interventions in the darkroom, retouching, montage, etc. Thus, Rolf Tietgens's work contained surrealistic as well as experimental elements. Tietgens also worked in the urban space, photographing streets and city series. One of the sites he photographed was Hamburg harbour, shortly before his emigration, while creating his Der Hafen photobook, which was published in May 1939 by Ellerman publishing house in Hamburg (Tietgens 1939b). The photobook's 90 photographs show a New Vision aesthetic: close-ups, graphic sequences, unusual perspectives, with the focus on industrial objects. Unable to complete the book himself because of his departure from Germany, Tietgens commissioned Eduard Bargheer to do so on his behalf. The book was to be published in May, 1939, to mark the 100th anniversary of the Port of Hamburg. It is not known how much Tietgens was aware of the positive reception of his photobook in New York. Today, it is sold for large sums of money in antiquarian bookshops.

    Over the following years, Rolf Tietgens tried to realise several projects for photobooks and made contact with his old friend and publisher J.J. Augustin, who published the work in exile of several other émigré photographers, such as Horst P. Horst, George Hoyningen-Huene and Alexey Brodovitch. The details are not known, but none of Tietgens's projects were ever realised. One of these unfulfilled projects was a photo series on a firework display at the New York World’s Fair in 1939, which Tietgens titled "Dream of the Underworld". Tietgens had more success when it came to commissioned photographs and his images and articles on photographic theory were published in such magazines as U.S. Camera, Popular Photography and Minicam. In 1939, soon after his arrival in New York, he contributed photographs to the World’s Fair special issue of U.S. Camera and, in June 1939, his essay “Never tired of watching everything“ appeared alongside images he had taken in Germany (Tietgens 1939c; 1939d). Another essay for U.S. Camera was “Landscape Photography” (May 1942) and one of his images also appeared in the U.S. Camera annual of 1940 (Tietgens 1940; Tietgens 1942). As the World's Fair was an important cultural as well as political and economic event, other émigré photographers got commissions for the World's Fair or photographed the area on today's Flushing Meadows Park. Among them who were involved in commissions or made images of this event were Lilo Hess, Ruth Bernhard and Walter Sanders for Black Star photo agency, Carola Gregor, Andreas Feininger, Ernest Nash as well as many other émigré artists and intellectuals.

    For Minicam magazine, which addressed professional as well as amateur photographers, Rolf Tietgens contributed with images and text in “What is Surrealism?” (July 1939), “Capture the ‘Life’ of the Object” (January 1940) and “Behold the Dreamers” (April 1945) (Tietgens 1939d; Tietgens 1940; Tietgens 1945). In all three articles his photographic position as a detailed observer of his environment, which he captured in subjective and unusual perspectives, detailed images, and surrealistic and experimental views, is clear. His contribution to the field of artistic surrealistic as well as experimental photography was also represented in his participation in the Captured Light. Experimental Photography exhibition held at the Norlyst Gallery in 1944. Besides Tietgens, other photographers represented were Josef Breitenbach, Erwin Blumenfeld, György Kepes and Lázló Moholy-Nagy. The group show was one of the first to present experimental photography in a gallery setting. It was a follow-up to the first, highly successful, Captured Light exhibition held in January of the same year with contributions from émigré photographers Andreas Feininger, Erwin Blumenfeld and Rolf Tietgens. Popular Photography covered the two Norlyst Gallery exhibitions in two articles: “Captured Light – Exhibition of the Month”, in September 1944 and “Why photographers experiment”, in February 1945.

    Besides the Norlyst Gallery, Tietgens's work was also represented at the Image to Freedom photographic competition (and later on exhibition) held at the Museum of Modern Art in 1941. “The contest was experimental: photographers were challenged to interpret the abstract ideal of freedom in concrete terms of photography. ‘What, to you, most deeply signifies America?’ they were asked, ‘Can you compress it into a few photographic images?’ Some photographers chose to represent freedom by portraying in landscape the vast natural resources of the country.” (B.N. 1941, 14) Tietgens was one of the prize-winners (Anonymous 1941, 8). Other émigré prize-winners were the German born photographer Ruth Bernhard and the Russian born photographer Alexander Alland. Tietgens probably also took part in several other photographic exhibitions, like for example the ones held at Princeton Library in February/March 1939 and at the New School for Social Research in 1940, as well as the exhibition Photographing New York City at the Photo League Gallery in 1939, but unfortunately no more details are available (Köhn 2011, 280). In 1948 Rolt Tietgens was involved in the book project On My Way. Poetry and Essays 1912–1947 (Wittenborn Schulz, 1948) by the French artist Hans Arp, providing images of Arp's sculptures. Although Hans Arp did not emigrate to New York, he had several sojourns in the city during the 1940s and was in contact with the émigré dada and surrealistic scenes as well as with other American artists. His work was also represented in an exhibition held in 1949 at The Buchholz Gallery – Curt Valentin, an exile gallery located at 32 East 57th Street in Manhattan (Robertson 2019, 124).

    Little information is available about where Rolf Tietgens lived in New York. His naturalisation papers state that in June 1939 he was living at 58 Barow Street in Greenwich Village and in 1942 in Midtown Manhattan at 29 West 58th Street, in the direct vicinity of the Norlyst Gallery, the Weyhe Gallery and Julien Levy Gallery. Other émigrés photographers, such as Ylla, Josef Breitenbach, Erwin Blumenfeld and Trude Fleischmann also lived nearby. Another address for Rolf Tietgens can be found on the back of a photograph of the Keith de Lellis Gallery. It is at 173 East 73rd Street in Yorkville, but it is not clear when Tietgens lived there. Yorkville was a borough where many German émigrés lived and where German cafés, restaurants and bars and a complete German infrastructure were to be found. Émigré photographers Charles Rado of the Rapho-Guillumette photo agency and Charles Leirens lived in this quarter. Andreas Feininger produced a photo series on Yorkville during the 1940s. It can be assumed that during the time Rolf Tietgens lived in Greenwich Village he was also in contact with the poet and writer Patricia Highsmith; a private photo series of the 21-year-old Highsmith, shot in 1942, can be found in the writer's archives in Bern. What kind of relationship the two had has been speculated on with great interest by Highsmith's biographers. Through Patricia Highsmith Tietgens became part of an open-minded gender fluid circle of other artists and photographers that included the German émigré Ruth Bernhard. Very little is currently known about these networks or about the lives of émigré lesbian and homosexual photographers and artists, where they met and whether they were also in contact with other émigré photographers like Rudy Burckhardt, who was a friend of the German born photographer Ellen Auerbach. Greenwich Village, at the end of the 1930s and 1940s, was an artistic and intellectual hub, where émigré photographers Lisette Model, Werner Wolff, Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy and André Kertész, the painter George Grosz and the American photographer Berniece Abbot all lived. Valeska Gert’s Beggar Bar and the exile publishing house Pantheon Books were also located in Greenwich Village. In 1942 Rolf Tietgens also spent some time in Santa Fé, probably on a commission for a photo series or on a private trip. Since the Presidential Proclamation of 1941 (Proclamation 2525 of 7, December 1941), emigrated photographers who did not hold American citizenship were classified as ‘enemy aliens’. They were not allowed to take photographs in public urban spaces for fear that the images “might reveal information about United States defenses“ (Schenderlein 2017, 109). Through articles in several newspapers it is known that in January 1942 Rolf Tietgens was arrested in Santa Fé as an ‘enemy alien’ and interned for several months in El Paso (Anonymous 1942, 1; United Press 1942, 4). During the mid-1940s Rolf Tietgens lived in a house on Long Island which was either his principal or his second home.

