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Ragıp Devres Villa

  • Kind of Object:
    BuildingResidence
  • Name:
    Ragıp Devres Villa

    Word Count: 4

  • Alternative Names:
    Ragıp Devres evi, Ragip Devres House
  • Creator (Person):
    Ernst Egli
  • Year Start:
    1932
  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    Cevdet Paşa Caddesi No. 101, Bebek, Istanbul.

  • City:
    İstanbul (TR)
  • Introduction:

    The house designed by the Swiss-Austrian architect Ernst Egli for the engineer Ragip Devres in Istanbul Bebek left its mark on the Turkish villa landscape.

    Word Count: 25

  • Content:

    A few kilometres from the historic centre of Istanbul is the former fishing village of Bebek, where the prosperous elite of Kemalist Turkey built villas whose floor plans and occasionally also their external forms were positioned as progressive. This is particularly true of the residency designed by the Swiss-Austrian architect Ernst Egli for the engineer Ragıp Devres in Istanbul Bebek, which left its mark on the Turkish villa landscape. With its wraparound balconies, steel columns, flat roof and panoramic windows, the house follows the parameters of international architectural modernity and thus differs from the classic Turkish residential building.
    The break with tradition is also evident in the interior design of the building and the organisation of life inside it. In the classic Ottoman house, the women lived in the harem while the men lived in the selamlık, the men’s wing and reception area. Only their closest male relatives could enter the women’s quarters, and it was only there that the lady of the house was allowed to receive her guests (Nayman 1936, 510). As early as the end of the 19th century the Ottoman aristocracy and upper classes became increasingly interested in European types of housing and interior design (Gürboğa 2003, 62), but it was primarily after 1923 that a radical societal change and reform of housing took place. The floor plan of the Ragip Devres House consists of two rectangles nested inside each other, with all plumbing units and private rooms situated in the recessed wing and a single, prestigious salon for social gatherings which opens on to the garden occupying the other half. The planning of the parents’ bedroom and separate children’s rooms on the top floor was a concession to European living arrangements. At the request of the clients, Egli was also responsible for the garden architecture and the interior furnishings (Egli 1969, 51). In the dark wall panelling, built-in wardrobes and buffets there are visible references to Viennese interiors like that of the Moller House by Adolf Loos, built in 1928. A European style of residence and furnishings became the expression of a lifestyle that was the antithesis of that of an Ottoman house (Ernst Egli, in: Meier 1941, 1240). The architecture historian Oya Atalay Franck named the Ragıp Devres Villa the “poetic masterwork” (Franck 2012, 134).  

    Just a few years after the Ragip Devres Villa was built, the emigré biologists Leonore Kosswig and her husband Curt Kosswig also moved into a house in the suburb of Bebek (Inşirah Sokak No. 32), as did the philologist Erich Auerbach (Arslanlı Konak), the orientalist Hellmut Ritter (Inşirah Sokak No. 34) and with him his close friend, the philologist and painter Traugott Fuchs.

    Egli, who came to Turkey in 1927, was responsible for many ministry and government buildings in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey from 1923, and also left traces in Istanbul. He was a professor of architecture at the Academy of Fine Arts in Istanbul (1930–1936) and designed the Botanical Institute buildings, which for many years formed part of the Alfred Heilbronn Botanical Garden. Egli left Turkey in 1940, but returned in 1953–1956, working on behalf of the United Nations, and continued to work on Turkish topics, publishing his book on the Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan, Sinan Baumeister osmanischer Glanzzeit (Stuttgart: Erlenbach) in 1954.

    Word Count: 537

  • Signature Image:
    Ernst Egli, Ragıp Devres House, Istanbul Bebek, Cevdet Paşa Caddesi No. 101, 1932/33, view from the street (Werk, no. 25, 1938).
  • Media:
    Ernst Egli, Ragıp Devres House, Istanbul Bebek, Cevdet Paşa Caddesi No. 101, 1932/33, interior (Werk, no. 25, 1938).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Alpagut, Leyla. Cumhuriyet'in mimarı Ernst Arnold Egli. Boyut Yayıncılık, 2012.

    Atalay Franck, Oya. Architektur und Politik. Ernst Egli und die türkische Moderne 1927–1940. gta Verlag, 2012.

    Cengizkan, Ali, et al., editors. Ernst A. Egli: Türkiye'ye katkılar. Yerel yorumlar, eğitimde program, pratiğin muhasebesi. TMMOB Mimarlar Odasi Birliği, 2017.

    Demir, Ataman. Arşivdeki belgeler ışığında Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi’nde Yabancı hocalar. Philipp Ginther’den (1929) – (1958) Kurt Erdmann’a kadar. Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi, 2008.

    Dogramaci, Burcu. Kulturtransfer und nationale Identität. Deutschsprachige Architekten, Stadtplaner und Bildhauer in der Türkei nach 1927. Gebr. Mann, 2008.

