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New York World's Fair postcard View of the Constitution Mall looking toward statue of George Washington and Trylon and Perisphere

  • Kind of Object:
    Postcard
  • Name:

    New York World's Fair postcard View of the Constitution Mall looking toward statue of George Washington and Trylon and Perisphere

    Word Count: 20

  • Creator (Person):
    Ernest Nash
  • Year Start:
    1939
  • Year End:
    1939
  • Material:

    paper

  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    World's Fair areal, Flushing Meadows Park, Queens, New York City.

  • Language:
    English
  • City:
    New York City (US)
  • Introduction:

    Shortly after the arrival in New York in 1939, photographs by the German émigré Ernest Nash were used and reproduced for postcards of the New York’s World’s Fair.

    Word Count: 29

  • Content:

    The German émigré Ernest Nash moved to New York in 1939, where he could pursue his research interest in ancient architecture as well as his career as photographer. Nash started to proceed similarly to his arrival in Rome, which was his first exile stop before New York, photographing buildings that were erected in the style of the European ancient architecture. This topographic strategy can also be seen in his images of the 1939 World’s Fair. From 30 April 1939 to 31 October 1940, the world exhibition was installed at the Flushing Meadows Park in Queens and constituted a very important cultural, artistic, social as well as political event.

    After the Great Depression, the slogan of the 1939 World’s Fair at Flushing Meadows “Building the World of Tomorrow with the Tools of Today” tried to articulate new technical and industrial achievements which were expressed in futuristic and geometric architectural forms. Besides Ernest Nash, numerous émigrés, such as Swiss-born architect William Lescaze (responsible for the Swiss Pavilion and the Aviation Building) or Lyonel Feininger with his mural for the Marine Transportation Building, Alexander Calder and his Water Balett (Consolidated Edison Company building), as well many other artists and intellectuals, were involved in the World’s Fair. Since Nazi-Germany did not participate with a pavilion, the contribution by emigrants acquired an additional social and political message. On 30 April 1939 – one hundred and fifty years after the inauguration of George Washington, the first president of the United States – ,the New York World’s Fair opened its doors on the grounds of the Flushing Meadows Corona Park. Because the city expected a large number of visitors and tourists, numerous city guides, travelogues, illustrated books as well as a range of commercial publishing media were produced. Therefore, the demand for postcards was also high. The official photographers for the World’s Fair were from the photo studio Underwood&Underwood and the photographer Richard Wurts. One of Wurts’ images was taken as cover for the Official World’s Fair Guide as well as compiled in an independent book published by Stanely Appelbaum in 1977 (Appelbaum 1977).

    Other photographers, as it was the case for Ernest Nash, were also attracted by the World’s Fair; photographed the pavilions, new erected buildings, the transportation system as well as of the visitors to the fairgrounds. The symbols of the World’s Fair were the Trylon and Perisphere, where the Themce Center was located. The design by architects Wallace K. Harrison and Jacques-André Fouilhoux consisted in the basic shapes of a triangle and circle. With a height of 185 meters, the Trylon was the tallest building of the Fair. It served not only as an orientation point for visitors, but was also visible from as far away as Manhattan. The Perisphere was 18 stories tall with a diameter around 55 meters. Due to rising costs for the Fair, the two buildings were constructed in gypsum. Ernest Nash also photographed the Trylon and Perisphere, as can be seen in a postcard credited by him. From this postcard as well as another one, which is part of the collection of Fine Arts in Houston, it seems that Nash also received commissions or that he was able to sell his images for this international even as print medium. Thus, the World’s Fair could also be seen as a financial starting point for creating income in exile. Compared to other postcards for the World’s Fair, which were illustrated in colour and of which the New York Historical Society in New York contains a huge collection, the postcard by Ernest Nash was a black and white photograph and was published as rotogravure by the East and West Publishing Company in New York. Also included in the Company’s image repertoire were other emblematic New York buildings as the Grand Central Terminal, the Empire State Building or hotels. Other photographers which can be found in the credits of these postcards are Jimmy Sileno, Ewing Galloway, Morton B. Kelman, and, Samuel H. Gottscho. In photographing on the World’s Fair, Ernest Nash recognized that the monumental landmarks of the World's Fair (Perisphere and Trylon) allude to the Roman Foro Mussolini. At this point already, Nash started to proceed similarly to his arrival in Rome, photographing buildings that were erected in the style of the European ancient architecture.