    After the end of World War II, Rolf Tietgens was able to reestablish contact with his friends in Europe. In a letter to Eduard Bargheer and Paul Sacher he describes his situation as an émigré and photographer in New York, expressing disappointment at the lack of demand by publishers for artistic photobooks and for the fact that he was obliged to work as a commercial photographer. In 1952, he created the photo series  Times Square, which he planned to publish as a photobook. But the plan could only be realized posthumously by the gallery owner and executor of the estate Keith de Lellis, who published the photobook of photographs. During his lifetime, however, Tietgens was able to publish some of the photographs on a 15-page series in Coronet magazine (Tietgens 1954). The photobook contains more than 50 images, captured during private encounters in the square. Times Square was a centre of entertainment for New Yorkers and Tietgens captures the flavour of its nightlife in kaleidoscopic images. Between the garish neon lights and billboards, the camera focuses less on individuals and more on the anonymity of the crowd of which Tietgens finds himself a part. Tietgens also plays with the experimental and surrealistic aspects of the urban environment, with window reflections, the intense illumination, cropped-out details and the blurred effect of long exposures. Streets in New York are frequently very long and their nature can dramatically change from one end to the other, providing a fascinating visual encounter for a photographer. This was the case also for Fred Stein, who created his photobook 5th Avenue in 1947, and similarly for Fritz Henle, who created a series on 53rd Street.
    Also in 1952, Rolf Tietgens contributed two images to Andreas Feininger’s book Advanced Photography, Methods and Conclusions (Prentice-Hall, 1952), in which he was cited as a pioneer of experimental photography (Feininger 1952, 184). The newspaper announcements for Feininger’s book were accompanied by an image by Tietgens (Desfor 1952, 19). The image is of a woman applying make-up and is comprised of a face and a pair of hands. It was described thus: Tietgens “combines trough double-printing, a face in positive with a pair of hands in negative and produces a startlingly three-dimensional and realistic effect. Because of their semi-transparent rendition, the hands actually seem to move back and forth, making up the lovely face. By rendering the hands in the dark form of the negative, Tietgens symbolizes nearness and introduces an element of darkness which, in contrast to the whiteness of the face, creates that startling impression of depth” (Feininger 1952, 192). Other émigré New York photographers and colleagues of the German emigrant Andreas Feininger represented in the book, were Erwin Blumenfeld, Fritz Goro (the husband of the photographer Carola Gregor) and Fritz Henle.

    Today, images by Rolf Tietgens are part of the photograph collection at the Museum of Modern Art and the Keith de Lellis Gallery in New York.

    Word Count: 2425

  • Media:
    Der Hafen by Rolf Tietgens, Ehrmann Verlag, 1936.
    Rolf Tietgens. “What is Surrealism?” Minicam, July 1939, pp. 30–31 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Photo by Rolf Tietgens of Streamliners at the World’s Fair published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 45 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Photo by Rolf Tietgens of the Communication Mall at the World’s Fair 1939 published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 38 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Rolf Tietgens. “Capture the ‘Life’ of the object.” Minicam, January 1940, pp. 46–47 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Rolf Tietgens. “Capture the ‘Life’ of the object.” Minicam, January 1940, pp. 48–49 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Felix Kraus. "Why Photographers experiment." Popular Photography, February 1945, pp. 28–29 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Hans Arp. Human Concretion, 1935, limestone 73 x 49,5 x 45 cm, photograph by Rolf Tietgens and reproduced in Arp: On My Way. Poetry and Essays 1912–1947, edited by Robert Motherwell, Wittenborn, Schulz, 1948, pp. 130–131 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Published photo by Rolf Tietgens (Feininger 1952, 116–117).
    Times Square. U.S.A. (1952) photobook by Rolf Tietgens, Keith de Lellis Gallery, 1992 (Photo: Helene Roth).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Anonymous. “German Taken Into Custody.” The Daily Herald, 18 January 1942, p. 1.

    Anonymous. “City Photographer Wins Two Prizes in New York Contest.” Albuquerque Journal, 1 November 1941, p. 8.

    Anonymous. “Rolf Tietgens is dead at 73; German-Born Photographer.” The New York Times, 20 December 1984, p. 30. Accessed 1 March 2021.

    B. N. “Image of Freedom.” The Bulletin of the Museum of Modern Art, vol. 9, no. 2, November 1941, pp. 14–16. JSTOR. Accessed 25 February 2021.

    Desfor, Irving. “Camera News.” St. Cloud Times, 8 April 1952, p. 19.

    Feininger, Andreas. Advanced photography: Methods and Conclusions. Prentice-Hall, 1952.

    Gruber, Fritz Leo. “Rolf Tietgens. Advertising light assemblies. Photocomposition for Advertising.” Graphics, no. 40, 1952, pp. 158–161.

    Köhn, Eckardt. Rolf Tietgens – Poet mit der Kamera. Fotografien 1934–1964 (Die graue Reihe, 57). Die Graue Edition, 2011.

    Kraus, Felix. "Why Photographers experiment." Popular Photography, February 1945, pp. 27–29.

    Lorenz, Gottfried, and Bernhard Rosenkranz. Hamburg auf anderen Wegen. Die Geschichte des schwulen Lebens in der Hansestadt. Lambda, 2005.

    New York. Capital of Photography, edited by Max Kozloff, exh. cat. The Jewish Museum, New York, 2002.

    United Press. “Photographer Tietgens Seized as Enemy Alien.” The Pittsburgh Press, 18 January, 1942, p. 4.

    Robertson, Eric. “Dreams and Projects. Hans Arp and Curt Valentin in New York.” Hans Arp and the United States (Schriftenreihe der Stiftung Arp e.V., vol. 1), edited by Maike Steinkamp and Loretta Würtenberger, Stiftung Hans Arp und Sophie Taeuber-Arp e.V., 2019, pp. 124–141. Accessed 15 March 2021.

    Schenderlein, Anne. “German Jewish ‘Enemy Aliens’ in the United States during the Second World War.” Bulletin of the German Historical Institute, vol. 60, Spring 2017, pp. 101–116. perspectiva.net. Accessed 15 March 2021.

    Special Libraries Associations. Pictures Sources. Special Libraries Associations, 1964.

    This was the Photo League. Compassion and the Camera from the Depression to the Cold War, edited by Anne Tucker et al., exh. cat. Stephen Daiter Gallery, Chicago, 2001.

    Tietgens, Rolf. Die Regentrommel. Der Graue Verlag, 1935.

    Tietgens, Rolf. “Über photographische Gestaltung.” Photo-Graphik, January 1939, pp. 7–13.

    Tietgens, Rolf. Der Hafen. Ellerman, 1939.

    Tietgens, Rolf. “Never Get Tired of Watching Everything.” U.S. Camera, June 1939, pp. 14–19.

    Tietgens, Rolf. “What is Surrealism?” Minicam, July 1939, pp. 30–37.

    Tietgens, Rolf. “Capture the ‘Life’ of the object.” Minicam, January 1940, pp. 46–49.

    Tietgens, Rolf. “Photography Beyond Reason. A defence to the mystic, surrealistic, and the abstract; so-called unreasonable photography.” U.S. Camera, February–March 1940, pp. 48–51; 61.

    Tietgens, Rolf. “Landscape Photography.” U.S. Camera, May 1942, pp. 44–45; 68.

