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Roman Bilinski

  • Given name:
    Roman
  • Last name:
    Bilinski
  • Alternative names:

    Роман Билинский, Roman Biliński, Roman Bilinsky, Bilinski, Роман Белинский as well as Балинский (incorrectly but very common)

  • Date of Birth:
    15-07-1897
  • Place of Birth:
    L'viv (UA)
  • Date of Death:
    28-03-1981
  • Place of Death:
    Bordighera (IT)
  • Profession:
    Art restorerCollectorPainterSculptor
  • Introduction:

    At the beginning of the 1920s, a member of the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople, Roman Bilinski was known as a sculptor. At the end of the 1920s–beginning of the 1930s – as a sculptor, painter and connoisseur of local antiques.

    Word Count: 42

  • Signature Image:
    Self-portrait by Roman Bilinski. Turkey, 1936 (Private Archive of Diana Bilinski).
  • Content:

    Roman Bilinski was born into a wealthy family in Lviv on July 15, 1897. From a young age, he was fond of painting and had a special interest in depicting flowers and plants. After receiving artistic education at academies in Lviv and Krakow, he studied at the Kiev Art Institute (the portrait of Leon Trotsky by Bilinski belongs to this period). It is highly likely that, there, he met Dimitri Ismailovitch, who was also in Kiev at the height of the revolution. One of the reasons for Bilinski’s departure to Constantinople was the assassination of his father in Lviv.

    According to Italian sources, Bilinski lived in Istanbul for approximately fifteen years starting from 1920. In the 1920s, a member of the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople, he was known as a sculptor. His most famous work at the time was the bust of the émigré painter Dimitri Ismailovitch, presented in the summer of 1922 at the first major exhibition of the Union. In one of the private archives, there is a picture showing the three: Roman Bilinski, Dimitri Ismailovitch and his bust.
    As a sculptor, Bilinski is also mentioned in the anniversary catalog on exhibitions by the Turkish Fine Arts Union. Apart from him, only a few local sculptors and the émigré Iraida Barry are listed there. A Pole by origin, Bilinski actively mingled with representatives of the Polish “circle” in Istanbul. For instance, he painted portraits of Polish diplomats and created a monument to the Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz in Polonezköy ("Polish" village on the Asian side of Istanbul). On 11 June, 1934, Roman Bilinski opened his personal exhibition at the Polish center in Taksim, Sıraselviler. One of the artworks presented at this exhibition was a bust of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. In addition, on 21 July of the same year, along with local artists and such “ecnebiler” (Turkish for “foreigners”) as émigré artists Nikolai Kalmykoff and Nikolai Peroff, he presented eight of his sculptures at the Galatasaray exhibition. An important detail is that in addition to Bilinski’s works, this exhibition featured six sculptures by Melek Celal Sofu, a progressive Turkish female artist who once created a bust of Roman Bilinski. It is known that Bilinski was always well received at her house, a huge köşk on Moda Çayırı (Kadıköy), where not only artists but also writers and poets used to gather. Among the regular guests of the house were writer and poet Yahya Kemal Beyatlı, writer Abdülhak Şinasi, intellectual Hamdullah Suphi, art historian Burhan Toprak, painter and art historian Celal Esat Arseven, French painter Léopold Lévy, French architect and designer Louis Süe, French art historian and archeologist Albert-Louis Gabriel, German sculptor Rudolf Belling. Of great interest is also information from Italian sources, according to which Bilinski taught at the Robert College (now Boğaziçi University where Traugott Fuchs worked starting from 1943) for a period of time. The Italian sources also reveal, that Bilinski  was commissioned by Kemal Atatürk to supervise the restoration of Hagia Sophia where Nikolai Kluge had been working under the direction of Thomas Whittemore and to organize the Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum by collecting objects all over Turkey to enrich the museum’s collection. As for the latter, Bilinski is indeed known as a passionate lover and connoisseur of local antiques. Since he was registered at the Polish Consulate, unlike many other émigré artists from the former Russian Empire, Bilinski was able to move freely around the country and he acquired a fairly significant collection of various items, from ceramics to carpets (presumably, these were the items that were captured in the works by Dimitri Ismailovitch). Many of them could be seen in his Istanbul apartment, where he lived with his second wife, French artist Claire Duriez. A photograph of the apartment has been preserved in the artist's family archive.