    Many other émigré photographers captured the atmosphere, the pavilions and the architecture of the World’s Fair and were involved in commissions. Heavily influenced by the aesthetics of New Objectivity (Neue Sachlichkeit) in Germany, the geometric and futuristic forms of the World’s Fair, the parades, the different architectural styles of the pavilions and the special infrastructure, opened the way to experiment with artistic images. This becomes evident in photographs by the German émigrés Rolf Tietgens or Walter Sanders which were published in a special issue of the U.S. Camera and Life. The photographer Andreas Feininger was especially attracted by the fluorescent night-time lights and created experimental photographs showing highly illuminated buildings. Images by German émigré photographer Carola Gregor were reproduced in the brochure for the Brazilian Pavilion, Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939. Constructed and planned by the Brazilian architects Oscar Niemeyer and Lucio Costa and interior designed by the German-born architect Paul Lester Wiener, the pavilion can be ascribed to the modern architectural movement of the 1930s. As well as designing such features as lamps and furniture, Wiener also created a special typography for the pavilion and designed the brochure, for which Carola Gregor contributed four images. In addition to showcasing Brazilian life, economy and culture, a garden complete with Amazonian birds was created. Working in the field of animal photography, Carola Gregor photographed two Amazonian birds in the garden of the Brazilian Pavilion. Another émigré photographer specialized in animal photography was Lilo Hess who made the publicity pictures for the animal exhibitor and collector Frank Buck for his “Jungle Camp” show at the World’s Fair (Commire 1973). Postcards and folders related to this show, however, contain no credits for Lilo Hess and it shows, that in the printed media the authorship of the photographers was not very highly appreciated. Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, a German photographer emigrated to New York, was involved with her images in the publication Women at Work: A Tour among Careers. Published in 1939 by New York Career Tours in cooperation with the New York World’s Fair committee, and representing more than 30 nationalities as well as state and regional professional women’s organisations, the book recounted in text and images the stories of 75 professional women from various fields, who had entered the business world. The five authors were all women and a number of women, including Ruth Staudinger-Rozaffy, were among the contributing photographers, including some familiar names such as Margarete Bourke-White, Berenice Abbot, Therese Bonney, Jackie Martin, Marvin Breckinrige and Elizabeth Hibs (Corley 1939, 62). Today, the book fetches high prices at auctions and in antiquarian bookstores.

    Unfortunately, the costs for the World’s Fair were high and the visitors not numerous enough; thus, in 1940, the Fair was forced to declare bankruptcy leaving behind a number of unpaid investors. All buildings and pavilions had to be demolished. Also, the symbols of the World’s Fair – the Tyron and Perisphere – were torn down. This emblematic moment was captured by the emigrated photographer Ruth Bernhard. Taught at the Academy of Art in Berlin in the 1920s, she came to New York in 1927, where she started taking photographs. Using unusual perspectives, she captured scenic ruins like the “Skeleton of the Giant” - the title for one of her pictures. Her images were commissioned by the photo agency Black Star and published in a reportage for The Highway Traveler magazine.

    For the next two decades, the exhibition site languished with empty streets and barren plots where the pavilions had formerly stood. In 1963/64, Flushing Meadows once again hosted the World’s Fair. Some of these architectural relicts can be still discovered when walking through the huge terrain of Flushing Meadows. The rest of the former World’s Fair area was to be incorporated into the Queen’s district as a public park; on weekends, the old water basins and infrastructures are frequented by numerous sport enthusiasts.