    Tietgens, Rolf. “Indians.” Popular Photography, March 1944, pp. 34–35; 82.

    Tietgens, Rolf. “Behold the Dreamers.” Minicam, April 1945, pp. 68–71; 96–97.

    Tietgens, Rolf. „Times Square U.S.A.“ Coronet, no. 36, vol. 3, 1954, pp. 45–60.

    Tietgens, Rolf. Times Square (1952). Keith de Lellis Gallery, 1992.

    Wickenheiser, Swantje. Die Reimann-Schule in Berlin und London 1902–1943: Ein jüdisches Unternehmen zur Kunst- und Designausbildung internationaler Prägung bis zur Vernichtung durch das Hitlerregime. Shaker Media, 2009.

    “Wo man Bücher verbrennt …”. Verbrannte Bücher, verbrannte und ermordete Autoren Hamburgs, edited by Uwe Franzen and Wilfried Weinke, exh. cat. Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg, Hamburg, 2017.

    Word Count: 445

  • Archives and Sources:

    Word Count: 22

  • Acknowledgements:

    My deepest thanks go to Keith de Lellis as well as to the Swiss Literary Archive in Bern for providing me with information and photographs by Rolf Tietgens.

    Word Count: 28

  • Author:
    Helene Roth
  • Exile:

    New York, US (1939–1984).

  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    124 West 12th Street, Greenwich Village, New York (residence, 01.1939–03.1939); 58 Barrow Street, Greenwich Village, Manhattan, New York City (03.1939–1942/1945?); 29 West 58th Street, Midtown Manhattan, New York City (1942/45–1958); 173 East 73rd Street, Yorkville, New York City (1958–1963); 156 Prince Street, Soho, New York City (residence, 1963–1967); 2 King Street, Soho, New York City (1967–1984).

  • Metropolis:
    New York
  • Helene Roth. "Rolf Tietgens." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/2948/object/5138-9604475, last modified: 01-02-2022.
  • Walter Sanders
    Photographer

    Walter Sanders was a German émigré photographer. In 1938 he arrived in New York, where he worked from 1939 until the end of his life for the Black Star agency and, from 1944, for Life magazine.

    Word Count: 33

    Portrait of Walter Sanders, Cuba, Havana, 1938 (Estate Walter Sanders).
    Walt Sanders and Alfred Kornfeld, son of Black Star cofounder Kurt Kornfeld. Sheldrake Lake, New Rochelle, NY, November 1939 (© Heirs of Kurt Kornfeld).First cover by Walter Sanders for Life, 26 June 1939 (Estate Walter Sanders).Letterhead with name Walter Suessmann, a reference to Echo and an address (Estate Walter Sanders).Photo of the Aquacade swim show by Walter Sanders for Black Star, reproduced in Life, 3 July 1939, p. 60 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Life goes to The Futurama.” Image of the General Motors Show by Walter Sanders in Life, 5 June 1939, p. 79 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Life visits Statue of Liberty.” Images by Walter Sanders published in Life, 2 June 1941, pp. 94–95 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Por las entrañas de una estatua.”. Images by Walter Sanders, MUNDO Argentino, June 1941 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“The Road Back to Berlin.” Images and text by Walter Sanders in Life, 10 November 1946, p. 29 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).Americans in Heidelberg, Life cover, Image by Walter Sanders, Life, 21 July 1947 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Andreas Feininger
    PhotographerWriterEditor

    Andreas Feininger, was a German émigré photographer who arrived in New York with his wife Wysse Feininger in 1939. He started a lifelong career exploring the city's streets, working as a photojournalist and writing a large number of photography manuals.

    Word Count: 39

    Portrait of Andreas Feininger by Fritz Henle, 1940/41, cropped detail (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).
    Portrait of Andreas Feininger by Fritz Henle, 1940/41 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Andreas Feininger, 1, Stockholm, 1937 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Andreas Feininger, Close Up Equipment, 365 West 20 St. New York, 1940 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Andreas Feininger, “An Amateur’s Wartime Darkroom.” U.S. Camera, April 1942, pp. 28–29 (Photo: Helene Roth).Scrapbook of Andreas Feininger with photographic essay “New York. A big spectacle in big pictures.” Life, 14 April 1941, pp. 86–87 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Scrapbook of Andreas Feininger with article and photographs by him. “Experimenting with Lights at Night.” Popular Photography, February 1947, pp. 44–45 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).“Feininger’s Workshop - photo facts in pictures. Unsharpness and its cause.” Popular Photography, May 1949, pp.54–55 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Ruth Bernhard
    Photographer

    Ruth Bernhard was a German émigré photographer who lived in New York from the 1920s to the 1940s. Beside her series on female nudes, her place in the photography network, as well as in the New York queer scene, is unknown and understudied.

    Word Count: 43

    Lotte Jacobi, Ruth Bernhard, 1945, New York (© 2021. University of New Hampshire).
    Scrapbook and published work by Ruth Bernhard (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Lifesavers by Ruth Bernhard, published in Advertisment Arts, January 1931 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Still Life of dolls for Macy’s by Ruth Bernhard, published in Graphic Arts, 1931 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Ruth Bernhard, Eighth Street Movie Theater, Frederick Kiesler-Architect, New York, 1946 (Diversity Corner is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0).Exhibition flyer for Ruth Bernhard Photographs, PM Gallery, 1938 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Description of Ruth Bernhard Photographs exhibition, by Kurt Safranski, PM Gallery, 1938 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).
    New York
    Lisette Model
    Photographer

    Lisette Model was an Austrian-born photographer who lived in New York with her husband Evsa Model after emigrating from France. Her street photographs capturing the curiosities of everyday life quickly caught the interest of museums and magazines.

    Word Count: 37

    Hermann Landshoff, Die Fotografin Lisette Model, New York 1948 (© bpk / Münchner Stadtmuseum, Sammlung Fotografie / Archiv Landshoff).
    Lisette Model at New School by Joe Covello, 1960s, New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection, NS.04.01.01:16 (© The New School Archives and Special Collection, The New School, New York, NY).Announcement of "The Small Camera In Photography Today" course by Lisette Model. New School Bulletin. Art Classes, vol. 9, no. 2, September 1951, front cover and p. 34 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Lisette Model's naturalisation papers. New York, Southern District, U.S District Court Naturalization Records, 1824–1946. Petitions for naturalization and petition evidence 1944 box 942, no 490001-490300 > image 702 of 1406; citing NARA microfilm publication M1972 (Family Research. © Southern District of New York Petitions for Naturalization, 1897–1944. Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685–2009, RG 21. National Archives at New York).Page with photos of the apartments at 55 Grove Street and 137 7th Avenue, published in Le Pommeré, 2010, pp. 58–59 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Ernest Nash
    PhotographerArchaeologistLawyer

    Ernest Nash was a German born photographer, who pursued his photographic as well as an archeologic interest in Roman architecture after his emigration to New York in 1939. Besides this research interest, he also worked as a portrait photographer and publisher.