    The further fate of this sculptor, artist and restorer took a rather unexpected turn, as is often the case with artists from the former Russian Empire. According to Marco Farotto, author of the book Roman Bilinski - Un artista cosmopolita nel Ponente ligure whose family members were friends of Bilinski and his third wife Marcella Conte, the artist was at work in Yugoslavia when World War II began. After the war, in 1946, he settled first in Camogli and, in 1949, in Bordighera. At one point, Bilinski was a portrait painter for German author Thomas Mann’s family. According to Italian sources, Bilinski ended up in Italy because he joined the Anders’ Army with the rank of Captain of the Red Cross. He died from a heart attack on 26 March, 1981. Roman Bilinski's last painting was called Mimosa Cascade.

    Word Count: 780

  • Media:
    Painter Dimitri Ismailovitch with his bust created by Polish sculptor Roman Bilinski, Istanbul, Summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 8 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).
    Formal letter of thanks to Martha Stearns from the members of the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople, 1922. One of the signatures is Roman Bilinski’s. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 9 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).
    Bilinski's monument to the Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz in Polonezköy was demolished but its plaque has been preserved (Postcard from Polonezköy, 2021).
    Adampol (Polonezköy) by Roman Bilinski (Private Archive of Diana Bilinski).
    Adampol (Polonezköy) by Roman Bilinski. Turkey, 1935 (Private Archive of Diana Bilinski).
    Adampol (Polonezköy) by Roman Bilinski. Turkey, 1936 (Private Archive of Diana Bilinski).
    Adampol (Polonezköy) by Roman Bilinski. Turkey, 1936 (Private Archive of Diana Bilinski).
    Adampol (Polonezköy) by Roman Bilinski. Turkey, 1936 (Private Archive of Diana Bilinski).
    Adampol (Polonezköy) by Roman Bilinski. Turkey, 1936 (Private Archive of Diana Bilinski).
    Work by Roman Bilinski. Turkey, 1936 (Private Archive of Diana Bilinski).
    Work by Roman Bilinski. Yugoslavia, 1936 (Private Archive of Diana Bilinski).
    The cover of the book by Marco Farotto, Roman Bilinski - Un artista cosmopolita nel Ponente ligure. According to the author, Bilinski used to walk around dressed in this way.
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Anonymous. “Odnodnevnaya vystavka kartin.” Presse du Soir, 10 October 1921, p. 4.

    Anonymous. "Russkoye Iskusstvo Za Granitsey, Konstantinopol'." Teatr i Jizn’, no.7, January 1922, n.p.

    Anonymous. “Vystavka Soyuza Russkih Hudojnikov.” Presse du Soir, 19 June 1922, n.p.

    Anonymous. "L'exposition de peinture de la Caserne Mc Mahon." Journal D'Orient, 7 July 1922, n.p.

    Anonymous. "Polonez köyünde bir abide." Milliyet, 13 December 1933, p.3.

    Anonymous. "Bir resim sergisi." Milliyet, 11 June 1934, p. 6.

    Anonymous. "Galatasaray Resim sergisi." Milliyet, 22 July 1934, p. 6.

    Anonymous. "18 inci resim sergisi." Cumhuriyet, 22 July 1934, p. 5.

    Anonymous. "Roman Bilinski. Una vita fantastica." bordighera.it, https://www.bordighera.it/cultura/artisti/bilinski. Accessed 29 August 2021.

    Eraslan Taşpınar, Şeyda. "Türk Resim Sanatının Öncü Kadın Ressamları." Mimoza, June 2015, p. 14.

    Word Count: 113

  • Archives and Sources:

    Private Archive of Diana Bilinski (Italy).

    Private Archive of Dimitri Ismailovitch that belongs to Eduardo Mendes Cavalcanti (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    Archives & Special Collections, The College of the Holy Cross (Worcester, Massachusetts).

    Slavonic Library (Slovanská knihovna) in Prague.

