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Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte Apartment

  • Kind of Object:
    Residence
  • Name:

    Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte Apartment

    Word Count: 8

  • Alternative Names:
    Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky ve Wilhelm Schütte apartmanı
  • Year Start:
    1938
  • Year End:
    1944
  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    Cili Apartman (Cili Kira evi), Izzet Paşa Sokak No. 28, Gümüşsuyu/Kabataş (now Hacı Izzet Paşa Sokak No. 18, Beyoğlu), Istanbul (residence).

  • City:
    Istanbul (TR)
  • Introduction:

    The exiled architects Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte lived from 1938 in an apartment in Kabataş, on the European side of Istanbul. The flat has been preserved in numerous photographs, allowing the interior design to be reconstructed. The view of the Bosporus from the balcony was spectacular.

    Word Count: 48

  • Content:

    The exiled architects Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky (1897–2000) and Wilhelm Schütte (1900–1968) lived in an apartment in Gümüşsuyu/Kabataş, on the European side of Istanbul from 1938. The flat has been preserved in numerous photographs, allowing the interior design to be reconstructed. The view of the Bosporus from the balcony was spectacular.

    The Viennese architect Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and the German architect Wilhelm Schütte, who specialised in school construction, met in Frankfurt am Main in 1926, where they were both employed in the structural engineering department under Ernst May. Together they contributed to the modern restructuring of the city, which was widely perceived as the “New Frankfurt”. With May, the two architects went to Moscow to participate in the building of new Soviet cities. On a trip to Japan they visited Bruno Taut, who was in exile there and would later find them a position in Turkey. In 1937, Schütte-Lihotzky and Schütte had to leave the Soviet Union but, due to the political situation, could not return to Germany and emigrated to Paris. In 1938 they accepted an offer from Bruno Taut to work under his direction at the Istanbul Academy of Fine Arts and the buildings department of the Turkish Ministry of Education. Taut had in 1938 already had two years of intensive school and university building activity in Turkey, and was also teaching as a professor of architecture. That same year, he built his own house in Ortaköy and published his textbook Mimarî Bilgisi.  

    In Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte, the Turkish Ministry of Education  recruited professionals with many years of international experience in school construction and for the architects themselves their Turkish exile offered an opportunity to continue their work in school building reform. Soon after their arrival, they made visits to a number of village schools in the wider vicinity of Ankara and Istanbul. Schütte-Lihotzky's began to design expandable village schools constructed of earth and air-dried bricks which could be built by the villagers themselves under the instruction of specialists. On behalf of the Ministry of Education, Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky developed concepts for the construction of typified village schools, which were published in a brochure in 1939. It is presumed that these schools were built in large numbers in rural Turkey. Employing typical 1920s' approaches to school building reform, Schütte-Lihotzky also conceived a plan for the expansion of a girls grammar school in Ankara, though this was never realised. Immediately after their arrival Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhem Schütte designed an ephemeral festive architecture to mark the 15th anniversary of the founding of the republic, which was erected at the end of Galata Bridge in October 1938.  

    From mid-1939, Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky ceased working for the Ministry, but continued as a freelance architect. In 1939/40, she submitted several residential building designs, some in cooperation with Wilhelm Schütte (Flierl 2021, 447), including a draft for the archeologist Halet Çambel, who was responsible for the translation of two essays by Wilhelm Schütte in the journal Arkitekt (Schütte 1941a; 1943c). She also co-designed the Lütfi Tozan House (Ankara), was responsible for the Nusret Evcen House (Istanbul) and the Dr Kemal Özsan House (Istanbul). Özsan was a doctor who ran a practice for urology and skin diseases in Istiklal Caddesi, Tünelbaşı and the house designed for him by Schütte-Lihotzky envisaged a lodger flat on the lowest residential floor, which could be used as a doctor's office. The parents' and children's bedrooms on the upper floor were connected and the reception rooms were located on the first floor. Unfortunately, none of Schütte-Lihotzky's house designs were ever built.