    Word Count: 40

    Portrait of Ernest Nash, Neapel, 3/4 march 1939 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).
    Announcement of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash (J.J. Augustin, 1944).Announcement of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash (J.J. Augustin, 1944).First page of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash, J.J. Augustin, 1944 (Photo: Helene Roth).Page of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash, J.J. Augustin, 1944. Left side: New York, Columbia University. Right side: Rome, Pantheon (Photo: Helene Roth).Page of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash, J.J. Augustin, 1944. Left side: New York, U.S. Sub-Treasury Building. Right side: Paestum, Temple of Neptune (Photo: Helene Roth).Ernest Nash, New York, Washington Square, 1939 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, New York, United States Subtreasury Building, 1939 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, Burns Bros on the East River, New York, 1939 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, Portrait of Béla Bartók, New York, between late 1940 and 1945 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, Portrait of Ditta Bartók-Pásztory, New York, between late 1940 and 1945 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, New York World’s Fair 1939, Perisphere (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, New York, World’s Fair 1939, Constitution Mall, Trylon and Perisphere (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Information by J.J. Augustin about the new release of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash (J.J. Augustin, 1944).
    New York
    Ruth Jacobi
    Photographer

    Ruth Jacobi was a German-speaking, Polish-born photographer who emigrated in 1935 to New York, where she opened a studio together with her sister Lotte Jacobi. She later had her own portrait studio.

    Word Count: 31

    Lotte Jacobi, Ruth Jacobi mit Brille, c. 1935, New York (© 2021. University of New Hampshire).
    Lotte Jacobi, Ruth Jacobi, c. 1935, New York (© 2021. University of New Hampshire).A Study in Doll Heads by Ruth Jacobi-Roth published in "Salon Section. Four Of A Kind." Popular Photography, December 1937, p. 48 (Photo: Helene Roth).Sisters by Ruth Jacobi-Roth for the "Salon Section. Twins." Popular Photography, February 1938, pp. 46–47 (Photo: Helene Roth).Ruth Jacobi-Roth, Grapes, published in the “Picture of the Months” section of Popular Photography, March 1938, p. 42 (Photo: Helene Roth).Ruth Jacobi-Roth, Doll, published in "Salon Section." Popular Photography, March 1938, p. 53 (Photo: Helene Roth).Montage of three pelicans by Ruth Jacobi-Roth published in "Salon Section 1-2-3." Popular Photography, March 1939, p. 47 (Photo: Helene Roth).Head by Ruth Jacobi-Roth published in Maloney 1940, p. 138 (Photo: Helene Roth).Hafen-Romantik und Wolkenkratzer (image by Jacobi, Berlin) and Schönheit der Wolkenkratzer (image by E.O. Hoppé, Mauritius) in New York, published in Leitich 1932, pp. 14–15 (Archive Helene Roth).Das arme New York (image by Jacobi, Berlin); Trödelladen im Italienerviertel (image by Scherl) New York, published in Leitich 1932, pp. 56–57 (Archive Helene Roth).Medical Center, die größte Klinik der Welt (am oberen Hudson) (image by Presse-Photo, Berlin); Tausendäugige Häuserfront (image by Jacobi, Berlin), New York, published in Leitich 1932, pp. 48–49 (Archive Helene Roth).Ruhepause bei den Grabsteinen der Trinity Church (image by Scherl); Auch ein Platz für Mittagsruhe (image by Jacobi, Berlin); Orangedrink nach heißer Bahnhfahrt (image by Ewing Galloway, N.Y); Ein Fünfcentstück öffnet die Drehtür zur Untergrundbahn (image by Ewing Galloway, N.Y), published in Leitich 1932, pp. 16–17 (Archive Helene Roth).
    New York
    Fritz Henle
    Photographer

    Fritz Henle was a German Jewish photographer who emigrated in 1936 to New York, where he worked as a photojournalist for various magazines. He also published several photobooks of his travels throughout North America and Asia.

    Word Count: 35

    Portrait of Fritz Henle by Herbert Matter, New York, 1937 (© Estate Fritz Henle).
    Fritz Henle, New York at Night, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).Fritz Henle, New York Reflections, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).Fritz Henle, The L Train on Wall Street, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).Fritz Henle, Brooklyn Bridge and Baby Carriage, New York, 1936's-1950 (© 2021.Fritz Henle Estate)Fritz Henle, New York Skaters from the RCA Building, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).Fritz Henle, New York Art Critic at Washington Square, New York, 1936–1950s' (© 2021. Fritz Henle Estate).“The American Legion takes New York City.” Life, 4 October 1937, pp. 24f.Photographs by Fritz Henle for the reportage “Memo to: Walter Wander, Subject: 52nd Street.” Life, 29 November 1937, pp. 64–67 (Photo: Helene Roth).Cover of Paris photobook by Fritz Henle (Ziff Davis, 1947).“Men who love Paris. Fritz Henle and Elliot Paul combine pictures and text in a handsome book about their favorite city.” Popular Photography, January 1947, pp. 60–61.Norris Harkness. "Simplicity. Fritz Henle’s fashion shots prove that the easy way is often the most effective." Popular Photography, August 1944, pp. 36–37.Victor Kepler. “There’s adventure in night photography.” Popular Photography, August 1942, pp. 28–29.Cover of Fritz Henle’s rollei (Hastings House, 1950).Cover photo by Fritz Henle, Life, 30 July 1939.
    New York
    Ruth Staudinger
    PhotographerCinematographerArt dealer

    Very few and only fragmentary details can be found on the German émigré photographer Ruth Staudinger, who emigrated in the mid-1930s to New York City. Her nomadic life was also characterisedd by several changes of name along the way.

    Word Count: 40

    Hassoldt Davis (?), Ruth Staudinger Davis holds the mummified head of an executed Indochines (Davis, 1952, 22).
    Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, Going on duty, 1939 (Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Photographs and Prints Division, The New York Public Library Digital Collections).Page with collected addresses of colleagues at the New School for Social Research in New York by Josef Breitenbach (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, New York Bedtime, published in U.S. Camera 1940, p. 129 (Photo: Helene Roth).Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, More Fun Than Circus, published in U.S. Camera 1940, p. 130 (Photo: Helene Roth).Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, Girls from telephone company taking exercises in American Woman’s Association Gym, published in U.S. Camera 1940, p. 178 (Photo: Helene Roth).“Wiltwyck – Why Harlme Boys Learn Manhood” article with images by Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy (Anonymous 1941, 18–19).Article on Ruth Staudinger and Hassoldt Davis (Desfor 1951, 33).Cover of The Jungle and the Damned (Davis, 1952) (Photo: Helene Roth).First page of The Jungle and the Damned (Davis 1952) (Photo: Helene Roth).First page of Scorcerer’s Village, published by Hassoldt Davis and Ruth Staudinger-Davis, Duell Sloan and Pearce, 1956 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Carola Gregor
    PhotographerSculptor

    The German émigré photographer Carola Gregor was an animal and child photographer and published some of her work in magazines and books. Today her work and life are almost forgotten.

    Word Count: 30

    Portrait of Carola Gregor (cutout of her papers of naturalisation).
    Petitions for naturalization from the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York of Carola Gregor (Naturalizations, box 1018-1020, cert. no. 513486-513958, 9-12 Apr 1945, Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685 - 2009, RG 21. National Archives at New York, familysearch.org).Homer- The Hydrophobic Duck by Carola Gregor published in U.S. Camera 1943, p. 63 (Photo: Helene Roth).Portrait of Fritz Goro by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 13 September 1937, p. 104 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photograph of Amazonian birds by Carola Gregor for the brochure Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939, pp. 11–12 (Photo: Helene Roth).Mending Nets by Carola Gregor, published in Popular Photography, October 1942, p. 40 (Photo: Helene Roth).A gleaming spider by Carola Gregor, published in Popular Photography, August 1948, pp. 81–82 (Photo: Helene Roth).Reportage “Liger. A lion and a tigress produce a new kind of zoo baby” with images by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 20 September 1948, p. 109 (Photo: Helene Roth).Reportage “Liger. A lion and a tigress produce a new kind of zoo baby” with images by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 20 September 1948, pp. 111–112 (Photo: Helene Roth).War Manpower Commission. Farm labor poster distributed to Department of Agriculture. Photograph by Carola Gregor (Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives).
    New York
    Rudy Burckhardt
    PhotographerFilmmakerPainter

    Rudy Burckhardt was a Swiss-born photographer, filmmaker and painter who emigrated from Basle to New York City in 1935. He was well networked within the emerging Abstract Expressionist art scene of 1940s' and 50s'.