    Word Count: 1363

  • Signature Image:
    New York World's Fair postcard View of the Constitution Mall looking toward statue of George Washington and Trylon and Perisphere, photograph by Ernest Nash, East and West Publishing Company, 1939 (Private Archive Helene Roth).
  • Media:
    Backside of New York World's Fair postcard View of the Constitution Mall looking toward statue of George Washington and Trylon and Perisphere, photograph by Ernest Nash, East and West Publishing Company, 1939 (Private Archive Helene Roth).
    Ernest Nash, New York World’s Fair 1939, Perisphere (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).
    Ernest Nash, New York, World’s Fair 1939, Constitution Mall, Trylon and Perisphere (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).
    Photo by Rolf Tietgens of Streamliners at the World’s Fair published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 45 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Photo by Rolf Tietgens of the Communication Mall at the World’s Fair 1939 published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 38 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Photo of the Aquacade swim show by Walter Sanders for Black Star, reproduced in Life, 3 July 1939, p. 60 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).
    “Life goes to The Futurama.” Image of the General Motors Show by Walter Sanders in Life, 5 June 1939, p. 79 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).
    Photograph of Amazonian birds by Carola Gregor for the brochure Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939, p. 13 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Photograph of Amazonian birds by Carola Gregor for the brochure Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939, pp. 11–12 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    Demolition of the World’s Fair by Ruth Bernhard. Reprint of the reportage “Where the World of Tomorrow Is But the Ghost of Yesterday.” The Highway Traveler, vol. 13, no. 2, April-May 1941, pp. 14–15 (© Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).
    Today’s area of the World’s Fair, Flushing Meadows-Corona Park with the Unisphere (where the Trylon and Perisphere stood) (Photo: Helene Roth, 2019).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Alföldi, Maria R., and Margarita C. Lahusen, editors. Ernest Nash – Ernst Nathan: 1898–1974. Photographie Potsdam, Rom, New York, Rom. Nicolai, 2000.

    Appelbaum, Stanley. The New York World's Fair 1939/40 in 155 photographs by Richard Wurts and others. Dover Publications, 1977.

    Commire, Anne, editor. Something about the Author, vol. 4. Gale Research, 1973.

    Corley, Pauline. “Heralding New Books.” The Miami Herald, 12 March 1939, p. 62.

    Cotter, Bill. The 1939–1940 New York World’s Fair. Arcadia Publishing, 2009.

    Federal Writers Project. New York Panorama. A Companion to the WPA Guide to New York City. Pantheon Books, 1938.

    Official Guide Book of the New York World's Fair. Expositions Publications, Inc., 1939.

    Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939, edited by Brazil’s Representation to the New York World’s Fair 1939, exh. cat. New York World’s Fair, New York, 1939.

    Works Progress Administration. The WPA guide to New York City: The Federal Writers' Project guide to 1930s New York. A comprehensive guide to the five boroughs of the Metropolis - Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond. Random House, 1939.

    Word Count: 166

  • Archives and Sources:

    New York World's Fair 1939–1940 records, New York Public Library, New York.

    Postcard Collection, New Historical Society, New York.

    Word Count: 18

  • Author:
    Helene Roth
  • Depicted sites:

    World's Fair areal, Flushing Meadows, Queens, New York.

  • Metropolis:
    New York
  • Entry in process:
    no
  • Helene Roth. "New York World's Fair postcard View of the Constitution Mall looking toward statue of George Washington and Trylon and Perisphere." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/2948/object/5140-11798374, last modified: 23-08-2021.
  • Ernest Nash
    PhotographerArchaeologistLawyer

    Ernest Nash was a German born photographer, who pursued his photographic as well as an archeologic interest in Roman architecture after his emigration to New York in 1939. Besides this research interest, he also worked as a portrait photographer and publisher.

