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Arkitekt

  • Kind of Object:
    Magazine
  • Name:
    Arkitekt
  • Creator (Person):
    Abidin MortaşSedad Hakkı EldemZeki Sayar
  • Year Start:
    1931
  • Year End:
    1980
  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    Anadolu Han (today Arpacılar Cad. No. 6), Eminönü, Istanbul (editorial office).

  • Language:
    Turkish
  • City:
    Istanbul (TR)
  • Introduction:

    The architecture magazine Arkitekt was an important platform for emigrated architects and urban planners such as Bruno Taut, Martin Wagner, Wilhelm Schütte, Ernst Reuter and Gustav Oelsner.

    Word Count: 28

  • Content:

    The architecture magazine Arkitekt was the longest-lasting architecture magazine in Turkey and a critical companion to architectural practice in that country from the early 1930s. It mirrored the changes in the building landscape and the various discourses that shaped architecture in Turkey over five decades.
    The magazine was founded in 1931 under the Ottoman term for architect, namely “Mimar”, when in the absence of a Turkish architecture journal, five young architects decided to launch their own. The founders, who included Zeki Sayar, Abidin Mortaş and Sedad Hakkı Eldem, came from a generation in transition. All had been taught by the elite of neo-Ottoman architecture at the Academy of Fine Arts that was managed by Cem Mehmet Cemil from 1921 to 1925 and educated according to the principles of the École des Beaux-Arts. As graduates, however, they were confronted with a different, new architecture, as implemented by Ernst Egli and Clemens Holzmeister in Ankara and Istanbul. Considered to be not yet capable of bringing about the architectural renewal of the country demanded by the Kemalists, the young Turkish architects were looking for ways to make themselves heard.

    Mimar featured buildings – including villas, apartment buildings and industrial buildings – designed by Turkish architects. The journal provided information on building projects and competitions and published critical essays on cultural policy. Despite its national approach, Mimar did not focus only on Turkey, but also drew attention to the avant-garde abroad. In 1935, as part of its language and writing reforms, the government demanded that the magazine change its name, “Mimar” being etymologically derived from Arabic and seen as incompatible with the demand for Turkisation. Inspired by the Finnish term "Arkkitehti", the editors changed the title to Arkitekt, but attempts to embed this new word for architect in everyday language failed. Architects in Turkey continue to be called “Mimar”.

    Mimar/Arkitekt was initially based in the architectural studio of Abidin Mortaş, located in the office building Bincebbare Han in Eminönü, behind the Sirkeci post office (Akay 2015, 149). With issue 4/1931, the journal moved to Anadolu Han, where Zeki Sayar and Abidin Mortaş ran a studio together.
    Not only from the perspective of architectural history, but also from the perspective of art historical exile research, Arkitekt is one of the most remarkable publications of the 1930s and 1940s. Here, emigrated architects and urban planners such as Bruno Taut, Martin Wagner, Wilhelm Schütte, Ernst Reuter and Gustav Oelsner published multiple texts and thereby had the opportunity to stimulate discourse. They contributed on diverse topics, such as city planning and the Istanbul transport systems (Wagner), proportion and architecture (Taut), housing problems (Schütte), villages (Reuter) and monuments (Oelsner).

    It is remarkable that most of the contributions in German to Arkitekt were translated by Adnan Kolatan, who was also responsible for the translation of Bruno Taut’s textbook Mimarî Bilgisi [Architectural education] (1938). Another Arkitekt translator was the archaeologist Halet Çambel, who translated two texts by Wilhelm Schütte, “Mimar Yetiştirimi” (1943) and "Meşhur Mimarlar IV: Adolf Loos“ (1943) as well as Gustav Oelsner’s essay “Şehircilikte Abidevlik” (1945). Çambel was born in Berlin in 1916 to Turkish parents. Her family belonged to the Ottoman elite and were later members of the inner circle of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. She was a modern woman of the 1930s' Turkish Republic, studied archaeology and was also a successful fencer, a member of the Turkish fencing team in the 1936 Olympics. She later made a career as a professor at the University of Istanbul. With her knowledge of German, Çambel was an important mediator between the foreign architects and contributors to Arkitekt, the editors and the journal's readers.