    Word Count: 33

    Rudy Burckhardt, Selftportrait, New York 1937 (© VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).
    Announcement for an exhibition by Rudy Burkhardt at the Photo League Gallery in Brooklyn Eagle, 30 September 1948, p. 18.Jaqueline Judge. “Rudi Burckhardt … photographer of everyday life.” Popular Photography, January 1949, pp. 52–53 (Photo: Helene Roth).Rudy Burckhardt, Portrait of the painter Willem de Kooning, New York 1937/38 (© VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).Rudy Burckhardt, Building Front Detail with Acanthus Molding in Doorway, New York City, 1938 (© VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).
    New York
    Trude Fleischmann
    Photographer

    Trude Fleischmann was an Austrian-Jewish portrait and dance photographer who emigrated in 1939 to New York, where she opened a studio in Midtown Manhattan with the photographer Frank Elmer.

    Word Count: 28

    Portrait of Trude Fleischmann by Annie Schulz published in Die Bühne, vol. 265, January 1931, p. 15 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Declaration of intention of Trude Fleischmann, April 1939. New York, Southern District, U.S District Court Naturalization Records, 1824–1946, Petitions for naturalization and petition evidence 1944 box 927, no 485551-485750 (© Southern District of New York Petitions for Naturalization, 1897-1944. Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685–2009, RG 21. National Archives at New York).Trude Fleischmann, Adriadic Wash Line, before 1939 published in U.S. Camera 1940, p. 131 (Photo: Helene Roth).Trude Fleischmann, Arthur Toscanini und Robert Haas, 1946, New York (© Wien Museum / Foto Birgit und Peter Kainz).Trude Fleischmann, Robert Haas bei der Arbeit in New York City, 1940s/1950s (© Wien Museum / Foto Birgit und Peter Kainz).Trude Fleischmann, Group portrait behind the scene of “Players from Abroad”, New York, 1947/48 (© Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933-1945, Frankfurt am Main).Announcement of an exhibition by Trude Fleischmann at the New School for Social Research published in New School Bulletin, no. 13, 13 April 1943 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-03-01-02. The New School Archives).Trude Fleischmann, Portrait of Gert von Gontard, Elisabeth Bergner and Felix Gerstmann for the performance Iphigenie auf Tauris,New York, 1947/48 (© Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933-1945, Frankfurt am Main).
    New York
    Henry Rox
    PhotographerSculptor

    Henry Rox was a German émigré sculptor and photographer who, in 1938, arrived in New York with his wife, the journalist and art historian Lotte Rox (née Charlotte Fleck), after an initial exile in London. Besides his work as a sculptor, he began creating humorous anthropomorphised fruit and vegetable photographs.

    Word Count: 50

    Portrait of Henry Rox published in Life, June 1941, pp. 11 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Cover of Banana Circus by Henry Rox and Margaret Fisher (G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1940).Inside view of Banana fakir Bim in Banana Circus by Henry Rox and Margaret Fisher (G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1940).Inside view of strong Banana man Tim in Banana Circus by Henry Rox and Margaret Fisher (G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1940).Henry Rox fruit and vegetable photo models published in "Speaking of Pictures ... These Are Table-Top Photographs.“ Life, 18. November 1940, pp. 12–13 (Photo: Helene Roth).“Speaking of Pictures … Fruit Figures Make A New Kind Of Cartoon Strip.” Life, June 1941, pp. 10–11 (Photo: Helene Roth).“Sculpture you could eat.” Detroit Free Press, 17 December 1944, pp. 18–19 (Photo: Helene Roth).“Sculpture you could eat.” Detroit Free Press, 17 December 1944, pp. 20–21 (Photo: Helene Roth).Cover photo by Henry Fox for Family Circle, February 1958 (Photo: Helene Roth).Postcard with fruit and vegetable sculpture by Henry Rox. Rox Karte Serie 158/3 (Archive Helene Roth).Postcard with fruit and vegetable sculpture by Henry Rox. Rox Karte Serie 158/6 (Archive Helene Roth).Postcard with fruit sculpture by Henry Rox as advertisement of the vitatonin C drink (Archive Helene Roth).
    New York
    New York
    BookPhotobook

    In 1932, after her remigration to Vienna, the Austrian journalist Ann Tizia Leitich published New York, an account of her life and writing experiences started as an emigrant in New York in the 1920s.

    Word Count: 33

    Book cover of New York , edited by Ann Tizia Leitich, Velhagen & Klasing, 1932 (Archive Helene Roth).
    Ruhepause bei den Grabsteinen der Trinity Church (image by Scherl); Auch ein Platz für Mittagsruhe (image by Jacobi, Berlin); Orangedrink nach heißer Bahnhfahrt (image by Ewing Galloway, N.Y); Ein Fünfcentstück öffnet die Drehtür zur Untergrundbahn (image by Ewing Galloway, N.Y), published in Leitich 1932, pp. 16–17 (Archive Helene Roth).Medical Center, die größte Klinik der Welt (am oberen Hudson) (image by Presse-Photo, Berlin); Tausendäugige Häuserfront (image by Jacobi, Berlin), New York, published in Leitich 1932, pp. 48–49 (Archive Helene Roth).Hafen-Romantik und Wolkenkratzer (image by Jacobi, Berlin) and Schönheit der Wolkenkratzer (image by E.O. Hoppé, Mauritius) in New York, published in Leitich 1932, pp. 14–15 (Archive Helene Roth).Das arme New York (image by Jacobi, Berlin); Trödelladen im Italienerviertel (image by Scherl) New York, published in Leitich 1932, pp. 56–57 (Archive Helene Roth).Dachgarten; Sitzplatz; Terrassengarten (images by Richard Averill Smith, New York), New York, published in Leitich 1932, pp. 38–39 (Archive Helene Roth).
    New York
    Chinatown U.S.A.
    Photobook

    Chinatown U.S.A. is a photobook published by the German émigré photographer Elizabeth Coleman in 1946 focusing on American-Chinese communities in New York and San Francisco.

    Word Count: 26

    Cover of Chinatown U.S.A., by Elizabeth Coleman (The John Day Company, 1946).
    Front page of Chinatown U.S.A, edited by Elizabeth Coleman, The John Day Company, 1946 (Archive Helene Roth)."Learning to read and write English in Public school ... and Chinese in Chinese school." Chinatown U.S.A., by Elizabeth Coleman (The John Day Company, 1946).Last page of Chinatown U.S.A., by Elizabeth Coleman (The John Day Company, 1946).Review of Chinatown U.S.A. in The Pittsburg Press, 25 August 1946, p. 46.Review of Chinatown U.S.A in Popular Photography, October 1946, p. 184.
    New York
    5th Avenue
    Photobook

    5th Avenue was the first photobook by Fred Stein and was created in 1947 with the publishing house Pantheon Books.