    Her time in Turkey led to Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky's politicisation and in 1939 she became a member of the Communist Party Austria (KPÖ) and joined a resistance circle led by the architect Herbert Eichholzer (for details see Flierl 2021, 478–486). On a clandestine courier trip to Vienna at the end of 1940 and beginning of 1941, she was arrested, narrowly escaped execution and was sentenced to fifteen years in prison.
    Wilhelm Schütte and Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky remained in contact through letters, which, due to censorship, often contained coded messages, but also detailed descriptions of Schütte's life in Turkey (Schütte-Lihotzky/Schütte 2021).
    From December 1939 until his departure in 1946, Wilhelm Schütte was also employed as a lecturer, and since 1941 professor, at the Istanbul Academy of Fine Arts and taught a large number of architecture students, among them Muhlis Türkmen and Ercüment Tarcan, who still felt connected to him decades later. In Turkey, Schütte was also active as an author, writing essays on the history of architecture, on current architectural challenges in his country of exile, and on the education of young architects.

    He published ten articles in the architectural journal Arkitekt, in which he developed programmatic approaches to his teaching activities. He devoted himself to central figures of European architectural history such as Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Adolf Loos and Theodor Fischer (Schütte 1940c; 1941a; 1943) believing that the architectural approach of these men and, above all, their intellectual attitude were of relevance for the Turkish present. Schütte clearly intended to provide an intellectual education for the young Turkish architects, which he considered fundamental for their practical work. One of his essays in particular, “Mimar Yetiştirimi” [Education as an Architect] from 1943, can be read as programmatic. (Schütte 1943c). This article, published in German in 1953 in the magazine Aufbau and titled “Erziehung zum Architekten” (Schütte 1953), provides an insight into Schütte's teaching methods. The teacher's first task, he believed, was to impart knowledge of building materials, mechanics, construction and purpose, social and political contexts, which must then be followed by the stimulation of ideas and creative development.
    In his contributions to Arkitekt, Wilhelm Schütte addressed himself to the huge building construction challenge of earthquakes in Turkey. After the 1939 Erzincan earthquake catastrophe the director of the Academy of Fine Arts, Burhan Toprak, sent Wilhelm Schütte to the earthquake site to write a report on reconstruction. This report was published in the magazine Arkitekt in 1940 and was followed by another contribution in 1943 (Schütte 1940a; 1943b). Schütte was to write several reports on the extent of the building and city damage and on reconstruction measures.

    After his wife's arrest and imprisonment, Wilhelm Schütte lived alone for several years, but from 1943 shared his apartment with a view at the Bosporus with the art historian Ernst Diez, a professor at Istanbul University and the author of the controversial book Türk Sanatı, published in 1946. Ernst Diez described the remarkable view from the apartment in a letter: “From my seat, as from every point in my five-by-five-and-a-half-metre room, I look down on the Bosporus, which is only thirty metres below and about fifty metres away as the crow flies. So one lives almost directly on the water. The Bosporus is about 3 kilometres wide, and on the opposite side are Scutari and the mountain ranges of Anatolia. Down in the water, however, the steamers, sailors and motorboats are always quietly making their way, because they are so far away that you can't hear their noise, but only see them pass by. Large ships are moored further out – now already with their nocturnal lights. It is 6 o'clock in the evening, summer time, and just the last twilight. So our house front is south, parallel with the Bosporus, or better south-east. The sun rises behind the opposite mountain ranges and shines on us until early afternoon. Immediately to the right of our terrace is a small, still freshly green meadow with an ancient, mighty pine tree through whose branches we look out to the south-west onto the Sea of Marmara, where the Princes' Islands appear in the distance. Since the terraced gardens in front of us are almost hidden from view by only one street without shops – the road that leads along the shore of the Bosporus to the Black Sea – we are completely protected from the city noise, which is particularly bad here due to the criers of all kinds of food and the shouting newspaper boys, as well as the constantly honking car drivers, and which can also be heard disturbingly upstairs in the Archaeological Institute. Our house, one of the numerous apartment buildings that are springing up everywhere in place of the old small Turkish wooden houses, is situated on the steep slope that descends from the height of Taksim Square to the sea, and it is already quite low down, almost at the foot of this ridge.” (Diez 1943, translated from German).

    The five-room flat that was the home of Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte, and where Ernst Diez lived for a time, was located in the Cili Kira evi (Cili Apartman or Cili Apartment house) in the residential district of Gümüşsuyu/Kabataş in the European part of Istanbul, not far from Taksim Square (this district also became a home for the Russian photographer Jules Kanzler). The building was designed by Zeki Sayar, aspiring architect and editor of Arkitekt magazine (see Flierl 2021, 449f.) which published a multi-page feature on Cili Kira evi in 1936. This provided information on the building’s contemporary exterior, as well as floor plans and interior views, and also featured the building's location on a steep slope above the Bosporus which enabled the magnificent sea views that pertained from the garden side. According to Thomas Flierl's reconstruction, the couple’s flat was on the ground-floor of Cili Kira evi.