    Word Count: 39

  • Acknowledgements:

    I wish to express my most sincere gratitude to Luigi Capello and Diana Bilinski for their enormous help. I am also very grateful to Marco Farotto for his valuable assistance. Finally I would like to thank Eduardo Mendes Cavalcanti and the representatives of the Archives & Special Collections at the College of the Holy Cross (Worcester, Massachusetts).

    Word Count: 57

  • Author:
    Ekaterina Aygün
  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    Bursa Street 40 (now Sadri Alışık 40), Beyoğlu, Istanbul (studio); Küçük Yazıcı 4 (now presumably Tarlabaşı Blv. 79), Hüseyinağa, Beyoğlu, Istanbul (studio); Polish Consulate, Nişantaşı, Cabi Street 12 (now Rumeli Caddesi, Şişli), Istanbul; Adampol/Polonezköy, Istanbul.

  • Metropolis:
    Istanbul
  • Ekaterina Aygün. "Roman Bilinski." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/2949/object/5138-12057969, last modified: 23-09-2021.
  • Dimitri Ismailovitch
    PainterArt Historian

    In Istanbul, Ismailovitch became one of the leaders of the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople, organised three solo exhibitions, and made contribution to the study of Byzantine art.

    Word Count: 29

    Dimitri Ismailovitch with his bust created by Polish sculptor Roman Bilinski, Istanbul, Summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 8 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).
    Dimitri Ismailovitch, 1907, Sumy Cadet Corps (with permission from https://www.ria1914.info/).Dimitri Ismailovitch with his bust created by Polish sculptor Roman Bilinski, Istanbul, Summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 8 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).Reproduction of the Kariye Mosque’s mosaic. In the foreground is its author, Dimitri Ismailovitch (Russkiye na Bosfore. Les Russes sur le Bosphore Almanac, 1928, n.p.).Photographs of the artworks by Dimitri Ismailovitch, 1923. Source: Album “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from D. Ismailovitch”, XII–XI, p. 11 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).Photographs of the artworks by Dimitri Ismailovitch, 1924. Source: Album “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from D. Ismailovitch”, 9–10, p. 24 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).Photographs of the artworks by Dimitri Ismailovitch. Source: Album “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from D. Ismailovitch”, p. 36 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).Front cover of the 1948 Dimitri İsmailovitch exhibition catalogue (© Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux).Ekaterina Aygün chanced upon Dimitri Ismailovitch's visiting card at the Avni Lifij exhibition in Istanbul. This is further evidence of contact between Ismailovitch and Turkish painters (Photo: Ekaterina Aygün, 2019).The Piyale Pasha Mosque (was designed by Mimar Sinan and rebuilt in the mid. of the 19th century) was depicted by Dimitri İsmailovitch and Alexis Gritchenko in 1920 (Photo: Ekaterina Aygün, 2021).
    Istanbul
    First Russian émigré artists in Istanbul exhibition
    Exhibition

    The first Russian-speaking émigré artists in Istanbul exhibition was a one-day event but its success led to the formation of the Union and paved the way for other exhibitions.

    Word Count: 29

    Portrait of the poet Maximilian Voloshin (one of the representatives of the Symbolist movement in Russian culture and literature) by Boleslav Cybis that was presented at the exhibition. Boleslav Cybis was an émigré artist from the Russian Empire and a member of the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople who was fond of representing truths symbolically, combining figurative thinking with ideas of the avant-garde (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).
    Members of the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople, Summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 8 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).Portrait of the poet Maximilian Voloshin (one of the representatives of the Symbolist movement in Russian culture and literature) by Boleslav Cybis that was presented at the exhibition. Boleslav Cybis was an émigré artist from the Russian Empire and a member of the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople who was fond of representing truths symbolically, combining figurative thinking with ideas of the avant-garde (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).
    Istanbul
    Exhibition of Russian émigré artists at Taksim Military Barracks
    Exhibition

    The exhibition of Russian-speaking émigré artists at Taksim Military Barracks was the first major exhibition organised by the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople.