    Right from the start Mimar was never afraid to criticise the master builders from abroad. Thus Holzmeister's prize-winning design for the new parliament building was judged to be “weak and dry in its external appearance” (Arkitekt, 1938, no. 1, 29). Others were assessed more favourably. Martin Wagner, the urban planner, for example, who published many essays in Arkitekt, was judged  by Sayar to be a “true scientist in his field”. (Arkitekt, 1938, no. 3, 86). Through his essays, in which he reflected on the relationship between capital and economy in urban planning, discussed demographic structures and solutions to transport issues, Wagner gave significant impetus to the development of urban planning issues in Turkey.

    Arkitekt benefited from the knowledge of foreign architects and urban planners and, in return, gave them the opportunity to share their thoughts with a wider public. For those emigrants who had suffered reprisals in National Socialist Germany and been robbed of their “voice” - among them, Ernst Reuter, Martin Wagner and Gustav Oelsner – the opportunity to publish in Arkitekt provided a feeling of recognition. These architects, town planners and urbanists were after all well-liked as consulting experts. This did not mean, however, that Arkitekt was uncritical of the work of the German-speaking experts. On the contrary, the magazine was one of the voices in the country that contributed to the radicalisation of the discussion about German-speaking architects. In 1933, the first letters of protest from Turkish architects demanding a greater voice were published in Arkitekt and the editors denounced competitions reserved for foreign architects, as well as the personal nomination of architects by the Kemalist government which threatened to hinder and displace the upcoming generation of Turkish architects (Mimar, 1933, no. 3, 30). The first competition for an exhibition house in Ankara was won by Şevki Balmumcu – like Zeki Sayar, Sedad Hakkı Eldem and Abidin Mortaş, he had graduated from the academy in 1928. Arkitekt was both a progressive magazine and a nationalist organ, and, from 1938 onwards, an increasingly vehement advocate of a Turkish architectural movement. This led to a controversial position on the subject of foreign architects which frequently displayed the character of an actual campaign.

    Word Count: 946

  • Signature Image:
    Arkitekt, no. 9, 1936, cover (Photo: Archive Burcu Dogramaci).
  • Media:
    Arkitekt, no. 1–2, 1939, cover (Photo: Archive Burcu Dogramaci).
    Arkitekt, no. 10–11, 1936, cover. Issue with the essay “Istanbul havalisinin plânı” by Martin Wagner (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Martin Wagner. “Istanbul havalisinin plânı.” Arkitekt, no. 10–11, 1936, p. 301 (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Arkitekt, no. 7, 1938, cover. Issue featuring the essay “Proporsyon” by Bruno Taut (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Bruno Taut. “Proporsiyon.” Translation Adnan Kolatan. Arkitekt, no. 7, 1938, p. 194 (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Arkitekt, no. 3–4, 1941, cover. Issue featuring Wilhelm Schütte’s essay “Sefalet Mahalleleri” (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Wilhelm Schütte. “Sefalet Mahalleleri.” [Neighbourhoods of Misery] Translation Adnan Kolatan. Arkitekt, no. 3–4, 1941, p. 78 (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Arkitekt, no. 5–6, 1943, cover. Issue with Ernst Reuter’s essay “Kasabalarimiz“ and Wilhelm Schütte’s contribution “Karl Friedrich Schinkel” (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Ernst Reuter. “Kasabalarimiz.“ [Our villages] Translation Adnan Kolatan. Arkitekt, no. 5–6, 1943, p. 121 (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Gustav Oelsner. “Şehircilikte Abidevlik.” [Monuments in City planning] Translation Halet Çambel. Arkitekt, no. 11–12, 1945, p. 265.
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Arkitekt/Mimar, 1931–1980.

    Arsebük, Güven, et al., editors. Light on Top of the Black Hill. Studies presented to Halet Çambel = Karatepe’deki Isik. Halet Çambel’e sunulan yazilar. Ege Yayınları, 1998.