    Photographs of the flat show a contemporary European interior. Some of the furniture in the living room had been designed by Schütte himself and in the work area we can see a typewriter, on which he may have written his articles for Arkitekt. The transcultural experience of Schütte and his now-absent wife are inscribed in the design of the dining room, on whose walls hang kakemono in vertical orientation, i.e. tatejiku. This genre originated through close cultural exchange between Japan and China and was used in tea house design. The wall scroll prints were easy to transport and so a popular souvenir for travellers. Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte probably acquired theirs when they visited Bruno Taut in Japan in 1934. Particularly striking are the views of the Bosporus from the wide-windowed living room and especially from the balcony. The apartment was within walking distance (10 minutes) of the Academy of Fine Arts, where Schütte taught, and was also well connected by tram to Istanbul University, where Ernst Diez worked (he also gave lectures at the academy).
    After Turkey, which had long been neutral, cut diplomatic relations with Germany in August 1944 and shortly afterwards entered the Second World War on the side of the Allies, numerous Germans and Austrians were interned in Anatolian towns. In 1944 Ernst Diez was interned in Kırşehir, while Wilhelm Schütte was taken to Yozgat, together with 260 other internees. The architect used his time there to design an extension to the grammar school in Yozgat. The adjoining boarding school building was to accommodate 200 pupils (Demir 2008, 325). Schütte also successfully organised a public library with more than 200 books, to provide a diversion and some spiritual edification in a tense situation (Anhegger 1945).

    After his release from internment in June 1946, Schütte did not return to his apartment in Kabataş, but lived in the Saylan Apartman on the Asian side of Istanbul, in the Kandilli/Üsküdar district (Demir 2008, 317). He had already organised his return to Vienna while still in Yozgat and, at the end of 1946, met up with his wife, who had been released from prison, in Sofia and they travelled back to Vienna together at the beginning of 1947. The two separated in 1951 and followed independent careers as freelance architects, occasionally working on joint projects.