    Word Count: 19

    Cover of 5th Avenue photobook (Pantheon Books, 1947) by Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).
    First page of 5th Avenue (Pantheon Books, 1947) by Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).Page of 5th Avenue (Pantheon, 1947) by Fred Stein.Last page of 5th Avenue (Pantheon Books, 1947) by Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).Cover of the French edition 5th Avenue (Querido, 1947) by Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).Mixed articles and reviews on 5th Avenue photobook form Fred Stein's scrapbook (© Fred Stein Archive).Page from Fred Stein’s scrapbook showing Pantheon Books Catalogue (Fall 1946, Spring 1947), which includes 5th Avenue (© Fred Stein Archive).Portrait of Fritz H. Landshoff (of Querido Publishing House) by Fred Stein, 1944 (© Fred Stein Archive).Portrait of Kurt Wolff (of publishing house Pantheon Books) by Fred Stein, 1959 (© Fred Stein Archive).
    New York
    New York World's Fair postcard View of the Constitution Mall looking toward statue of George Washington and Trylon and Perisphere
    Postcard

    Shortly after the arrival in New York in 1939, photographs by the German émigré Ernest Nash were used and reproduced for postcards of the New York’s World’s Fair.

    Word Count: 29

    New York World's Fair postcard View of the Constitution Mall looking toward statue of George Washington and Trylon and Perisphere, photograph by Ernest Nash, East and West Publishing Company, 1939 (Private Archive Helene Roth).
    Backside of New York World's Fair postcard View of the Constitution Mall looking toward statue of George Washington and Trylon and Perisphere, photograph by Ernest Nash, East and West Publishing Company, 1939 (Private Archive Helene Roth).Ernest Nash, New York World’s Fair 1939, Perisphere (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, New York, World’s Fair 1939, Constitution Mall, Trylon and Perisphere (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Photo by Rolf Tietgens of Streamliners at the World’s Fair published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 45 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photo by Rolf Tietgens of the Communication Mall at the World’s Fair 1939 published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 38 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photo of the Aquacade swim show by Walter Sanders for Black Star, reproduced in Life, 3 July 1939, p. 60 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Life goes to The Futurama.” Image of the General Motors Show by Walter Sanders in Life, 5 June 1939, p. 79 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).Photograph of Amazonian birds by Carola Gregor for the brochure Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939, p. 13 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photograph of Amazonian birds by Carola Gregor for the brochure Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939, pp. 11–12 (Photo: Helene Roth).Demolition of the World’s Fair by Ruth Bernhard. Reprint of the reportage “Where the World of Tomorrow Is But the Ghost of Yesterday.” The Highway Traveler, vol. 13, no. 2, April-May 1941, pp. 14–15 (© Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Today’s area of the World’s Fair, Flushing Meadows-Corona Park with the Unisphere (where the Trylon and Perisphere stood) (Photo: Helene Roth, 2019).
    New York
    Pantheon Books
    Publishing House

    Pantheon Books was a publishing house founded in 1942 by the German émigré Kurt Wolff (1887–1963) and aimed at the exiled European community in New York.

    Word Count: 24

    Pantheon Books sign (© Fred Stein Archive).
    Cover of 5th Avenue photobook (Pantheon Books, 1947) by Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).First page of 5th Avenue (Pantheon Books, 1947) by Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).Page of 5th Avenue (Pantheon, 1947) by Fred Stein.Last page of 5th Avenue (Pantheon Books, 1947) by Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).Page from Fred Stein’s scrapbook showing Pantheon Books Catalogue (Fall 1946, Spring 1947), which includes 5th Avenue (© Fred Stein Archive).Announcement by Pantheon Books from Fred Stein’s scrapbook (© Fred Stein Archive).Mixed articles and reviews on 5th Avenue photobook form Fred Stein's scrapbook (© Fred Stein Archive).Portrait of Kurt Wolff (of publishing house Pantheon Books) by Fred Stein, 1959 (© Fred Stein Archive).Cover of the French edition 5th Avenue (Querido, 1947) by Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).
    New York
    New School for Social Research
    Academy/Art SchoolPhoto SchoolUniversity / Higher Education Institute / Research Institute

    During the 1940s and 1950s emigrated graphic designers and photographers, along with artists and intellectuals, were given the opportunity to held lectures and workshops at the New School for Social Research.

    Word Count: 31

    Werner Wolff, K.S. Safranski’s Class in Pictorial Journalism, 1950 (New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection © Steven Wolff).
    Announcement of "Art Applied to Graphic Journalism, Advertising, Design, Fashion" course by Alexey Brodovitch, published in New School Bulletin. Art Classes, 1942/43, p. 11 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Announcement of "Pictorial Journalism" course by Kurt Safranski in New School Bulletin, vol. 2, no. 9, 1944, p. 84 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Announcement of "The Small Camera In Photography Today" course by Lisette Model. New School Bulletin. Art Classes, vol. 9, no. 2, September 1951, front cover and p. 34 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Lisette Model at New School by Joe Covello, 1960s, New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection, NS.04.01.01:16 (© The New School Archives and Special Collection, The New School, New York, NY).Portrait Alvin Saunders Johnson by Fred Stein, New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection (© Fred Stein Archive).Flyer of “New Architecture and City Planning” symposium by Paul Zucker (© The New School Archives and Special Collection, The New School, New York, NY).
    New York
    Norlyst Gallery
    GalleryArt Gallery

    Founded in 1943 by the American painter and art collector Elenore Lust, the Norlyst Gallery represented a cross section of contemporary painting, photography and other media focusing on surrealist and abstract expressionist styles and promoting women artists and photographers.

    Word Count: 38

    Flyer for the Captured Light exhibition (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:29).
    Announcement for the Captured Light exhibition (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:29).Flyer for Lotte Jacobi’s exhibition at the Norlyst Gallery, 1948 (© 2020. University of New Hampshire).Willi Wolfradt. "Lichtbild-Schöpfungen." Aufbau, 15 October 1948, p. 19.
    New York
    Spiratone
    Photo Supplier

    Spiratone was a photo company and photo supplier founded in 1941 by the Austrian émigré family Hans (1888–1944) and Paula Spira (?–?) and their son Fred Spira (1924–2007).

    Word Count: 24

    Logo and address of Spiratone in Popular Photography, June 1947, p. 104.
    Advertisement in Minicam, vol. 5, no. 1, September 1941 p. 73; 84; 100Advertisement for Spiratone in Popular Photography, October 1949, p. 5.
    New York
    László Moholy-Nagy
    PhotographerGraphic DesignerPainterSculptor

    László Moholy-Nagy emigrated to London in 1935, where he worked in close contact with the local avantgarde and was commissioned for window display decoration, photo books, advertising and film work.

    Word Count: 30

    László Moholy-Nagy, Cover of sales leaflet for Marcel Breuer’s Isokon Long Chair, 1937 (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).
    László Moholy-Nagy, Bill of Fare, farewell dinner menu for Walter Gropius, London, March 1937, front page (Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia, © László Moholy-Nagy).Mary Benedetta. The Street Markets of London. Photographs by László Moholy-Nagy. (reissued 1972). Benjamin Blom, 1972, “Petticoat Lane: The Spectacle Man” and “Petticoat Lane: In a side street. Some Arabian visitors at a second-hand clothes stall” (Photo: Private Archive, © The Moholy-Nagy Foundation).Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson, their triplets and Hattula Moholy-Nagy at 7 Farm Walk, the London home of László and Sibyl Moholy-Nagy, June 1936 (provided by The Moholy-Nagy Foundation).
    London
    Werner Wolff
    Photographer

    Werner Wolff was forced to leave Germany in 1936 due to his Jewish background and emigrated via Hamburg to New York, where he could follow his career as photographer and photojournalist.