    Akay, Zafer. “Arkitekt'in 50 Yılı: Evreler, yazarlar, Mimarlar.” Zeki Sayar ve Arkitekt: tasarlamak, örgütlemek, belgelemek, edited by Ali Cengizkan et al., TMMOB Mimarlar Odası, 2015, pp. 149–158.

    Cengizkan, Ali, et al, editors. Zeki Sayar’a armağan: Türkiye Mimarlığı ve Eleştiri. TMMOB Mimarlar Odası, 2012.

    Cengizkan, Ali, et al., editors. Zeki Sayar ve Arkitekt: tasarlamak, örgütlemek, belgelemek. TMMOB Mimarlar Odası, 2015.

    mimar.ist, vol. 12, no. 46, 2012.

    Sayar, Zeki. “No title.” Anılarda Mimarlık. Yemyapı, 1995, pp. 100–113.

    Word Count: 107

  • Archives and Sources:

    Word Count: 5

  • Acknowledgements:

    I would like to thank Ali Cengizkan, who helped with information. The digital issues of Arkitekt magazine on the Mimarlar Odası website were an important source for this entry.

    Word Count: 29

  • Author:
    Burcu Dogramaci
  • Metropolis:
    Istanbul
  • Entry in process:
    no
  • Burcu Dogramaci. "Arkitekt." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/2949/object/5140-10801463, last modified: 20-06-2021.
  • Rudolf Belling
    Sculptor

    As a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts and Technical University in Istanbul from 1937 until 1966, Rudolf Belling taught his students the technicalities of form, material and proportion.

    Word Count: 28

    Rudolf Belling during an interview shortly after his arrival in Turkey, 1937. Yedigün, no. 212, vol. 9, March 1937, p. 8 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).
    Rudolf Belling with a student in front of copies of antique sculptures, 1937. Yedigün, no. 212, vol. 9, March 1937, p. 9 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Rudolf Belling. “Heykeltraşlık.” Arkitekt, no. 12, 1936, p. 348 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr). Here, Belling explains his future teaching programme at the Academy of Fine Arts. Below, his likewise newly-appointed colleague, the French artist and professor of painting Léopold Lévy, expresses himself.Rudolf Belling, Draft for the monument Atatürk hands over responsibility for the Republic to the youth, Istanbul University, 1938, model, second version, published in the journal Ar, no. 19, 1938, p. 8 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Studio exhibition class of Rudolf Belling at the Academy of Fine Arts, 1940, published in Güzel Sanatlar Dergisi, no. 4, 1942 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Studio exhibition class of Rudolf Belling at the Academy of Fine Arts, 1940: Hüseyin Özkan Anka, Athlet, before 1940, published in Güzel Sanatlar Dergisi, no. 4, 1942 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Rudolf Belling, Monument for Ismet Inönü, Courtyard of the Agricultural Faculty of the University of Ankara, 1943/44 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2004).Rudolf Belling with students at the Academy of Fine Arts, Istanbul, c. 1945, 1st from left: Hüseyin Gezer, photographer unknown (Rudolf-Belling-Archiv, Krailling).Rudolf Belling, Moulding for the Istanbul University, entrance to conference room of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, 1946, detail (Photo: Dogramaci, 2002).Rudolf Belling, Skulptur 49 (In Memoriam Dreiklang), 1949, bronze, Collection Elisabeth Weber-Belling, Krailling (Nerdinger 1981).Rudolf Belling, Segelmotiv, 1959/1962, Bank für Gemeinwirtschaft, Hamburg, Dornbusch/Rolandsbrücke (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2020).Rudolf Belling, Blütenmotiv (called Schuttblume), 1967/1972, Olympiapark, Munich, (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2019).
    Istanbul
    Gustav Oelsner
    ArchitectCity Planner

    Gustav Oelsner became the founding father of urban planning in Turkey, his country of exile. He was also the author of numerous articles for the architectural journal Arkitekt.