    Word Count: 1962

  • Signature Image:
    Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte on the balcony of their apartment, Cili Apartman House, Izzet Paşa Sokak No. 28, Kabataş, c. 1938, detail (ÖGFA, Archive Wilhelm Schütte).
  • Media:
    Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte on the balcony of their apartment, Cili Apartman House, Izzet Paşa Sokak No. 28, Kabataş, c. 1938 (ÖGFA, Archive Wilhelm Schütte).
    Anonymous. “‘Cili’ kira evi. Taksim. Mimar Zeki Sayâr.” Arkitekt, no. 1, 1936, p. 1: View from the street (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Anonymous. “‘Cili’ kira evi. Taksim. Mimar Zeki Sayâr.” Arkitekt, no. 1, 1936, p. 4: View from the street of the rear of the building, which overlooked the sea (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Anonymous. “‘Cili’ kira evi. Taksim. Mimar Zeki Sayâr.” Arkitekt, no. 1, 1936, p. 6 (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Contemporary view of Cili Apartman House, Izzet Paşa Sokak No. 28, Kabataş, now Hacı Izzet Paşa Sokak No. 18, Beyoğlu (Photo: Thomas Flierl, 2019).
    Entrance to Cili Apartman House, Izzet Paşa Sokak No. 28, Kabataş, now Hacı Izzet Paşa Sokak No. 18, Beyoğlu (Photo: Thomas Flierl, 2019).
    Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte in their living room, 1939, photographer unknown, 11,2 x 8,7 cm (University of Applied Arts Vienna, Collection and Archive, Inv.Nr. F/151).
    Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and/or Wilhelm Schütte, Apartment in Istanbul, view from the balcony, c. 1939–1943, 7 x 7 cm (University of Applied Arts Vienna, Collection and Archive, Inv.Nr. F/152).
    Apartment in Istanbul, worktable, c. 1943, 6 x 6 cm (University of Applied Arts Vienna, Collection and Archive, Inv.Nr. F/142). Wilhelm Schütte's workplace with the typewriter on which he wrote his essays for the journal Arkitekt. The photograph may have been taken by Schütte.
    Apartment in Istanbul, dining area, c. 1943, 6 x 6 cm (University of Applied Arts Vienna, Collection and Archive, Inv.Nr. F/147). The three prints on the wall refer to trips taken by the architects to Japan and China in the 1930s.The photograph may have been taken by Wilhelm Schütte.
    Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte (standing, 2nd left) in front of the school in Karapürsek, September 1938, photographer unknown (ÖGFA, Archive Wilhelm Schütte). Soon after their arrival, the two architects visited village schools in the wider vicinity of Ankara and Istanbul.
    Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, Dr Kemal Özsan House, 1939, 51 x 43 cm (University of Applied Arts Vienna, Collection and Archive, Inv.Nr. 137/2. Reproduction: Robert Newald; © Luzie Lahtinen-Stransky). The drawing shows floor plans and views of the facades. The house should have been built in Istanbul but was never realised.
    Wilhelm Schütte, Ankara Yenişehir Orta Okulu [Secondary School in Ankara Yenişehir), 1.5.1939 (ÖGFA, Archive Wilhelm Schütte).
    Wilhelm Schütte. “Th. Fischer ve Proporsiyonlar.” [Theodor Fischer and the proportions] Arkitekt, no. 9–10, 1940, p. 224 (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Wilhelm Schütte. “Adolf Loos.” Translation Halet Çambel. Arkitekt, no. 1–2, 1941, p. 41 (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Wilhelm Schütte. “Karl Friedrich Schinkel 1781–1841. Bugün bizlere ne ifade eder?.” [Karl Friedrich Schinkel 1781–1841. What does he tell us today?] Translation: Adnan Kolatan. Arkitekt, no. 5–6, 1943, p. 131 (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Wilhelm Schütte. “Zelzele sahalarının yeniden imari hakkında düşünceler.” [Thoughts on reconstruction in earthquake zones] Arkitekt, no. 3–4, 1940, p. 75 (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Wilhelm Schütte. “Zelzele sahalarının yeniden imari hakkında düşünceler.” [Thoughts on reconstruction in earthquake zones] Arkitekt, no. 3–4, 1940, p. 77 (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
    Wilhelm Schütte. “Yer Depremleri Hakkında Yeni Araştırmalar.” [New findings about earthquakes] Arkitekt, no. 9–10, 1943, p. 211 (http://dergi.mo.org.tr).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Anhegger, Robert. Report about my journey to Yozgat, 1945. Ernst Reuter Papers (Landesarchiv Berlin, 1945), Rep. 200–21, Acc. 1180, Nr. 48.

    Anonymous. “‘Cili’ kira evi. Taksim. Mimar Zeki Sayâr.” Arkitekt, no. 1, 1936, pp. 1–8.

    Baum, David. “Wilhelm Schütte als Vermittler und Architekt im Nachkriegs-Wien (1947– 1968).” Wilhelm Schütte. Architekt. Frankfurt, Moskau, Istanbul, Wien, edited by ÖGFA – Österreichische Gesellschaft für Architektur, Ute Waditschatka, Park Books, 2019, pp. 64–91.

    Baum, David. “Wilhelm Schütte – im Schatten Lihotzkys?.” Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky. Architektur. Politik. Geschlecht. Neue Perspektiven auf Leben und Werk (Edition Angewandte), edited by Marcel Bois and Bernadette Reinhold, Birkhäuser, 2019, pp. 208–223.

    Demir, Ataman. Arşivdeki belgeler ışığında Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi’nde Yabancı hocalar. Philipp Ginther’den (1929) – (1958) Kurt Erdmann’a kadar. Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi, 2008.

    Diez, Ernst. Letter to Beryl Diez. Ernst Diez Papers (Paul Sacher Foundation, Basel, 3 December 1943).

    Dogramaci, Burcu. Kulturtransfer und nationale Identität. Deutschsprachige Architekten, Stadtplaner und Bildhauer in der Türkei nach 1927. Gebr. Mann, 2008.

    Dogramaci, Burcu. Fotografieren und Forschen. Wissenschaftliche Expeditionen mit der Kamera im türkischen Exil nach 1933. Jonas, 2013.