    Word Count: 40

    Portrait of Ernest Nash, Neapel, 3/4 march 1939 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).
    Announcement of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash (J.J. Augustin, 1944).Announcement of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash (J.J. Augustin, 1944).First page of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash, J.J. Augustin, 1944 (Photo: Helene Roth).Page of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash, J.J. Augustin, 1944. Left side: New York, Columbia University. Right side: Rome, Pantheon (Photo: Helene Roth).Page of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash, J.J. Augustin, 1944. Left side: New York, U.S. Sub-Treasury Building. Right side: Paestum, Temple of Neptune (Photo: Helene Roth).Ernest Nash, New York, Washington Square, 1939 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, New York, United States Subtreasury Building, 1939 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, Burns Bros on the East River, New York, 1939 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, Portrait of Béla Bartók, New York, between late 1940 and 1945 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, Portrait of Ditta Bartók-Pásztory, New York, between late 1940 and 1945 (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, New York World’s Fair 1939, Perisphere (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Ernest Nash, New York, World’s Fair 1939, Constitution Mall, Trylon and Perisphere (© Bildarchiv Ernest Nash, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main).Information by J.J. Augustin about the new release of Roman Towns by Ernest Nash (J.J. Augustin, 1944).
    New York
    Ruth Staudinger
    PhotographerCinematographerArt dealer

    Very few and only fragmentary details can be found on the German émigré photographer Ruth Staudinger, who emigrated in the mid-1930s to New York City. Her nomadic life was also characterisedd by several changes of name along the way.

    Word Count: 40

    Hassoldt Davis (?), Ruth Staudinger Davis holds the mummified head of an executed Indochines (Davis, 1952, 22).
    Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, Going on duty, 1939 (Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Photographs and Prints Division, The New York Public Library Digital Collections).Page with collected addresses of colleagues at the New School for Social Research in New York by Josef Breitenbach (© The Josef and Yaye Breitenbach Charitable Foundation, courtesy of The Center for Creative Photography, Josef Breitenbach Archive, AG90:6).Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, New York Bedtime, published in U.S. Camera 1940, p. 129 (Photo: Helene Roth).Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, More Fun Than Circus, published in U.S. Camera 1940, p. 130 (Photo: Helene Roth).Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy, Girls from telephone company taking exercises in American Woman’s Association Gym, published in U.S. Camera 1940, p. 178 (Photo: Helene Roth).“Wiltwyck – Why Harlme Boys Learn Manhood” article with images by Ruth Staudinger Rozaffy (Anonymous 1941, 18–19).Article on Ruth Staudinger and Hassoldt Davis (Desfor 1951, 33).Cover of The Jungle and the Damned (Davis, 1952) (Photo: Helene Roth).First page of The Jungle and the Damned (Davis 1952) (Photo: Helene Roth).First page of Scorcerer’s Village, published by Hassoldt Davis and Ruth Staudinger-Davis, Duell Sloan and Pearce, 1956 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Walter Sanders
    Photographer

    Walter Sanders was a German émigré photographer. In 1938 he arrived in New York, where he worked from 1939 until the end of his life for the Black Star agency and, from 1944, for Life magazine.

    Word Count: 33

    Portrait of Walter Sanders, Cuba, Havana, 1938 (Estate Walter Sanders).
    Walt Sanders and Alfred Kornfeld, son of Black Star cofounder Kurt Kornfeld. Sheldrake Lake, New Rochelle, NY, November 1939 (© Heirs of Kurt Kornfeld).First cover by Walter Sanders for Life, 26 June 1939 (Estate Walter Sanders).Letterhead with name Walter Suessmann, a reference to Echo and an address (Estate Walter Sanders).Photo of the Aquacade swim show by Walter Sanders for Black Star, reproduced in Life, 3 July 1939, p. 60 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Life goes to The Futurama.” Image of the General Motors Show by Walter Sanders in Life, 5 June 1939, p. 79 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Life visits Statue of Liberty.” Images by Walter Sanders published in Life, 2 June 1941, pp. 94–95 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“Por las entrañas de una estatua.”. Images by Walter Sanders, MUNDO Argentino, June 1941 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).“The Road Back to Berlin.” Images and text by Walter Sanders in Life, 10 November 1946, p. 29 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).Americans in Heidelberg, Life cover, Image by Walter Sanders, Life, 21 July 1947 (Estate Walter Sanders, Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Andreas Feininger
    PhotographerWriterEditor

    Andreas Feininger, was a German émigré photographer who arrived in New York with his wife Wysse Feininger in 1939. He started a lifelong career exploring the city's streets, working as a photojournalist and writing a large number of photography manuals.