    Word Count: 28

    Gustav Oelsner with students at the Technical University Istanbul, 1941 (Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg Carl von Ossietzky, Nachlass Gustav Oelsner, NGO:Dd:11).
    Gustav Oelsner’s essay “Yaşayış Şekillerini kuvvetlendirmek lüzumludur” [The need to improve living conditions] with his own drawings, in Arkitekt, 1946, p. 132 (Private Archive).Gustav Oelsner, House with two storage areas and shop, c. 1946, study (Hamburgisches Architekturarchiv). Oelsner used this drawing for his essay “Yaşayış Şekillerini kuvvetlendirmek lüzumludur” in Arkitekt magazine, 1946.Gustav Oelsner. “Köyler.” [Villages] Arkitekt, no. 11-12, 1944, p. 269 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Gustav Oelsner, Traditional village structure in Amasya, undated photography (Hamburgisches Architekturarchiv).Gustav Oelsner (third left) in the apartment of Kemal Ahmet Arû, far right, Rudolf Belling, 1955 (Arû 2001, 69). Oelsner visited Turkey one more time, in 1955, and received an honorary doctorate from Istanbul Technical University.Gustav Oelsner's I.T.Ü. Mimarlık Fakültesi Şehircilik II. Notları, undated [before 1945], cover page (Archive Kemal Ahmet Arû, Istanbul). Oelsner's TU Istanbul urban planning lecture notes, translated into Turkish by Arû.Grave of Gustav Oelsner at the Ohlsdorf Cemetery in Hamburg, where the architect is buried in the Old Hamburg Memorial Cemetery (Althamburgischer Gedächtnisfriedhof) with the graves of notable Hamburg citizens (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2020).
    Istanbul
    Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte Apartment
    Residence

    The exiled architects Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte lived from 1938 in an apartment in Kabataş, on the European side of Istanbul. The flat has been preserved in numerous photographs, allowing the interior design to be reconstructed. The view of the Bosporus from the balcony was spectacular.

    Word Count: 48

    Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte on the balcony of their apartment, Cili Apartman House, Izzet Paşa Sokak No. 28, Kabataş, c. 1938, detail (ÖGFA, Archive Wilhelm Schütte).
    Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte on the balcony of their apartment, Cili Apartman House, Izzet Paşa Sokak No. 28, Kabataş, c. 1938 (ÖGFA, Archive Wilhelm Schütte).Anonymous. “‘Cili’ kira evi. Taksim. Mimar Zeki Sayâr.” Arkitekt, no. 1, 1936, p. 1: View from the street ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Anonymous. “‘Cili’ kira evi. Taksim. Mimar Zeki Sayâr.” Arkitekt, no. 1, 1936, p. 4: View from the street of the rear of the building, which overlooked the sea ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Anonymous. “‘Cili’ kira evi. Taksim. Mimar Zeki Sayâr.” Arkitekt, no. 1, 1936, p. 6 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Contemporary view of Cili Apartman House, Izzet Paşa Sokak No. 28, Kabataş, now Hacı Izzet Paşa Sokak No. 18, Beyoğlu (Photo: Thomas Flierl, 2019).Entrance to Cili Apartman House, Izzet Paşa Sokak No. 28, Kabataş, now Hacı Izzet Paşa Sokak No. 18, Beyoğlu (Photo: Thomas Flierl, 2019).Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte in their living room, 1939, photographer unknown, 11,2 x 8,7 cm (University of Applied Arts Vienna, Collection and Archive, Inv.Nr. F/151).Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and/or Wilhelm Schütte, Apartment in Istanbul, view from the balcony, c. 1939–1943, 7 x 7 cm (University of Applied Arts Vienna, Collection and Archive, Inv.Nr. F/152).Apartment in Istanbul, worktable, c. 1943, 6 x 6 cm (University of Applied Arts Vienna, Collection and Archive, Inv.Nr. F/142). Wilhelm Schütte's workplace with the typewriter on which he wrote his essays for the journal Arkitekt. The photograph may have been taken by Schütte.Apartment in Istanbul, dining area, c. 1943, 6 x 6 cm (University of Applied Arts Vienna, Collection and Archive, Inv.Nr. F/147). The three prints on the wall refer to trips taken by the architects to Japan and China in the 1930s.The photograph may have been taken by Wilhelm Schütte.Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte (standing, 2nd left) in front of the school in Karapürsek, September 1938, photographer unknown (ÖGFA, Archive Wilhelm Schütte). Soon after their arrival, the two architects visited village schools in the wider vicinity of Ankara and Istanbul.Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, Dr Kemal Özsan House, 1939, 51 x 43 cm (University of Applied Arts Vienna, Collection and Archive, Inv.Nr. 137/2. Reproduction: Robert Newald; © Luzie Lahtinen-Stransky). The drawing shows floor plans and views of the facades. The house should have been built in Istanbul but was never realised.Wilhelm Schütte, Ankara Yenişehir Orta Okulu [Secondary School in Ankara Yenişehir), 1.5.1939 (ÖGFA, Archive Wilhelm Schütte).Wilhelm Schütte. “Th. Fischer ve Proporsiyonlar.” [Theodor Fischer and the proportions] Arkitekt, no. 9–10, 1940, p. 224 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Wilhelm Schütte. “Adolf Loos.” Translation Halet Çambel. Arkitekt, no. 1–2, 1941, p. 41 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Wilhelm Schütte. “Karl Friedrich Schinkel 1781–1841. Bugün bizlere ne ifade eder?.” [Karl Friedrich Schinkel 1781–1841. What does he tell us today?] Translation: Adnan Kolatan. Arkitekt, no. 5–6, 1943, p. 131 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Wilhelm Schütte. “Zelzele sahalarının yeniden imari hakkında düşünceler.” [Thoughts on reconstruction in earthquake zones] Arkitekt, no. 3–4, 1940, p. 75 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Wilhelm Schütte. “Zelzele sahalarının yeniden imari hakkında düşünceler.” [Thoughts on reconstruction in earthquake zones] Arkitekt, no. 3–4, 1940, p. 77 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Wilhelm Schütte. “Yer Depremleri Hakkında Yeni Araştırmalar.” [New findings about earthquakes] Arkitekt, no. 9–10, 1943, p. 211 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Istanbul
    Mimarî Bilgisi
    Book