    Egli, Ernst. Zwischen Heimat und Fremde, einst und dereinst. Erinnerungen. Ernst Egli Papers (unpublished manuscript, Zurich, 1969, ETH Library, Zurich) Hs 787:1.

    Gürboğa, Nurşen. “Evin Halleri: Erken Cumhuriyet Döneminde Evin Sembolik Çerçevesi.” Istanbul, no. 41, 2003, pp. 58–65.

    Meier, Werner. “So erlebte ein Auslandsschweizer die neue Türkei.” Schweizer Illustrierte Zeitung, no. 37, 1941, pp. 1238–1240.

    Nayman, Esma. “Die Stellung der Frau in der neuen Türkei.“ Europäische Revue, vol. 12, 1936, pp. 510–512.

    Nicolai, Bernd. Moderne und Exil. Deutschsprachige Architekten in der Türkei 1925–1955. Verlag für Bauwesen, 1998.

    Werk, no. 25, 1938.

    Word Count: 183

  • Author:
    Burcu Dogramaci
  • Metropolis:
    Istanbul
  • Entry in process:
    no
  • Burcu Dogramaci. "Ragıp Devres Villa." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/2949/object/5140-8103245, last modified: 12-04-2021.
  • Alfred Heilbronn Botanical Garden
    Garden

    The botanical garden in Fatih was established above the Galata Bridge in historic Stambul in the 1930s. This was carried out at the suggestion of the exiled botanist Alfred Heilbronn.

    Word Count: 30

    Alfred Heilbronn Botanical Garden, Istanbul Fatih, 1935/1937, entrance (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2018).
    Alfred Heilbronn Botanical Garden, Istanbul Fatih, 1935/1937 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2018).Alfred Heilbronn Botanical Garden, Istanbul Fatih, 1935/1937 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2018).Alfred Heilbronn Botanical Garden, Historical Plant Sign, 1935/1937 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2018).Alfred Heilbronn Botanical Garden, Historical Plant Sign, Istanbul Fatih, 1935/1937 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2018).Ernst Egli, Botanical Institute, 1935/1936 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2018).Ernst Egli, Botanical Institute, 1935/1936 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2018).Ernst Egli, Botanical Institute, 1935/1936 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2018).Ernst Egli, Botanical Institute, 1935/1936 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2018).Ernst Egli, Botanical Institute, 1935/1936 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2018).Ernst Egli, Botanical Institute, 1935/1936 (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2018).Alfred Heilbronn Botanical Garden, 1935/1937, view at the Bosporus (Photo: Burcu Dogramaci, 2018).
    Istanbul
    Arkitekt
    Magazine

    The architecture magazine Arkitekt was an important platform for emigrated architects and urban planners such as Bruno Taut, Martin Wagner, Wilhelm Schütte, Ernst Reuter and Gustav Oelsner.

    Word Count: 28

    Arkitekt, no. 9, 1936, cover (Photo: Archive Burcu Dogramaci).
    Arkitekt, no. 1–2, 1939, cover (Photo: Archive Burcu Dogramaci).Arkitekt, no. 10–11, 1936, cover. Issue with the essay “Istanbul havalisinin plânı” by Martin Wagner ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Martin Wagner. “Istanbul havalisinin plânı.” Arkitekt, no. 10–11, 1936, p. 301 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Arkitekt, no. 7, 1938, cover. Issue featuring the essay “Proporsyon” by Bruno Taut ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Bruno Taut. “Proporsiyon.” Translation Adnan Kolatan. Arkitekt, no. 7, 1938, p. 194 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Arkitekt, no. 3–4, 1941, cover. Issue featuring Wilhelm Schütte’s essay “Sefalet Mahalleleri” ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Wilhelm Schütte. “Sefalet Mahalleleri.” [Neighbourhoods of Misery] Translation Adnan Kolatan. Arkitekt, no. 3–4, 1941, p. 78 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Arkitekt, no. 5–6, 1943, cover. Issue with Ernst Reuter’s essay “Kasabalarimiz“ and Wilhelm Schütte’s contribution “Karl Friedrich Schinkel” ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Ernst Reuter. “Kasabalarimiz.“ [Our villages] Translation Adnan Kolatan. Arkitekt, no. 5–6, 1943, p. 121 ([url]http://dergi.mo.org.tr).Gustav Oelsner. “Şehircilikte Abidevlik.” [Monuments in City planning] Translation Halet Çambel. Arkitekt, no. 11–12, 1945, p. 265.
    Istanbul
    Leonore Kosswig
    BiologistPhotographerEthnographer

    The exiled biologist and photographer Leonore Kosswig was one of the pioneering women researchers travelling alone in the 1950s and exploring customs and ways of life in Turkey and Iraq.