    Word Count: 30

    Lotte Jacobi, Werner Wolff, 1943, New York (© 2021. University of New Hampshire).
    “Speaking of Pictures. Mrs. Roosevelt Takes Voice Lessons.” Life, 13 March 1939, pp. 6–9 (Photo: Helene Roth).Agreement between Black Star and Werner Wolff, 1947 (The Family of Werner Wolff © Ryerson Image Center).Camera Features stamp (The Family of Werner Wolff © Ryerson Image Center).Contact sheets for reportage on Empire State Building by Werner Wolff, 1946 (The Family of Werner Wolff © Ryerson Image Center).Rear side of contact sheets for reportage on Empire State Building by Werner Wolff, 1946 (The Family of Werner Wolff © Ryerson Image Center).Text for reportage on Empire State Building, written by Werner Wolff, 1946 (The Family of Werner Wolff © Ryerson Image Center).List of images and description for reportage on Empire State Building, written by Werner Wolff, 1946 (The Family of Werner Wolff © Ryerson Image Center).“Daredevil at Work” reportage by Werner Wolff in Popular Photography, September 1946, p. 39 (Photo: Helene Roth).Werner Wolff, K.S. Safranski’s Class in Pictorial Journalism, 1950 (New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection © Steven Wolff).
    New York
    Josef Breitenbach
    Photographer

    On arriving in New York in 1941, the German photographer Josef Breitenbach tried to restart as a portrait, street and experimental photographer, as well as a teacher of photo-history and techniques.

    Word Count: 30

    Fred Stein, Joseph Breitenbach, n.d. (© Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933-1945, Frankfurt am Main).
    Fred Stein, Backside portrait Joseph Breitenbach, n.d. (© Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933-1945, Frankfurt am Main).Attestation of Identity of Josef Breitenbach, Agen, September 1940 (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:5).Affidavit for Josef Breitenbach, April 1941 (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:12).Address book Josef Breitenbach, New York (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Page with collected addresses of photographers in New York by Josef Breitenbach (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Page with collected addresses of colleagues at the New School for Social Research in New York by Josef Breitenbach (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Application for use of photographic equipment by Josef Breitenbach, 1942 (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:12).Business card Josef Breitenbach (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Letter from Fortune Magazine, 1942 (© Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:4, Center for Creative Photography, The University of Arizona).
    New York
    Fred Stein
    PhotographerLawyer

    Always accompanied by his camera, the German émigré photographer Fred Stein discovered New York City during the 1940s and 1950s. His pictures provide an human and multifaceted view of the metropolis.

    Word Count: 31

    Fred Stein, Self-portrait, 1941 (© Fred Stein Archive).
    Fred Stein, El at Water Street, 1946 (© Fred Stein Archive).Portrait Alvin Saunders Johnson by Fred Stein, New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection (© Fred Stein Archive). Children Photographs exhibition by Fred Stein, April 1947 (© Fred Stein Archive).Affidavit in Lieu of Passport (© Fred Stein Archive).Fred Stein, Anette Kolb, New York, 1945 (© Fred Stein Archive).Fritz Neugass. “The saga of the S.S. Winnipeg.” Modern Photography, July 1951, pp. 72–73 (Photo: Helene Roth).Black Star contract by Fred Stein, April 1, 1944 (© Fred Stein Archive).New York 1949 calendar by Fred Stein, Lumen Publisher (© Fred Stein Archive).Mixed articles and reviews on 5th Avenue photobook form Fred Stein's scrapbook (© Fred Stein Archive).Portrait of Fritz H. Landshoff (of Querido Publishing House) by Fred Stein, 1944 (© Fred Stein Archive).Portrait of Kurt Wolff (of publishing house Pantheon Books) by Fred Stein, 1959 (© Fred Stein Archive).Announcement by Pantheon Books from Fred Stein’s scrapbook (© Fred Stein Archive).Rapho Guillumette agency letter to Fred Stein, 1944 (© Fred Stein Archive).Cover of 5th Avenue photobook (Pantheon Books, 1947) by Fred Stein (© Fred Stein Archive).
    New York
    Alexey Brodovitch
    PhotographerArt DirectorGraphic Designer

    Alexey Brodovitch was a Belarus-born émigré graphic artist, art director and photographer who, from 1933, worked in New York for Harper’s Bazaar magazine and at the New School for Social Research.

    Word Count: 31

    Hermann Landshoff, Der Grafikdesigner, Fotograf und Art Director Alexey Brodovitch in seiner Wohnung, 1942–45, New York (© bpk / Münchner Stadtmuseum, Sammlung Fotografie / Archiv Landshoff).
    Announcement of Alexey Brodovitch “Advertising Design” course at the Pennsylvanian Museum School for Industrial Art (The Philadelphia Inquirer, 24 September 1933, p. 30).Announcement of the Design Laboratory by Alexey Brodovitch at the New School of Social Research (© Clara Meyer Papers. Brodovitch, Alexey, 1949-1959, Box: 1, Folder: 35. The New School Archives).Announcement of "Art Applied to Graphic Journalism, Advertising, Design, Fashion" course by Alexey Brodovitch, published in New School Bulletin. Art Classes, 1942/43, p. 11 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Cover of Ballet by Alexey Brodovitch (J.J. Augustin, 1945).Design of a lamp by Alexey Brodovitch (St. Louis Post Dispatch, 25 March 1951, p. 103).
    New York
    Charles Leirens
    PhotographerMusicianMusicologist

    Charles Leirens was a Belgian-born musician and photographer who emigrated to New York in 1941. While publishing two books on Belgian music, he also gave courses in musicology and photography at the New School for Social Research.

    Word Count: 36

    Announcement for “Photography with the Miniature Camera” course by Charles Leirens. New School Bulletin. Art Classes 1951/1952, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 33 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).
    Fritz Neugass. “The saga of the S.S. Winnipeg.” Modern Photography, July 1951, pp. 72–73 (Photo: Helene Roth).Cover of photobook 20 Portraits d’artistes by Charles Leirens (Editions de la Connaissance, 1936).Announcement for the Photographic Portraits of Prominent Europeans by Charles Leirens exhibition at the Bignou Gallery, published in The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 10 October 1943, p. 16.Article on Photographic Portraits of Prominent Europeans by Charles Leirens exhibition at the Bignou Gallery, published in The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 17 October 1943, p. 32.Announcement for “Portraiture with the Miniature Camera” course by Charles Leirens.New School Bulletin. Art Classes 1947/1948, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 29 (© New School course catalog collection, NS-05-01-01. The New School Archives).Flyer for Morocco by Charles Leirens exhibition at the New School for Social Research from 27 January to 18 February, 1949 (© New School Publicity Office Records. The New School Archives and Special Collections).
    New York
    Ellen Auerbach
    Photographer

    When she arrived in New York in 1937, the German-born photographer Ellen Auerbach (formerly Rosenberg) had already passed through exile stations in Palestine and Great Britain.