    Word Count: 24

    Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople exhibition foyer, Taksim military barracks, Summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 11 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).
    Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople exhibition foyer, Taksim military barracks, Summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 11 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).Members of the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople, Summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 8 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople exhibition at Taksim military barracks, Summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 10 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).Sculptures at the Union of Russian Painters exhibition in Constantinople, Taksim military barracks, summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 5 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).Works of the Artel of Russian Craftsmen in Constantinople, Taksim military barracks, Summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 6 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople exhibition at Taksim military barracks, Summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 7 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople exhibition at Taksim military barracks, Summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 8 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).
    Istanbul
    Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople
    Association

    The Union existed for less than two years but in that short space of time a tremendous amount of work was done by its members, refugees from the Russian Empire.

    Word Count: 30

    Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople logo from 1922 membership card of the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople (Private Archive of Dimitri Ismailovitch that belongs to Eduardo Mendes Cavalcanti).
    Members of the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople, Summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 8 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).1922 membership card of the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople (Private Archive of Dimitri Ismailovitch that belongs to Eduardo Mendes Cavalcanti).Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople logo painted by T. Sabaneeff, 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 1 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).One of the exhibitions of the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople, Summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 10 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).Exhibition of the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople at Taksim military barracks, Summer 1922. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 6 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).
    Istanbul
    Konstantinopol’skiy Kommercheskiy Klub
    Club

    KKK was probably the most popular Russian club in Beyoğlu district between 1924 and 1926. Not only Russian émigrés but also local residents could enjoy its constantly updated entertainment programme.

    Word Count: 30

    Some of the Russian artists who took an active part in the club’s events, clockwise from top left: violinist Pavel Alekseevich Zamoulenko, singer Maria de Monighetti, ballerina Yevgeniya Vorobyova, poet and musician Ivan Andreevich Korvatsky (Zarubezhnyi Klich almanacs of 1925).
    The name of the club as listed in the Zarubezhnyi Klich almanac, April 1925.The first chairman of the club, Nikolai Alekseevich Ilyin-Chesmensky (Zarubezhnyi Klich almanac, April 1925, n.p.).Some of the Russian artists who took an active part in the club’s events, clockwise from top left: violinist Pavel Alekseevich Zamoulenko, singer Maria de Monighetti, ballerina Yevgeniya Vorobyova, poet and musician Ivan Andreevich Korvatsky (Zarubezhnyi Klich almanacs of 1925).Istiklal Caddesi 130 (Elhamra Han), Beyoğlu, Istanbul (Photo: Ekaterina Aygün, 2019).
    Istanbul
    Leon Trotsky
    Politician

    Banished by Stalin, the revolutionary politician Leon Trotsky and his entourage arrived in Istanbul in 1929. He settled on Büyükada, one of the Princes’ Islands in the Sea of Marmara.

    Word Count: 31

    Trotsky at his desk, Büyükada, 1931, detail (Heijenoort 1978, 15).
    Trotsky at his desk, Büyükada, 1931 (Heijenoort 1978, 15).Yanaros Villa, Nizam Mahallesi Hamlacı Sokak No. 4, residence and exile domicile of Leon Trotsky on Büyükada, 1932/1933 (Heijenoort 1978, 10).Yanaros Villa, Nizam Mahallesi Hamlacı Sokak No. 4, Büyükada, 1932–33, view from the cul-de-sac (Heijenoort 1978, 10).Trotsky and entourage on a boat trip, Büyükada, around 1931–33 (Heijenoort 1978, 12).Yanaros Villa, Nizam Mahallesi Hamlacı Sokak No. 4, Büyükada, site of the 14th Istanbul Biennial in 2015 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci).Adrián Villar Rojas’ installation The Most Beautiful of All Mothers at the Yanaros Villa, Nizam Mahallesi Hamlacı Sokak No. 4, Büyükada, as part of the 14th Istanbul Biennial in 2015 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci).
    Istanbul
    Rudolf Belling
    Sculptor

    As a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts and Technical University in Istanbul from 1937 until 1966, Rudolf Belling taught his students the technicalities of form, material and proportion.