    Dogramaci, Burcu. “Architekt, Lehrer, Autor: Wilhelm Schütte in der Türkei (1938–1946).” Wilhelm Schütte. Architekt. Frankfurt, Moskau, Istanbul, Wien, edited by ÖGFA – Österreichische Gesellschaft für Architektur, Ute Waditschatka, Park Books, 2019, pp. 48–63.

    Dogramaci, Burcu. “Intermezzo in Istanbul. Margarete Schütte-Lihotzkys Projekte im türkischen Exil.” Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky. Architektur. Politik. Geschlecht. Neue Perspektiven auf Leben und Werk (Edition Angewandte), edited by Marcel Bois and Bernadette Reinhold, Birkhäuser, 2019, pp. 126–139.

    Flierl, Thomas. “Margarete Schütte-Lihotzkys sowjetische Jahre (1930–1937).” Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky. Architektur. Politik. Geschlecht. Neue Perspektiven auf Leben und Werk (Edition Angewandte), edited by Marcel Bois and Bernadette Reinhold, Birkhäuser, 2019, pp. 100–125.

    Flierl, Thomas. “Wilhelm Schütte als Schulbauexperte in der Sowjetunion (1930–1937).” Wilhelm Schütte. Architekt. Frankfurt, Moskau, Istanbul, Wien, edited by ÖGFA – Österreichische Gesellschaft für Architektur, Ute Waditschatka, Park Books, 2019, pp. 24–47.

    Flierl, Thomas. “Mit einem Karton voller Briefe auf Zeitreise.” Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte. “Mach den Weg um Prinkipo, meine Gedanken werden Dich dabei begleiten!” Der Gefängnis-Briefwechsel 1941–1945, edited by Thomas Flierl, Lukas Verlag, 2021, pp. 409–576.
    .

    Nicolai, Bernd. Moderne und Exil. Deutschsprachige Architekten in der Türkei 1925–1955. Verlag für Bauwesen, 1998.

    Noever, Peter, editor. Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky. Soziale Architektur. Zeitzeugin eines Jahrhunderts (2nd ed.). Böhlau, 1996.

    Schütte, Wilhelm. “Zelzele sahalarının yeniden imari hakkında düşünceler.” Arkitekt, no. 3–4, 1940a, pp. 75–87.

    Schütte, Wilhelm. “Büyük şehirlerin inkişaf meseleleri.” Arkitekt, no. 9–10, 1940b, pp. 211–213.

    Schütte, Wilhelm. “Th. Fischer ve Proporsiyonlar.” Arkitekt, no. 9–10, 1940c, pp. 224–225.

    Schütte, Wilhelm. “Adolf Loos.” Arkitekt, no. 1–2, 1941a, pp. 41–45.

    Schütte, Wilhelm. “Sefalet mahalleleri.” Arkitekt, no. 3–4, 1941b, pp. 78–87.

    Schütte, Wilhelm. “Karl Friedrich Schinkel 1781–1841. Bugün bizlere ne ifade eder?.” Arkitekt, no. 5–6, 1943a, pp. 131–135.

    Schütte, Wilhelm. “Yer Depremleri Hakkında Yeni Araştırmalar.” Arkitekt, no. 9–10, 1943b, pp. 211–215.

    Schütte, Wilhelm. “Mimar Yetiştirimi.” Arkitekt, no. 11–12, 1943c, pp. 258–260.

    Schütte, Wilhelm. “Bugünkü kültür ve ikametgâh.” Arkitekt, no. 1–2, 1944, pp. 28–31 and no. 3–4, 1944, pp. 66–70.

    Schütte, Wilhelm. “Entwicklung erdbebenfester Bauweisen.” Seismische Arbeiten (Veröffentlichungen des Zentralinstituts für Erdbebenforschung in Jena, no. 51), Akademie Verlag, 1949, pp. 99–129.

    Schütte, Wilhem. “Erziehung zum Architekten.” Der Aufbau. Monatsschrift für den Wiederaufbau, vol. 8, no. 10, 1953, pp. 507–509.

    Schütte-Lihotzky, Margarete. Yeni köy okulları bina tipleri üzerinde bir deneme. Schütte-Lihotzky Papers (unpublished manuscript, Ankara, 1939, University of Applied Arts Vienna, Collection and Archive).