    Word Count: 30

    Cafer Türkmen, Leonore and Curt Kosswig in Birecik, 1954, photography, detail (Private Archive).
    Cafer Türkmen, Leonore and Curt Kosswig in Birecik, 1954, photography (Private Archive).Curt and/or Leonore Kosswig, House of Family Kosswig in Bebek, Istanbul, 1940s (Private Archive). The Kosswig house is pictured at the back, left of centre.Leonore Kosswig, House of Family Kosswig in Bebek (Haus am Berg), Istanbul, Spring 1957 (Private Archive).Curt and/or Leonore Kosswig, House of Family Kosswig in Bebek, Istanbul, interior, 1940 (Private Archive).Leonore Kosswig, Sütçü Ibrahim [Milkman Ibrahim], Bebek, Istanbul, 1956 (Private Archive).Leonore Kosswig, Way to Balık Pazar [Fish Market], Istanbul, March 1957 (Private Archive).Leonore Kosswig, Behind Mısır Çarşı [Egypt Market], Istanbul, March 1957 (Private Archive).Leonore Kosswig, At the old bridge near Eminönü, Istanbul, March 1957 (Private Archive).Leonore Kosswig, Çeşme [Fountain], Istanbul, 1957 (Private Archive).Leonore Kosswig, Gemiç, 1957, colour slide (Private Archive).Leonore Kosswig, Near Faluja, Irak, 1958, colour slide (Private Archive).Leonore Kosswig, In the Tent, after 1955, colour slide (Private Archive).Leonore Kosswig. “Hochzeitsgebräuche in Anatolien.” [Wedding customs in Anatolia]. Oriens, vol. 13–14, 1961, pp. 248–249 (Private Archive).Leonore Kosswig. “Über Brettchenweberei insbesondere in Anatolien.“ [About board weaving especially in Anatolia]. Baessler-Archiv, vol. 15, 1967, pp. 98–99 (Private Archive).Leonore Kosswig. “Über Brettchenweberei insbesondere in Anatolien.” [About board weaving especially in Anatolia]. Baessler-Archiv, vol. 15, 1967, pp. 100–101 (Private Archive).Leonore Kosswig. “Über Brettchenweberei insbesondere in Anatolien.” [About board weaving especially in Anatolia]. Baessler-Archiv, vol. 15, 1967, pp. 104–105 (Private Archive).Leonore Kosswig, Couple in Üçpınar, Kayseri, c. 1967, colour slide (Private Archive). From a series of photographs for the Leonore Kosswig’s essay “Über Brettchenweberei insbesondere in Anatolien” Baessler-Archiv, vol. 15, 1967.Board weaving with Kıvrım pattern, 1961 purchased by Leonore Kosswig in Çığdık next to Adana (Private Archive, Photo: Jana Weber).Curt Kosswig. In memoriam Leonore Kosswig. Leonore Kosswig’i anarken. Baha Matbaası, 1974 (Private Archive). Published, along with her travelogues, after Leonore Kosswig's death.
    Istanbul
    Traugott Fuchs
    PhilologistRomanistPoetPainter

    Traugott Fuchs was a multi-talented philologist, painter and poet who lived in Istanbul from 1934 until the end of his life in 1997.

    Word Count: 21

    Traugott Fuchs with his cat Traugotta at Robert College, photographer unknown, December 1960 (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul).
    Traugott Fuchs, Self-portrait, c. 1940 (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul).Traugott Fuchs, Hekimbaşı Salih Efendi Yalısı, Anadolu Hisarı, c. 1984 (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul). Fuchs draw the villa on the shores of the Bosporus many years after he lived there in 1938.Traugott Fuchs, Harvest I, Çorum, 1945 (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul). This rural scene was drawn during internment.Traugott Fuchs, Lonely tomb at naked mountain, Çorum, 1945 (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul). The artist painted this picture during internment.Traugott Fuchs, Sailing ship close to Istanbul, c. 1950s (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul).Traugott Fuchs, City silhouette with load carrier, n.d. (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul).Sébah & Joaillier, Robert Collège, Rumeli Hissar, 1904, photograph, postcard (https://www.flickr.com/photos/saltonline/14243596745/, SALT Araştırma, Fotoğraf Arşivi). Main building and campus of Robert College on the European side of Istanbul, where Traugott Fuchs taught and lived from 1952.Traugott Fuchs, Young man bathing in blue water, n.d., coloured pencil on paper (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul). This drawing refers to a poem by the Orientalist Hellmut Ritter, with whom Traugott Fuchs had a close friendship. Ritter gave Fuchs refuge in his house in Bebek when he returned from internment in Çorum.Hellmut Ritter. “Das Bad im Mittelmeer.” Castrum Peregrini, vol. LXXXIX, Amsterdam, 1969, 94f. (Photo: Gregor Langfeld). Ritter’s poem can be read as a dialogue with the Young man bathing in blue water by Traugott Fuchs.Traugott Fuchs, Kleine Käsflattermalve, n.d. (Traugott-Fuchs-Archiv Istanbul).Traugott Fuchs’s headstone, Feriköy cemetery, Istanbul (Photo: Richard Wittmann, 2019).
    Istanbul