    Word Count: 28

    Rudolf Belling during an interview shortly after his arrival in Turkey, 1937. Yedigün, no. 212, vol. 9, March 1937, p. 8 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).
    Rudolf Belling with a student in front of copies of antique sculptures, 1937. Yedigün, no. 212, vol. 9, March 1937, p. 9 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Rudolf Belling. “Heykeltraşlık.” Arkitekt, no. 12, 1936, p. 348 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr). Here, Belling explains his future teaching programme at the Academy of Fine Arts. Below, his likewise newly-appointed colleague, the French artist and professor of painting Léopold Lévy, expresses himself.Rudolf Belling, Draft for the monument Atatürk hands over responsibility for the Republic to the youth, Istanbul University, 1938, model, second version, published in the journal Ar, no. 19, 1938, p. 8 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Studio exhibition class of Rudolf Belling at the Academy of Fine Arts, 1940, published in Güzel Sanatlar Dergisi, no. 4, 1942 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Studio exhibition class of Rudolf Belling at the Academy of Fine Arts, 1940: Hüseyin Özkan Anka, Athlet, before 1940, published in Güzel Sanatlar Dergisi, no. 4, 1942 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Rudolf Belling, Monument for Ismet Inönü, Courtyard of the Agricultural Faculty of the University of Ankara, 1943/44 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2004).Rudolf Belling with students at the Academy of Fine Arts, Istanbul, c. 1945, 1st from left: Hüseyin Gezer, photographer unknown (Rudolf-Belling-Archiv, Krailling).Rudolf Belling, Moulding for the Istanbul University, entrance to conference room of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, 1946, detail (Photo: Dogramaci, 2002).Rudolf Belling, Skulptur 49 (In Memoriam Dreiklang), 1949, bronze, Collection Elisabeth Weber-Belling, Krailling (Nerdinger 1981).Rudolf Belling, Segelmotiv, 1959/1962, Bank für Gemeinwirtschaft, Hamburg, Dornbusch/Rolandsbrücke (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2020).Rudolf Belling, Blütenmotiv (called Schuttblume), 1967/1972, Olympiapark, Munich, (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2019).
    Istanbul
    Iraida Barry
    Sculptor

    After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Barry settled in Istanbul, where she lived until her death. She is remembered as one of the first female sculptors of the Turkish Republic.

    Word Count: 29

    Iraida Barry, photography, detail (© Cengiz Kahraman Koleksiyonu, Istanbul).
    Iraida Barry (© Cengiz Kahraman Koleksiyonu, Istanbul).Iraida Barry’s studio at the Mısır Apartments (© Cengiz Kahraman Koleksiyonu, Istanbul).Iraida Barry’s studio at the Mısır Apartments (© Cengiz Kahraman Koleksiyonu, Istanbul).
    Istanbul
    Nikolai Kluge
    PainterPhotographerArt restorerArchaeologistCopyist

    As a non-regular employee at the Russian Archaeological Institute of Constantinople before the Russian Revolution, Nikolai Kluge was perhaps the émigré artist most familiar with Istanbul.

    Word Count: 26

    Nikolai Kluge (right) and Thomas Whittemore (left) at Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 1944. Fonds Thomas Whittemore – Institut byzantin, Subgroup 01–Series 08 (© Bibliothèque byzantine, Collège de France).
    Nikolai Kluge (right) and Thomas Whittemore (left) at Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 1944. Fonds Thomas Whittemore – Institut byzantin, Subgroup 01–Series 08 (© Bibliothèque byzantine, Collège de France).Photo by Nikolai Kluge (The title page of the publication Kariye Camii. Album for the XI volume of Izvestia of the Russian Archaeological Institute in Constantinople, Munich, 1906).
    Istanbul
    Nikolai Peroff
    PainterArt restorerIconographerChoir DirectorCharitable Society’s ChairmanScene Designer

    Nikolai Peroff lived in Istanbul until the end of his life. He was engaged in restorations, carried out scene decorations, and did a lot for the Russian churches in Karaköy.