    Word Count: 39

    Portrait of Andreas Feininger by Fritz Henle, 1940/41, cropped detail (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).
    Portrait of Andreas Feininger by Fritz Henle, 1940/41 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Andreas Feininger, 1, Stockholm, 1937 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Andreas Feininger, Close Up Equipment, 365 West 20 St. New York, 1940 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Andreas Feininger, “An Amateur’s Wartime Darkroom.” U.S. Camera, April 1942, pp. 28–29 (Photo: Helene Roth).Scrapbook of Andreas Feininger with photographic essay “New York. A big spectacle in big pictures.” Life, 14 April 1941, pp. 86–87 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).Scrapbook of Andreas Feininger with article and photographs by him. “Experimenting with Lights at Night.” Popular Photography, February 1947, pp. 44–45 (© Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona: Andreas Feininger Archive, Photo: Helene Roth).“Feininger’s Workshop - photo facts in pictures. Unsharpness and its cause.” Popular Photography, May 1949, pp.54–55 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Ruth Bernhard
    Photographer

    Ruth Bernhard was a German émigré photographer who lived in New York from the 1920s to the 1940s. Beside her series on female nudes, her place in the photography network, as well as in the New York queer scene, is unknown and understudied.

    Word Count: 43

    Lotte Jacobi, Ruth Bernhard, 1945, New York (© 2021. University of New Hampshire).
    Scrapbook and published work by Ruth Bernhard (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Lifesavers by Ruth Bernhard, published in Advertisment Arts, January 1931 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Still Life of dolls for Macy’s by Ruth Bernhard, published in Graphic Arts, 1931 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Ruth Bernhard, Eighth Street Movie Theater, Frederick Kiesler-Architect, New York, 1946 (Diversity Corner is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0).Exhibition flyer for Ruth Bernhard Photographs, PM Gallery, 1938 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).Description of Ruth Bernhard Photographs exhibition, by Kurt Safranski, PM Gallery, 1938 (Ruth Bernhard Archive, Special Collection Princeton University © Trustees of Princeton University).
    New York
    Rolf Tietgens
    PhotographerEditorWriter

    Rolf Tietgens was a German émigré photographer who arrived in New York in 1938. Although, in the course of his photographic career, his artistic and surrealist images were published and shown at exhibitions, his work, today, is very little known.

    Word Count: 39

    Portrait of Rolf Tietgens, n.d. (© Keith de Lellis Gallery, New York).
    Der Hafen by Rolf Tietgens, Ehrmann Verlag, 1936.Rolf Tietgens. “What is Surrealism?” Minicam, July 1939, pp. 30–31 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photo by Rolf Tietgens of Streamliners at the World’s Fair published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 45 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photo by Rolf Tietgens of the Communication Mall at the World’s Fair 1939 published in the World's Fair special issue of U.S. Camera, August 1939, p. 38 (Photo: Helene Roth).Rolf Tietgens. “Capture the ‘Life’ of the object.” Minicam, January 1940, pp. 46–47 (Photo: Helene Roth).Rolf Tietgens. “Capture the ‘Life’ of the object.” Minicam, January 1940, pp. 48–49 (Photo: Helene Roth).Felix Kraus. "Why Photographers experiment." Popular Photography, February 1945, pp. 28–29 (Photo: Helene Roth).Hans Arp. Human Concretion, 1935, limestone 73 x 49,5 x 45 cm, photograph by Rolf Tietgens and reproduced in Arp: On My Way. Poetry and Essays 1912–1947, edited by Robert Motherwell, Wittenborn, Schulz, 1948, pp. 130–131 (Photo: Helene Roth).Published photo by Rolf Tietgens (Feininger 1952, 116–117).Times Square. U.S.A. (1952) photobook by Rolf Tietgens, Keith de Lellis Gallery, 1992 (Photo: Helene Roth).
    New York
    Lilo Hess
    Photographer

    The German émigré Lilo Hess was an animal photographer working for the Museum for Natural History and the Bronx Zoo, as well being a freelance photographer and publisher of children's books.