    Schütte-Lihotzky, Margarete. “Wie mein Kopf gerettet wurde.” Die Zwanziger Jahre des Deutschen Werkbunds (Werkbund Archiv, 10), edited by Deutscher Werkbund and Werkbund-Archiv, Anabas, 1982, pp. 313–316.

    Schütte-Lihotzky, Margarete. Erinnerungen aus dem Widerstand 1938–1945, edited by Chup Friemert, Konkret Literatur Verlag, 1985.

    Schütte-Lihotzky, Margarete, and Wilhelm Schütte. “Mach den Weg um Prinkipo, meine Gedanken werden Dich dabei begleiten!” Der Gefängnis-Briefwechsel 1941–1945, edited by Thomas Flierl, Lukas Verlag, 2021.

    Word Count: 612

  • Archives and Sources:

    ÖGFA – Österreichische Gesellschaft für Architektur, Vienna, Archive Wilhelm Schütte.

    University of Applied Arts Vienna, Collection and Archive, Estate Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky.

    Word Count: 23

  • Acknowledgements:

    My deepest thanks go to Daniel Baum and Thomas Flierl, who helped with information, and to the ÖGFA – Österreichische Gesellschaft für Architektur, Vienna, to the
    University of Applied Arts Vienna, Collection and Archive and to Luzie Lahtinen-Stransky, who gave me permission for reproduction. The digital copies of Arkitekt magazine published by Mimarlar Odası were of great value for this entry.

    Word Count: 60

  • Author:
    Burcu Dogramaci
  • Metropolis:
    Istanbul
  • Entry in process:
    no
  • Burcu Dogramaci. "Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte Apartment." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/2949/object/5140-10969688, last modified: 18-09-2021.
  • Rudolf Belling
    Sculptor

    As a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts and Technical University in Istanbul from 1937 until 1966, Rudolf Belling taught his students the technicalities of form, material and proportion.

    Word Count: 28

    Rudolf Belling during an interview shortly after his arrival in Turkey, 1937. Yedigün, no. 212, vol. 9, March 1937, p. 8 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).
    Rudolf Belling with a student in front of copies of antique sculptures, 1937. Yedigün, no. 212, vol. 9, March 1937, p. 9 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Rudolf Belling. “Heykeltraşlık.” Arkitekt, no. 12, 1936, p. 348 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr). Here, Belling explains his future teaching programme at the Academy of Fine Arts. Below, his likewise newly-appointed colleague, the French artist and professor of painting Léopold Lévy, expresses himself.Rudolf Belling, Draft for the monument Atatürk hands over responsibility for the Republic to the youth, Istanbul University, 1938, model, second version, published in the journal Ar, no. 19, 1938, p. 8 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Studio exhibition class of Rudolf Belling at the Academy of Fine Arts, 1940, published in Güzel Sanatlar Dergisi, no. 4, 1942 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Studio exhibition class of Rudolf Belling at the Academy of Fine Arts, 1940: Hüseyin Özkan Anka, Athlet, before 1940, published in Güzel Sanatlar Dergisi, no. 4, 1942 (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Rudolf Belling, Monument for Ismet Inönü, Courtyard of the Agricultural Faculty of the University of Ankara, 1943/44 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2004).Rudolf Belling with students at the Academy of Fine Arts, Istanbul, c. 1945, 1st from left: Hüseyin Gezer, photographer unknown (Rudolf-Belling-Archiv, Krailling).Rudolf Belling, Moulding for the Istanbul University, entrance to conference room of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, 1946, detail (Photo: Dogramaci, 2002).Rudolf Belling, Skulptur 49 (In Memoriam Dreiklang), 1949, bronze, Collection Elisabeth Weber-Belling, Krailling (Nerdinger 1981).Rudolf Belling, Segelmotiv, 1959/1962, Bank für Gemeinwirtschaft, Hamburg, Dornbusch/Rolandsbrücke (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2020).Rudolf Belling, Blütenmotiv (called Schuttblume), 1967/1972, Olympiapark, Munich, (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2019).
    Istanbul
    Arkitekt
    Magazine

    The architecture magazine Arkitekt was an important platform for emigrated architects and urban planners such as Bruno Taut, Martin Wagner, Wilhelm Schütte, Ernst Reuter and Gustav Oelsner.