    Word Count: 25

    Ellen Auerbach, Selbstportrait, cropped detail (Ellen Auerbach auf einer Liege sitzend, sich selbst im Spiegel fotografierend), New York 1950 (©Akademie der Künste, Berlin / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).
    Ellen Auerbach, Selbstportrait. (Ellen Auerbach auf einer Liege sitzend, sich selbst im Spiegel fotografierend), New York 1950 (©Akademie der Künste, Berlin / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2021).Cover of Life magazine, with image Two Years Old by Ellen Auerbach, Life, 28 November 1938 (Photo: Helene Roth).The dancer Renate Schottelius photographed by Ellen Auerbach ( "Ellen Auerbach - Robert Mann Gallery" by Erika_Herzog is licensed under CC BY 2.0).
    New York
    Lilo Hess
    Photographer

    The German émigré Lilo Hess was an animal photographer working for the Museum for Natural History and the Bronx Zoo, as well being a freelance photographer and publisher of children's books.

    Word Count: 31

    Portrait of Lilo Hess (Commire 1973, p. 112).
    Portrait of Lilo Hess – Life, 6 September 1943, p. 21 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photography by Lilo Hess – Fotografische Rundschau, vol. 72, 1935, p. 323 (Photo: Helene Roth).Book cover Odd Pets (Crowell, 1951).Front of the book Odd Pets (Crowell, 1951).Inside of the book Odd Pets (Crowell, 1951).Photo of drinking gibbons at the Bronx Zoo, photographed by Lilo Hess (Life, 13 December 1948, p. 126).
    New York
    Ylla
    Photographer

    Ylla was an Austrian-born photographer who emigrated to New York in 1941. Specialising in animal photography, she produced not only studio photographs, but also shot outside on urban locations in the metropolis.

    Word Count: 31

    "Speaking of Pictures … this is the work of the Bachrach of Dog Photography.”, images by Ylla and published in Life, 17 November 1947, pp. 18–19. (Photo: Helene Roth).“Babytime at the Zoo”, images by Ylla, Life,14 May 1944, p. 43. (Photo: Helene Roth).“Ylla’s cameras tells. A tale of two kittens ... .” Popular Photography, Dezember 1951, pp. 50–51 (Photo: Helene Roth).Profile photo of terrier by Ylla (Camilla Koffler), ca. 1938, published on the cover of U.S. Camera, October 1940 ( © Waverley123 (Pryor Dodge) at the English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons).Advertisement in The New Yorker (November 14, 1953, p. 184) for Ylla’s book Animal’s in Africa (Photo: Helene Roth).Published photograph by Ylla Back to Methusala, Regent's Park London for U.S. Camera. Annual 1943, edited by Tom Malloney, Radom House, 1943, p. 90.Fritz Neugass. “The saga of the S.S. Winnipeg.” Modern Photography, July 1951, pp. 72–73 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Black Star Agency
    Photo Agency

    The German émigrés Kurt S(z)afranski, Ern(e)st Mayer and Kurt Kornfeld founded Black Star in 1936. The photo agency established was a well-run networking institution in New York.

    Word Count: 31

    Letterhead of Black Star (Black Star Archive. Ryerson Image Center, Photo: Helene Roth).
    Logo and Stamp of Black Star Photo Agency (Photo: Helene Roth, 2019).Description of Black Star in a photographic guide (Ahlers, Arvel W.. Where & how to sell your pictures. Photography Publishing Corp., 1953, p. 45).Werner Wolff, K.S. Safranski’s Class in Pictorial Journalism, 1950 (New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection © Steven Wolff).Facade and entrance of the Graybar Building on Lexington Avenue (Photo: Helene Roth, 2018).Cover of Selling Your Pictures by Kurt Safranski (Ziff Davis Publishing Company, 1940).Black Star contract by Fred Stein, April 1, 1944 (© Fred Stein Archive).Announcement of "Pictorial Journalism. Photographs as a Language and their special Problems" course by Kurt Safranski at the New School for Social Research, Spring 1949 (© The New School Archives and Special Collection, The New School, New York).Letterhead with the logo and address of Black Star (© Fred Stein Archive).
    New York
    J.J. Augustin Incorporated Publisher
    Publishing House

    J.J. Augustin was a German publishing house in Glückstadt with a long history, going back to 1632. In 1936 the American branch opened in New York with a large artistic and cultural focus.

    Word Count: 33

    Logo and imprint of J.J. Augustin Publishing (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Book cover of Hoyningen-Huene’s photobook Hellas (J.J. Augustin, 1944).Announcement of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash (J.J. Augustin, 1944).Cover of Ballet by Alexey Brodovitch (J.J. Augustin, 1945).Book cover Return to Life through Contrology by Joseph Pilates (J.J. Augustin, 1945).Cartoon Map of New York City. Designed by Henry E. Salloch. (J.J. Augustin, 1938).Book cover Woodcuts of New York by Hans Alexander Mueller (J.J. Augustin, 1938).
    New York
    Rapho Guillumette
    Photo Agency

    Founded in 1940 by the emigrant Charles Rado (1899–1970), Rapho Guillumette was a picture agency.

    Word Count: 13

    Rapho Guillumette agency letter to Fred Stein, 1944 (© Fred Stein Archive).
    New York
    Weyhe Gallery
    Art Gallery

    Opened in 1919 by the German-born art dealer Erhard Weyhe opened a bookstore and gallery space specialised in contemporary European artists and was the first to specialise in prints.

    Word Count: 28

    Address of Weyhe Gallery (Photo: Helene Roth).
    "Ylla." The New Yorker, 14 February 1942, pp.11f.
    New York
    Julien Levy Gallery
    Art Gallery

    The Julien Levy Gallery was founded by the art dealer Julien Levy (1906–1981) in 1931, and was situated in the New York gallery district around 57th Street, where the Weyhe and Norlyst Gallery were also located.

    Word Count: 34

    T. Lux Feininger, The Painter Muriel Streeter and Julien Levy, 1940, New York (© The Estate of T. Lux Feininger, Repro: www.Kunst-Archive.net).
    Exhibition flyer Paintings of Ships by T. Lux Feininger at the Julien Levy Gallery from May, 7 until December, 31 1937 (© T. Lux Feininger Estate).Exhibition flyer by Theodore Lux Feininger at the Julien Levy Gallery from January, 21 until January, 31 1947 (© T. Lux Feininger Estate).Announcement of the exhibition Modern European Photography at the Julien Levy Gallery (The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 21 February 1932, p. 52).
    New York
    Beggar Bar
    Bar

    Beggar Bar was an artists bar and cabaret which was founded in 1941 by the German actress and dancer Valeska Gert (1892–1978).

    Word Count: 20

    Advertisement “Valeska Gerts’s Beggar Bar.” Aufbau, 9 October 1942, p. 13
    New York
    Reimann School, London
    Art School

    The Reimann School in London opened in 1937 and was a branch of the Berlin Schule Reimann, training students in commercial art and industrial design.

    Word Count: 24

    Reimann School, London, leaflet, January 1937, detail (HA Rothholz Archive, University of Brighton Design Archives).
    Reimann School, London, leaflet, January 1937, front cover (HA Rothholz Archive, University of Brighton Design Archives).Reimann School, London, leaflet, January 1937, back cover (HA Rothholz Archive, University of Brighton Design Archives).Advertisement for Reimann School, London in The Manchester Guardian, 24 February 1938, p. 1 (Photo: Private Archive).Private Wire. “New School for Commercial Art.” The Manchester Guardian, 13 January 1937, p. 10 (Photo: Private Archive).Anonymous. “Canadians in Art World in Britain.” The Province, 28 January 1939, p. 45 (Photo: Private Archive). Article mentioning the diploma of a young Canadian student.
    London