    Word Count: 31

    Portrait of Lilo Hess (Commire 1973, p. 112).
    Portrait of Lilo Hess – Life, 6 September 1943, p. 21 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photography by Lilo Hess – Fotografische Rundschau, vol. 72, 1935, p. 323 (Photo: Helene Roth).Book cover Odd Pets (Crowell, 1951).Front of the book Odd Pets (Crowell, 1951).Inside of the book Odd Pets (Crowell, 1951).Photo of drinking gibbons at the Bronx Zoo, photographed by Lilo Hess (Life, 13 December 1948, p. 126).
    New York
    Carola Gregor
    PhotographerSculptor

    The German émigré photographer Carola Gregor was an animal and child photographer and published some of her work in magazines and books. Today her work and life are almost forgotten.

    Word Count: 30

    Portrait of Carola Gregor (cutout of her papers of naturalisation).
    Petitions for naturalization from the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York of Carola Gregor (Naturalizations, box 1018-1020, cert. no. 513486-513958, 9-12 Apr 1945, Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685 - 2009, RG 21. National Archives at New York, familysearch.org).Homer- The Hydrophobic Duck by Carola Gregor published in U.S. Camera 1943, p. 63 (Photo: Helene Roth).Portrait of Fritz Goro by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 13 September 1937, p. 104 (Photo: Helene Roth).Photograph of Amazonian birds by Carola Gregor for the brochure Pavilhão do Brasil. Feira Mundial de Nova York de 1939, pp. 11–12 (Photo: Helene Roth).Mending Nets by Carola Gregor, published in Popular Photography, October 1942, p. 40 (Photo: Helene Roth).A gleaming spider by Carola Gregor, published in Popular Photography, August 1948, pp. 81–82 (Photo: Helene Roth).Reportage “Liger. A lion and a tigress produce a new kind of zoo baby” with images by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 20 September 1948, p. 109 (Photo: Helene Roth).Reportage “Liger. A lion and a tigress produce a new kind of zoo baby” with images by Carola Gregor, published in Life, 20 September 1948, pp. 111–112 (Photo: Helene Roth).War Manpower Commission. Farm labor poster distributed to Department of Agriculture. Photograph by Carola Gregor (Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives).
    New York
    Black Star Agency
    Photo Agency

    The German émigrés Kurt S(z)afranski, Ern(e)st Mayer and Kurt Kornfeld founded Black Star in 1936. The photo agency established was a well-run networking institution in New York.

    Word Count: 31

    Letterhead of Black Star (Black Star Archive. Ryerson Image Center, Photo: Helene Roth).
    Logo and Stamp of Black Star Photo Agency (Photo: Helene Roth, 2019).Description of Black Star in a photographic guide (Ahlers, Arvel W.. Where & how to sell your pictures. Photography Publishing Corp., 1953, p. 45).Werner Wolff, K.S. Safranski’s Class in Pictorial Journalism, 1950 (New School for Research Archive, Photograph Collection © Steven Wolff).Facade and entrance of the Graybar Building on Lexington Avenue (Photo: Helene Roth, 2018).Cover of Selling Your Pictures by Kurt Safranski (Ziff Davis Publishing Company, 1940).Black Star contract by Fred Stein, April 1, 1944 (© Fred Stein Archive).Announcement of "Pictorial Journalism. Photographs as a Language and their special Problems" course by Kurt Safranski at the New School for Social Research, Spring 1949 (© The New School Archives and Special Collection, The New School, New York).Letterhead with the logo and address of Black Star (© Fred Stein Archive).
    New York