    The architect Bruno Taut published his textbook Mimarî Bilgisi in 1938, only two years after his emigration to Istanbul, where he was appointed professor at the Academy of Fine Arts.

    Word Count: 29

    Bruno Taut, Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, cover (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).
    Advertisement for Kenan Basımevi ve Klişe Fabrikası publishing and printing house which appeared in Akşam newspaper, 31 October 1937, p. 10 (https://www.gastearsivi.com). The owner Kenan Dinçman advertises the high quality of his printworks: “Son sistem makinelerle mücehhez klişe atölyesi – En mükemmel tabı makineleri ve mücellidhane takımları“.Bruno Taut. “Teknik.” Arkitekt, no. 9, 1938, p. 257 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr). Taut published a preprint of Mimarî Bilgisi in Turkey's first architectural journal.Bruno Taut, Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, bastard title (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Bruno Taut. Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, reference to Kenan Basımevi ve Klişe Fabrikası publishing and printing house (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Bruno Taut. Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, foreword by the Minister of Culture and Education, Saffet Arıkan (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Bruno Taut. Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, contents list (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Bruno Taut. Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, page 1: "Mimarî nedir? – What is architecture?" (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Bruno Taut. Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, page 73: Villa Katsura (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Bruno Taut. Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, page 73: catafalque for Atatürk’s funeral, designed by Taut (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Bruno Taut. Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, page 156: Şehzade mosque (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).
    Istanbul
    Türk Tarih Sergisi
    Exhibition

    In 1937, the exiled urban planner Martin Wagner was commissioned to design an exhibition for a congress of the Association for the Study of Turkish History at Dolmabahçe Palace.