    Word Count: 28

    Arkitekt, no. 9, 1936, cover (Photo: Archive Burcu Dogramaci).
    Arkitekt, no. 1–2, 1939, cover (Photo: Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Arkitekt, no. 10–11, 1936, cover. Issue with the essay “Istanbul havalisinin plânı” by Martin Wagner ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Martin Wagner. “Istanbul havalisinin plânı.” Arkitekt, no. 10–11, 1936, p. 301 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Arkitekt, no. 7, 1938, cover. Issue featuring the essay “Proporsyon” by Bruno Taut ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Bruno Taut. “Proporsiyon.” Translation Adnan Kolatan. Arkitekt, no. 7, 1938, p. 194 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Arkitekt, no. 3–4, 1941, cover. Issue featuring Wilhelm Schütte’s essay “Sefalet Mahalleleri” ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Wilhelm Schütte. “Sefalet Mahalleleri.” [Neighbourhoods of Misery] Translation Adnan Kolatan. Arkitekt, no. 3–4, 1941, p. 78 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Arkitekt, no. 5–6, 1943, cover. Issue with Ernst Reuter’s essay “Kasabalarimiz“ and Wilhelm Schütte’s contribution “Karl Friedrich Schinkel” ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Ernst Reuter. “Kasabalarimiz.“ [Our villages] Translation Adnan Kolatan. Arkitekt, no. 5–6, 1943, p. 121 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Gustav Oelsner. “Şehircilikte Abidevlik.” [Monuments in City planning] Translation Halet Çambel. Arkitekt, no. 11–12, 1945, p. 265.
    Istanbul
    Türk Sanatı. Başlangıcından Günümüze kadar
    Book

    The Viennese Ernst Diez lived in Turkey from 1943 to 1950. His textbook Türk Sanatı (1946) stirred a debate on Turkish art and its relations to Byzantine and Armenian art.

    Word Count: 28

    Ernst Diez. Türk Sanatı. Başlangıcından Günümüze Kadar. Univ. Matbaası, 1946, p. 49.
    Ernst Diez. Türk Sanatı. Başlangıcından Günümüze Kadar. Univ. Matbaası, 1946 (University of Hamburg, Library of the Asien-Afrika-Institut).Ernst Diez. Türk Sanatı. Başlangıcından Günümüze Kadar. Univ. Matbaası, 1946, pp. 42–43. Diez illustrated his book with photographs from his internment in Kırşehir (University of Hamburg, Library of the Asien-Afrika-Institut).Ernst Diez. Türk Sanatı. Başlangıcından Günümüze Kadar. Univ. Matbaası, 1946, pp. 48–49. Diez mentions Yeşil Cami (Green mosque) in Bursa and emphasises the impact of Armenian architecture (University of Hamburg, Library of the Asien-Afrika-Institut).Ernst Diez. Türk Sanatı. Başlangıcından Günümüze Kadar. Univ. Matbaası, 1946, pp. 84–85. Double page with Diez’s photograph of Melik Gazi Türbe in Kırşehir (University of Hamburg, Library of the Asien-Afrika-Institut).Ernst Diez. Türk Sanatı. Başlangıcından Günümüze Kadar, Istanbul: Univ. Matbaası, 1946, pp. 172–173. Double page with photographs of Şehzade and Yeni Valide mosques in Istanbul. (University of Hamburg, Library of the Asien-Afrika-Institut).Ernst Diez. Türk Sanatı. Başlangıcından Günümüze Kadar. Univ. Matbaası, 1946, pp. 176–177. Comparison between Ayasofya (Hagia Sophia) and Süleymaniye mosque. (University of Hamburg, Library of the Asien-Afrika-Institut).Ernst Diez, Turkey, around 1946 (Aslanapa 1993).Ernst Diez and Oktay Aslanapa (right beside him) on a student excursion to the Prince's Islands in Istanbul, 23 April 1950 (Estate of Oktay Aslanapa, Istanbul).
    Istanbul
    Festive architecture for the 15th anniversary of the Turkish Republic
    Temporary street architecture

    One of the first commissions of the architects Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte, who emigrated to Istanbul in 1938, was a street architecture for the anniversary of the Turkish Republic.

