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Clément Moreau

  • Given name:
    Clément
  • Last name:
    Moreau
  • Alternative names:

    Carl Meffert

  • Date of Birth:
    26-03-1903
  • Place of Birth:
    Koblentz (DE)
  • Date of Death:
    27-12-1988
  • Place of Death:
    Sirnach (CH)
  • Profession:
    Graphic Artist
  • Introduction:

    German-born Clément Moreau had to exile to Buenos Aires due to his political activism. There, he was well integrated into the artistic milieu and published his caricatures in many publications.

    Word Count: 31

  • Signature Image:
    Photo of Clément Moreau, “Truppe 38” in Argentina, 1938 (© Schweizerisches Sozialarchiv).
  • Content:

    Clément Moreau was born Carl Meffert in Koblenz (Germany) in 1903. Due to his political activism he had to leave Europe. In Buenos Aires, he was well integrated into the artistic milieu. He published his caricatures in many German –and Spanish– language publications.
    From his native Koblenz, Moreau moved to Berlin where he worked as a graphic artist for left-wing publishers from 1926. There he met artists such as Käthe Kollwitz with whom he formed a deep friendship. In 1933, Moreau was forced to flee to Switzerland. He stayed at the Z-Haus in Zurich, a house that hosted emigrants, and there met his future wife, Nelly Guggenbühl. His continued political activism, conducted through Vorwärts, a journal based in Basel, obliged him to change his name to avoid being sent back to Germany. His choice of name –Clément Moreau– used  the same initials with which he already signed his work. But danger still lurked. With the help of Guggenbühl's family, he obtained a passport and in 1935 sailed from the port of Marseille to Buenos Aires. His wife followed soon after. Once in Argentina, he started to teach drawing at the Cangallo and Pestalozzi schools. In the same year, 1935, he became a member of the Argentine AIAPE group and worked as a political caricaturist for several magazines: German-language journals as well as Argentinian ones, such as Argentinisches Tageblatt, Crítica, La Vanguardia, Noticias Gráficas, Fastrás, Argentina Libre and Nervio. Until he was able to master Spanish, his drawings filled the void created by his inability to write in that language. In 1937, he was one of the founders of the Das Andere Deutschland (The Other Germany) aid organisation. He produced satirical works about Hitler in a series of engravings titled La comedia humana (The Human Comedy). In 1938, he founded a theatre group, which he called Truppe 38. In 1962,  Moreau and Guggenbühl travelled to Zurich looking for professors to teach at the Universidad de Resistencia (Chaco, Argentina) where Clément Moreau had previously taught. A military coup in Argentina convinced them to stay in Zurich for good.

    Word Count: 348

  • Media:
    Clément Moreau, Logo in Das Andere Deutschland, no. 45, December 1941.
    Clément Moreau, engraving printed in Lamarque, Nydia. "Mitin de Frente Unico en París." Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936.
    Clément Moreau, engraving printed in Lamarque, Nydia. "Mitin de Frente Unico en París." Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936.
    Photo of Clément Moreau, “Truppe 38” in Ramos Mejía, Argentina, 1939 (© Schweizerisches Sozialarchiv).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Engelbert, Beate L., editor. Clément Moreau: con el lápiz contra el fascismo. Goethe-Institut, 1994.

    Word Count: 15

  • Archives and Sources:

    Schweizerisches Sozialarchiv, Zürich

    Stiftung Clément Moreau, Zürich.

    Word Count: 9

  • Author:
    Laura Karp Lugo
  • Exile:

    Berlin, Germany (1926–1933); Zurich, Switzerland (1933–1935); Buenos Aires, Argentina (1935); Zurich, Switzerland

  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    Escuela Cangallo, Pres. Tte. Gral. Juan Domingo Perón 2169, Buenos Aires (place of work); Colegio Pestalozzi, Cap. Gral. Ramón Freire 1882, Buenos Aires (place of work).

  • Metropolis:
    Buenos Aires
  • Laura Karp Lugo. "Clément Moreau." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/2950/object/5138-7556038, last modified: 27-09-2021.
  • Gyula Kosice
    SculptorPoet

    Born in Kosice (Slovakia), the four-year-old future artist Gyula Kosice reached Buenos Aires by ship in 1928. He forged ties of friendship with Grete Stern, Horacio Coppola and other artists.

    Word Count: 29

    Gyula Kosice in his workshop, Fundación Kosice, Buenos Aires (© Fundación Kosice, Buenos Aires).
    Gyula Kosice and his work, Fundación Kosice, Buenos Aires (© Fundación Kosice, Buenos Aires).Gyula Kosice, Pintura Madi A-3, 1946, 64 x 39 cm. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires.Gyula Kosice, Pintura Madí - Círculo Celeste, 1946, varnish on canvas, 89 x 68 cm. Museo Kosice, Buenos Aires (Photo: Max Pérez Fallik, © Fundación Kosice, Buenos Aires).Gyula Kosice, Sobre Relieve, 1948, neon gas, 65 x 37,5 x 17 cm. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires (Photo: Max Pérez Fallik, © Fundación Kosice, Buenos Aires).Gyula Kosice, Homenaje a Moholy Nagy, 2009, moving water, neon gas, moving LED light, Plexiglas, Museo Kosice, Buenos Aires (Photo: Max Pérez Fallik, © Fundación Kosice, Buenos Aires).Gyula Kosice, Gota de Agua Móvil con LEDS, 2012, moving water, moving LED light, plexiglass, 71 x 52 x18 cm. Private collection (Photo: Max Pérez Fallik, © Fundación Kosice, Buenos Aires).
    Buenos Aires
    Gertrudis Chale
    Painter

    Gertrudis Chale was an Austrian painter based in Buenos Aires, where she achieved integration into the local art scene and spent years travelling throughout the region.

