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Unidad

  • Kind of Object:
    Magazine
  • Name:
    Unidad
  • Alternative Names:
    Unity for the Defence of Culture Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura
  • Creator (Organisation):
    Agrupación de Intelectuales, Artistas, Periodistas y Escritores (AIAPE)
  • Year Start:
    01-1936
  • Year End:
    01-1938
  • Material:

    Tabloid of 20 pages long

  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    Calle Moreno 1139, Buenos Aires (editorial office).

  • Language:
    Spanish
  • Size:

    38 cm.

  • City:
    Buenos Aires (AR)
  • Introduction:

    From 1936, the anti-fascist movement in Argentina found one of its most consistent opinion platforms in the magazine Unidad, organ of the Association of Intellectuals, Artists, Journalists and Writers (AIAPE).

    Word Count: 29

  • Content:

    From January 1936, the anti-fascist movement in Argentina had one of its most consistent organs of opinion in the magazine Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura (Unity for the Defence of Culture), organ of the Association of Intellectuals, Artists, Journalists and Writers (AIAPE).
    The magazine was published from January 1936 to January 1938. The editorial committee had planned to publish monthly but, after the third issue, publication became irregular. In the end, only 8 issues were published. The format was tabloid and each issue was 20 pages long. The cover was in colour, as were some titles on the inside pages. Almost every page contained text and pictures. The magazine functioned mainly through subscriptions, the sale of advertising space (very little), and the cover price. The fact that the price fell by half –from 20 pesos to 10 by the first issue of the second year– suggests that the magazine was struggling to sell. The advertisements may have helped finance the magazine or, if they were in-house and available only to members of the association, may have generated no revenue.
    Artistic issues occupied an important place in the magazine, though both written and pictorial content was inevitably connected by the complex international political situation: it denounced the burning of books in Spain, the proclamations defining degenerate art, and the censorship of intellectuals in Germany, Italy and Spain. International politics took up practically the whole of the first issue of the magazine, so it was proposed that, from the second issue onwards, the focus would be more on ‘national’ and artistic issues. However, international politics remained the main focus of the magazine throughout its life, as well as the life of its successor, the New Gazette, from 1941. These concerns are reflected in the publication itself. The magazine reported on the cultural activities carried out by the organisation under the heading: Life of the AIAPE.
    In this context it is interesting to note that some of the more politically-driven work was produced by exiled artists, such as the German Clément Moreau and the Spanish Luis Seoane, Pompeyo Audivert, Joan Batlle Planas, Hélios Gómez and Joan Planas Casas, among many others. Most of the exiled artists followed the aesthetic-political project they brought with them, and started producing images for the anti-fascist cause in their land of exile. The images of these exiles cohabited with images of local artists (mostly of immigrant descent): Lino Enea Spilimbergo, Antonio Berni, Victor Rebufo, Ricard Marré, Demetrio Urruchúa.

    Word Count: 408

  • Signature Image:
    Luis Seoane, Fascimo, cover of Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 2, September 1937. CeDInCI, Buenos Aires.
  • Media:
    Pompeyo Audivert, Unidad, cover of Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936. CeDInCI, Buenos Aires.
    Clément Moreau, engraving printed in Lamarque, Nydia. "Mitin de Frente Unico en París." Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936.
    Clément Moreau, engraving printed in Lamarque, Nydia. "Mitin de Frente Unico en París." Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936.
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Cane, James. “‘Unity for the Defense of Culture’: The AIAPE and the Cultural Politics of Argentine Antifascism, 1935–1943.” The Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 77, no. 3, August 1997, pp. 443–482, doi: https://doi.org/10.1215/00182168-77.3.443. Accessed 23 April 2021.

    Mendiola, Pedro. “La revista ‘Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura’.” Río de la Plata, no. 29–30, 2006, pp. 307–318.

    Pasolini, Ricardo. “El Nacimiento De Una Sensibilidad Política. Cultura Antifascista, Comunismo y Nación En La Argentina: Entre La AIAPE y El Congreso Argentino De La Cultura, 1935-1955.” Desarrollo Económico, vol. 45, no. 179, October–December 2005, pp. 403–433. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3655905. Accessed 14 April 2021.

    Word Count: 95

  • Archives and Sources:

    Centro de Documentación e Investigación de la Cultura de Izquierdas (CeDInCI), Buenos Aires, http://cedinci.org/.

    Word Count: 18

  • Author:
    Laura Karp Lugo
  • Metropolis:
    Buenos Aires
  • Entry in process:
    no
  • Laura Karp Lugo. "Unidad." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/2950/object/5140-11009903, last modified: 12-05-2021.
  • Pompeyo Audivert
    EngraverIllustrator

    Spanish-born Pompeyo Audivert migrated to Buenos Aires in 1911. He specialized in engraving, mastering its technique to the point of becoming a central figure in the local artistic field.

    Word Count: 28

    Pompeyo Audivert, engraving printed in Lamarque, Nydia. "Vosotros, enemigos." Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 2, February 1936.
    Cuadrado, Arturo. “El grabador Pompeyo Audivert.” Correo Literario, 15 March 1944, p. 5.Pompeyo Audivert, Unidad, cover of Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936. CeDInCI, Buenos Aires.
    Buenos Aires
    Agrupación de Intelectuales, Artistas, Periodistas y Escritores (AIAPE)
    Association

    The Agrupación de Intelectuales, Artistas, Periodistas y Escritores – AIAPE (Association of Intellectuals, Artists, Journalists and Writers) was a main association that helped migrants integrate into Buenos Aires’ cultural life.

    Word Count: 30

    Pompeyo Audivert, Unidad, cover of Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936. CeDInCI, Buenos Aires.
    Córdova Iturburu, Cayetano. "Primer Salón de la AIAPE." Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936, p. 13. CeDInCI, Buenos Aires.
    Buenos Aires
    Clément Moreau
    Graphic Artist

    German-born Clément Moreau had to exile to Buenos Aires due to his political activism. There, he was well integrated into the artistic milieu and published his caricatures in many publications.

    Word Count: 31

    Photo of Clément Moreau, “Truppe 38” in Argentina, 1938 (© Schweizerisches Sozialarchiv).
    Clément Moreau, Logo in Das Andere Deutschland, no. 45, December 1941.Clément Moreau, engraving printed in Lamarque, Nydia. "Mitin de Frente Unico en París." Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936.Clément Moreau, engraving printed in Lamarque, Nydia. "Mitin de Frente Unico en París." Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 1, January 1936.Photo of Clément Moreau, “Truppe 38” in Ramos Mejía, Argentina, 1939 (© Schweizerisches Sozialarchiv).
    Buenos Aires
    Luis Seoane
    PainterMuralistIllustratorLawyer

    Luis Seoane is an artist mainly known for his murals, paintings and illustrations. He spent his childhood and youth in Galicia, before settling in Buenos Aires in 1936.

    Word Count: 27

    Luis Seoane painting the mural Los Músicos at Galería Santa Fe in Buenos Aires, 1953 (Díaz Arias de Castro 2019, 24 and via Wikimedia Commons).
    Luis Seoane, Emigrantes, 1953, oil on canvas, 108 x 80 cm. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires.Luis Seoane, Fascimo, cover of Unidad por la Defensa de la Cultura, no. 2, September 1937. CeDInCI, Buenos Aires.
    Buenos Aires