    Word Count: 31

    Nikolai Peroff, 1941 (Hagop Ayvaz Collection, Hrant Dink Foundaiton Archive, Istanbul).
    Nikolai Peroff, 1941 (Hagop Ayvaz Collection, Hrant Dink Foundaiton Archive, Istanbul).Nikolai Peroff (Tarih ve Toplum, no. 150, June 1996).Photograph of Nikolai Peroff's work, Istanbul, 1921. Source: Scrapbook “To Mr. and Mrs. Stearns from Russian Painters”, p. 7 (Stearns Family Papers. Archives & Special Collections. The College of the Holy Cross).One of the works by Nikolai Peroff as a scene designer (Tarih ve Toplum, no. 150, June 1996)."Dekor: N.Peroff", Şehir Theatre, Istanbul (Akşam, 16 December 1954, p.4)."Dekor: Peroff", Şehir Theatre, Istanbul (Akşam, 17 February 1955, p. 7).Father Viktor in front of the wall that was painted by Nikolai Peroff, Aya Andrea Russian Orthodox Church (Photo: Ekaterina Aygün, 2019).Church (Aya Andrea) parishioners at the beginning of the 1960s, Nikolai Peroff is the fourth from the right (© Aya Andrea Russian Orthodox Church’s archive).
    Istanbul
    Nikolai Kalmykoff
    PainterScene DesignerMuralist

    Kalmykoff played an active part in the Union of Russian Painters in Constantinople and at the same time worked as a stage designer. Later he acquired the Turkish citizenship.

    Word Count: 29

    Nikolai Kalmykoff (http://www.antikalar.com/naci-kalmukoglu).
    Nikolai Kalmykoff (http://www.antikalar.com/naci-kalmukoglu).Naci Kalmukoğlu, Liman (© Ankara Devlet Resim ve Heykel Müzesi).Naci Kalmukoğlu, Köyde tütün işleyenler (© Ankara Devlet Resim ve Heykel Müzesi).Works by Nikolai Kalmykoff (Ulus, 12 February 1941, p. 2).Works by Nikolai Kalmykoff (Ulus, 13 February 1941, p. 1).Nikolai Kalmykoff by Turkish caricaturist Ratip Tahir Burak (Ulus, 27 March 1943, p. 2).Exhibition in Ankara (Ulus, 28 March 1943, p. 2).Fortuneteller, by Nikolai Kalmykoff (Ulus, 15 November 1947, p. 3).
    Istanbul
    Traugott Fuchs
    PhilologistRomanistPoetPainter

    Traugott Fuchs was a multi-talented philologist, painter and poet who lived in Istanbul from 1934 until the end of his life in 1997.

    Word Count: 21

    Traugott Fuchs with his cat Traugotta at Robert College, photographer unknown, December 1960 (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul).
    Traugott Fuchs, Self-portrait, c. 1940 (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul).Traugott Fuchs, Hekimbaşı Salih Efendi Yalısı, Anadolu Hisarı, c. 1984 (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul). Fuchs draw the villa on the shores of the Bosporus many years after he lived there in 1938.Traugott Fuchs, Harvest I, Çorum, 1945 (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul). This rural scene was drawn during internment.Traugott Fuchs, Lonely tomb at naked mountain, Çorum, 1945 (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul). The artist painted this picture during internment.Traugott Fuchs, Sailing ship close to Istanbul, c. 1950s (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul).Traugott Fuchs, City silhouette with load carrier, n.d. (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul).Sébah & Joaillier, Robert Collège, Rumeli Hissar, 1904, photograph, postcard (https://www.flickr.com/photos/saltonline/14243596745/, SALT Araştırma, Fotoğraf Arşivi). Main building and campus of Robert College on the European side of Istanbul, where Traugott Fuchs taught and lived from 1952.Traugott Fuchs, Young man bathing in blue water, n.d., coloured pencil on paper (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul). This drawing refers to a poem by the Orientalist Hellmut Ritter, with whom Traugott Fuchs had a close friendship. Ritter gave Fuchs refuge in his house in Bebek when he returned from internment in Çorum.Hellmut Ritter. “Das Bad im Mittelmeer.” Castrum Peregrini, vol. LXXXIX, Amsterdam, 1969, 94f. (Photo: Gregor Langfeld). Ritter’s poem can be read as a dialogue with the Young man bathing in blue water by Traugott Fuchs.Traugott Fuchs, Kleine Käsflattermalve, n.d. (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul).Traugott Fuchs’s headstone, Feriköy cemetery, Istanbul (Photo: Richard Wittmann, 2019).
    Istanbul