    Word Count: 26

    Gertrudis Chale, Bocacalle de Sarandí, 1940, tempera, 62 x 74,5 cm. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires.
    Gertrudis Chale, India con collar, oil, 54 x 40 cm. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires.Gertrudis Chale, Indias, 1946, ink on paper, 38 x 29,5 cm. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires.Brughetti Romualdo. "Presentación de Gertrudis Chale." Correo Literario, year II, no. 23, 15 October 1944, p. 4.
    Buenos Aires
    Grete Stern
    Photographer

    Grete Stern is one of the photographers that represent modern photography in Argentina. Her house in Ramos Mejía was a meeting place for local and foreign artists and intellectuals.

    Word Count: 30

    Grete Stern, Autorretrato, 1943, photograph, 21,9 x 30,5 cm. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires (© The Estate of Horacio Coppola/Galería Jorge Mara • La Ruche, Buenos Aires).
    Grete Stern, Photomontage for Madí, Ramos Mejía, Argentina, 1946–47, Gelatine silver print, 59.8 x 49.4 cm. (via Wikimedia Commons, © The Estate of Horacio Coppola/Galería Jorge Mara • La Ruche, Buenos Aires).Grete Stern, María Elena Walsh, 1947, photograph, 24,5 x 20,5 cm. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires (via Wikimedia Commons, © The Estate of Horacio Coppola/Galería Jorge Mara • La Ruche, Buenos Aires).
    Buenos Aires
    Luis Seoane
    PainterMuralistIllustratorLawyer

    Luis Seoane is an artist mainly known for his murals, paintings and illustrations. He spent his childhood and youth in Galicia, before settling in Buenos Aires in 1936.

    Word Count: 27

    Luis Seoane painting the mural Los Músicos at Galería Santa Fe in Buenos Aires, 1953 (Díaz Arias de Castro 2019, 24 and via Wikimedia Commons).
    Luis Seoane, Emigrantes, 1953, oil on canvas, 108 x 80 cm. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires.Luis Seoane, Fascimo, cover of Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 2, September 1937. CeDInCI, Buenos Aires.
    Buenos Aires
    Unidad
    Magazine

    From 1936, the anti-fascist movement in Argentina found one of its most consistent opinion platforms in the magazine Unidad, organ of the Association of Intellectuals, Artists, Journalists and Writers (AIAPE).

    Word Count: 29

    Luis Seoane, Fascimo, cover of Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 2, September 1937. CeDInCI, Buenos Aires.
    Pompeyo Audivert, Unidad, cover of Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936. CeDInCI, Buenos Aires.Clément Moreau, engraving printed in Lamarque, Nydia. "Mitin de Frente Unico en París." Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936.Clément Moreau, engraving printed in Lamarque, Nydia. "Mitin de Frente Unico en París." Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936.
    Buenos Aires
    Das Andere Deutschland
    Association

    Das Andere Deutschland was founded by German exiles. Opposed to the Nazi regime, it sought to represent ‘the other’ Germany, a tolerant, peaceful and humanist one.

    Word Count: 26

    Clément Moreau, Logo in Das Andere Deutschland, no. 45, December 1941.
    La Otra Alemania, fragment of Spanish cover Das Andere Deutschland, no. 45, December 1941.
    Buenos Aires
    Agrupación de Intelectuales, Artistas, Periodistas y Escritores (AIAPE)
    Association

    The Agrupación de Intelectuales, Artistas, Periodistas y Escritores – AIAPE (Association of Intellectuals, Artists, Journalists and Writers) was a main association that helped migrants integrate into Buenos Aires’ cultural life.

    Word Count: 30

    Pompeyo Audivert, Unidad, cover of Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936. CeDInCI, Buenos Aires.
    Córdova Iturburu, Cayetano. "Primer Salón de la AIAPE." Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936, p. 13. CeDInCI, Buenos Aires.
    Buenos Aires
    Truppe 38
    Theatre

    German exile networks were very strong in Buenos Aires. From this community, Clément Moreau, a German caricaturist and anti-fascist militant, created the theatre group Truppe 38.

    Word Count: 26

    Photo of Clément Moreau, “Truppe 38” in Ramos Mejía, Argentina, 1939 (© Schweizerisches Sozialarchiv).
    Photo of Clément Moreau, “Truppe 38” in Argentina, 1938 (© Schweizerisches Sozialarchiv).
    Buenos Aires