    Word Count: 31

    Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte, Festive decoration for the 15th anniversary of the Turkish Republic, beginning of Galata Bridge, Istanbul-Karaköy, 1938, photograph by day (ÖGFA, Archive Wilhelm Schütte).
    Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte, Festival Tower, festive decoration for the 15th anniversary of the Turkish Republic, beginning of Galata Bridge, Istanbul Karaköy, 29.10.1938, design drawing, coloured pencil and pencil on tracing paper, 38,5 x 41,5 cm (University of Applied Arts Vienna, Collection and Archive, Inv.No. 134/2. Reproduction: Robert Newald; © Luzie Lahtinen-Stransky).Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte, Festive decoration for the 15th anniversary of the Turkish Republic, beginning of Galata Bridge, Istanbul-Karaköy, 1938, photograph by day, Galata tower at the rear (ÖGFA, Archive Wilhelm Schütte).Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Wilhelm Schütte, Festive decoration for the 15th anniversary of the Turkish Republic, beginning of Galata Bridge, Istanbul-Karaköy, 1938, photograph by night (ÖGFA, Archive Wilhelm Schütte).
    Istanbul
    Bruno Taut House
    Residence

    Architect Bruno Taut’s house in Ortaköy stands on a hillside with a panoramic view of the Bosporus, located at the point where Asia and Europe are closest to one another.

    Word Count: 32

    Yapı, No. 13, 1975, cover with Bruno Taut House at the Bosporus, photo: Bülent Özer (Private Archive).
    Bruno Taut House, Istanbul Ortaköy, Emin Vafi Korusu, 1937/38 (Junghanns 1983, ill. 331).Bruno Taut House, Istanbul Ortaköy, 1937/38, view from northwest, drawing by Tulay Gündüz und Mesut Işcan, 1967 (Yapı, No. 13, 1975).Erica Wittich-Taut, Bruno Taut (l.) and the architect Şinasi Lugal at Taut’s exhibition, opened up at the Academy of Fine Arts, Istanbul, June 1938 (Archive Manfred Speidel).
    Istanbul
    Mimarî Bilgisi
    Book

    The architect Bruno Taut published his textbook Mimarî Bilgisi in 1938, only two years after his emigration to Istanbul, where he was appointed professor at the Academy of Fine Arts.

    Word Count: 29

    Bruno Taut, Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, cover (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).
    Advertisement for Kenan Basımevi ve Klişe Fabrikası publishing and printing house which appeared in Akşam newspaper, 31 October 1937, p. 10 (https://www.gastearsivi.com). The owner Kenan Dinçman advertises the high quality of his printworks: “Son sistem makinelerle mücehhez klişe atölyesi – En mükemmel tabı makineleri ve mücellidhane takımları“.Bruno Taut. “Teknik.” Arkitekt, no. 9, 1938, p. 257 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr). Taut published a preprint of Mimarî Bilgisi in Turkey's first architectural journal.Bruno Taut, Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, bastard title (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Bruno Taut. Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, reference to Kenan Basımevi ve Klişe Fabrikası publishing and printing house (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Bruno Taut. Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, foreword by the Minister of Culture and Education, Saffet Arıkan (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Bruno Taut. Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, contents list (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Bruno Taut. Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, page 1: "Mimarî nedir? – What is architecture?" (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Bruno Taut. Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, page 73: Villa Katsura (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Bruno Taut. Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, page 73: catafalque for Atatürk’s funeral, designed by Taut (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Bruno Taut. Mimarî Bilgisi, 1938, page 156: Şehzade mosque (Archive Burcu Dogramaci).
    Istanbul
    Jules Kanzler
    PainterPhotographer

    Kanzler spent part of his life in the Russian Empire as a painter and the other in Turkey as a photographer who “documented” the early years of the Turkish Republic.

    Word Count: 30

    Jules Kanzler (Les Russes sur le Bosphore Almanac, 1927).
    Jules Kanzler (Les Russes sur le Bosphore Almanac, 1927).Valentina Taskina, by Jules Kanzler (Güneş, 9 August 1990).Photographs of artworks by young Turkish painters, Jules Kanzler, 1929 (Uyanış, 19 September 1929, p. 42).Photo by Jules Kanzler of one of the participants in the beauty contest (Cumhuriyet, 15 May 1929, n.p.).Photographs by Jules Kanzler (Uyanış, 18 April 1929, p. 1).Advertisement for Jules Kanzler's photo studio in Istanbul (Derjavnaya Rus', n.d., p. 21).Advertisement for Jules Kanzler's photo studio in Burlingame, California (The Times (San Mateo, California), 6 February 1948, p. 6).
    Istanbul