    Word Count: 29

    Martin Wagner, view of main exhibition room at the Türk Tarih Sergisi [Turkish History Exhibition], Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, 1937 (La Turquie Kemaliste 1937). The different epochs of Turkish history from prehistoric times through the Ottomans to the Turkish Republic are described using a variety of objects and panels.
    Martin Wagner during work on the Türk Tarih Sergisi [Turkish History Exhibition] at the Dolmabahçe Palace, 1937. Photographer unknown (Wagner, Bernard 1985, 46).Martin Wagner, exhibition design, Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, 1937 (Wagner, Bernard 1985, 45). Here Wagner has made a sketch of the exhibition foyer, which he planned as an accessible semicircle.Martin Wagner, exhibition design, Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, 1937. Foyer (La Turquie Kemaliste 1937).Martin Wagner, view of main exhibition room at the Türk Tarih Sergisi [Turkish History Exhibition], Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, 1937 (La Turquie Kemaliste 1937). The different epochs of Turkish history from prehistoric times through the Ottomans to the Turkish Republic are described using a variety of objects and panels.Martin Wagner, exhibition architecture, Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, 1937. Historical part: tomb, from Alaca Höyük (La Turquie Kemaliste 1937).Martin Wagner, exhibition architecture, Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, 1937. Historical part: 16th century door (La Turquie Kemaliste 1937).Martin Wagner, exhibition architecture, Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, 1937. Contemporary part (La Turquie Kemaliste 1937).Martin Wagner, exhibition architecture, Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, 1937. Contemporary part: agriculture (La Turquie Kemaliste 1937). Agriculture is visualised by a large three-dimensional ear of grain placed in front of a farmer drawn in silhouette.Martin Wagner, exhibition architecture, Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, 1937. Contemporary part: justice (La Turquie Kemaliste 1937). Wagner characterised the successes of Kemalist justice and the new legal system by personifying justice.Martin Wagner, exhibition architecture, Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, 1937. Contemporary part: culture (La Turquie Kemaliste 1937).Martin Wagner, exhibition architecture, Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, 1937. Contemporary part: woman (La Turquie Kemaliste 1937).Martin Wagner, exhibition architecture, Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, 1937. Contemporary part: sport (La Turquie Kemaliste 1937). The category “sport”, showing an athlete holding up the Olympic rings, paid homage to the new body awareness. Turkey participated in the Olympic Games for the first time in 1936.
    Istanbul
    Mehmet Cemil Cem
    DiplomatCaricaturist

    Cemil Cem is remembered as a cartoonist, although he also managed the Academy of Fine Arts in Istanbul for four years. While director of the academy, he supported Russian-speaking artists.

    Word Count: 30

    Cemil Cem (Turgut Çeviker Archive, Turkey).
    Cemil Cem (Turgut Çeviker Archive, Turkey).Mehmet Cemil Cem (Photo: Ekaterina Aygün, 2021).Caricature by Cemil Cem from Cem, 18 November 1910 (Turgut Çeviker Archive, Turkey).Cem Street, Istanbul (Photo: Ekaterina Aygün, 2021).One of the caricatures by Mehmet Cemil Cem (Photo: Ekaterina Aygün, 2021).
    Istanbul
    Ragıp Devres Villa
    BuildingResidence

    The house designed by the Swiss-Austrian architect Ernst Egli for the engineer Ragip Devres in Istanbul Bebek left its mark on the Turkish villa landscape.

    Word Count: 25

    Ernst Egli, Ragıp Devres House, Istanbul Bebek, Cevdet Paşa Caddesi No. 101, 1932/33, view from the street (Werk, no. 25, 1938).
    Ernst Egli, Ragıp Devres House, Istanbul Bebek, Cevdet Paşa Caddesi No. 101, 1932/33, interior (Werk, no. 25, 1938).
    Istanbul
    Bruno Taut House
    Residence

    Architect Bruno Taut’s house in Ortaköy stands on a hillside with a panoramic view of the Bosporus, located at the point where Asia and Europe are closest to one another.

    Word Count: 32

    Yapı, No. 13, 1975, cover with Bruno Taut House at the Bosporus, photo: Bülent Özer (Private Archive).
    Bruno Taut House, Istanbul Ortaköy, Emin Vafi Korusu, 1937/38 (Junghanns 1983, ill. 331).Bruno Taut House, Istanbul Ortaköy, 1937/38, view from northwest, drawing by Tulay Gündüz und Mesut Işcan, 1967 (Yapı, No. 13, 1975).Erica Wittich-Taut, Bruno Taut (l.) and the architect Şinasi Lugal at Taut’s exhibition, opened up at the Academy of Fine Arts, Istanbul, June 1938 (Archive Manfred Speidel).
    Istanbul