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Emanuel Schlesinger

  • Given name:
    Emanuel
  • Last name:
    Schlesinger
  • Date of Birth:
    04-01-1896
  • Place of Birth:
    Zemun (RS)
  • Date of Death:
    01-11-1968
  • Place of Death:
    Mumbai (IN)
  • Profession:
    Art CollectorArt CriticFactory OwnerTechnical Director
  • Introduction:

    The art collector Schlesinger provided primarily financial aid by creating working opportunities for young artists in post-independence Bombay, and initiated the corporate culture of buying art.

    Word Count: 26

  • Signature Image:
    Opening of the Raza exhibition, first row from left: Unknown, S.H. Raza, Käthe Langhammer, Rudolf von Leyden, second row from left: Walter Langhammer, K.H. Ara, Emanuel Schlesinger, 1948 (Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz, authorized by the late S.H. Raza © Raza archive; All Rights Reserved).
  • Content:

    If Salman Rushdie had to enlarge on the character of a rich, passionate art collector-entrepreneur in exile, he could fall back on the biography of Emanuel Schlesinger. While Kekoo Gandhy appears in Salman Rushdie’s The Moor’s Last Sigh as Parsi gallery owner “Kekoo Mody”, Schlesinger and Rushdie only share the same address in Bombay’s posh Breach Candy district: Villa Windsor in the Westfield Estate off Warden Road (now Bhulabhai Desai Road). Picturesque mansions characterize this residential complex with villas of some of the richest men in Mumbai today. In 1946, Emanuel Schlesinger lived in one of these bungalows, the Windsor Villa. Before that, the Austrian refugee couple Camilla and Julius Thenen, relatives of Joe Schimmel residing in the neighbourhood, lived there; then, after Schlesinger, the author Salman Rushdie as a child in the 1950s. Rushdie’s Muslim parents left Delhi in 1947 at the advent of the Partition riots to live in cosmopolitan Bombay. They later bought the villa, only to sell it again in 1964 and move to Pakistan. Rushdie showed his strong emotional ties to his childhood home by using the colonial estate as a model for the Methwold estate of his Midnight’s Children.
    It was Schlesinger’s first residential address in South Bombay, after years of living in accommodation in his factory in a more northerly district, Dadar. His Austrian daughter Susanne joined him from Australia at the beginning of the year. The frugal man had probably finally decided to spend money on adequate housing to welcome his descendant after being separated from her during the entire war. With the uprising of the Nazi regime in Austria, the Viennese family had been scattered across several continents.
    In 1938, Emanuel Schlesinger’s Austrian property was expropriated due to his Jewish origin. From his in-laws, he inherited the hat factory, Damenhuterzeugung und Handel S. Engelmann [women’s hat production and trade S. Engelmann] in Vienna’s textile district. In late 1938, he managed to make arrangements for his family to emigrate to the United Kingdom. His daughter Eva (born 1923) and her later husband Max Grünwald as well as his wife Nelly (née Engelmann; born 1900) settled in Manchester, where he bought them a house. His mother-in-law Fanny Engelmann (1872–1940) had to stay behind and died a year later. Emanuel Schlesinger himself was able to leave Vienna on 28 February, 1939. With the help of a friend, he fled via Switzerland to Italy, where he boarded a passenger ship heading east, with Shanghai as his final destination. But with arrangements of John Klein through the Jewish Relief Association in Bombay, he received a visa for India while on board the ship, and arrived in Bombay on 20 March 1939. In search of entrepreneurial opportunities, Schlesinger concluded an agreement with Messrs. Omprakash Durgadas to start manufacturing pharmaceutical products in collaboration with the Viennese pharmacist Hans Blaskopf (1903–1974). At the beginning of the Second World War, he was briefly interned for two months, first in Deolali and then in Ahmednagar.
    After their release, the two Austrian businessmen Schlesinger and Blaskopf, together with their Indian partner, set about installing their pharmaceutical company Indo-Pharma Pharmaceuticals Works (INDON) at Dadar (Bombay) and concentrated on the production of vitamins. The Indian counterpart sold his share to the two Viennese refugees in January 1941, turning them into two successful factory owners who achieved a monthly income of around 3 000 rupees in 1946. Despite his high income and business success, Schlesinger was unable to bring his family to India, neither his wife with their younger daughter, who survived the war in England, nor his brother. Although he had been granted a visa, the brother was unable to leave Europe because the war had broken out and he spent most of the war years hiding in Vienna.
    In April 1947, Emanuel Schlesinger was granted British citizenship. In the autumn of that year – after eight years of separation – he went to Manchester to reunite with his family. After this long period of estrangement, the couple agreed on a divorce, and Schlesinger later married his Indian domestic servant and started a family with her in Bombay, raising two daughters.
    During the war, he had already regained financial security and resumed art collecting; like others, he collected Indian coins, wood and stone sculptures. But, as in Austria, he began to also collect modern, contemporary art. This was now Indian contemporary art by young, unknown artists; artists who did not study at the art academy and who made a living by painting posters and washing cars. Schlesinger’s financial resources and his deciphering eye for talent made him a respected art collector whose purchases became trendsetting in cosmopolitan Bombay of the late 1940s and 1950s.
    Together with the Langhammer couple, the Leyden brothers and a circle of Indian art lovers and promoters like Mulk Raj Anand, Homi Bhabha or Kekoo Gandhy, he shared the vision for modern Indian art, the belief and confidence in the creativity and success of these young artists, mainly of the Progressive Artists’ Group. They all actively supported the young Bombay avant-garde by writing favourable art reviews in newspapers, opening their exhibitions, and expanding their exhibition spaces by displaying their paintings in calendars and advertisements, and thus getting the paintings into the homes of the common people.
    Unlike Leyden or Langhammer however, Schlesinger was not a practitioner, but an art connoisseur. The businessman Schlesinger had a good understanding of the financially difficult conditions of the artists and tried to provide financial help by commissioning the young artists to paint. With some of the artists, he maintained a lifelong friendship and sponsored them temporarily, like Raza and Husain. Schlesinger’s 1956 letter to Raza (Schlesinger 1956), six years after Raza’s departure and settlement in France, shows the continued support by Schlesinger, who tried to get articles about Raza’s exhibitions and successes in France printed in Indian newspapers and to make paintings of his collection available for calendar prints. When Schlesinger visited him in France, Raza received a painting by Fernand Leger as a wedding present.
    In the 1940s and 1950s, Emanuel Schlesinger was one of the most important modern art collectors in Bombay. With his company INDON, he was one of the first and most important drivers of the corporate culture of buying art in India.
    “Schle”, as Langhammer and Leyden called their comrade in the common cause of supporting the young avant-garde, primarily provided financial support for mostly destitute artists by creating employment opportunities for and collecting works by promising young artists. All five of the emigrant circle, Käthe and Walter Langhammer, Albrecht and Rudolf von Leyden and Schlesinger, had a strong understanding of art and used it for constructive criticism on an equal footing. Putting their forces together, they tried to democratize the art display by generating new audiences and virtual spaces for exhibitions through printing in newspapers. However, Schlesinger’s greatest and foremost contribution to the development of modern art in Bombay in the 1940s and 1950s was his collecting activity, which found many followers in individuals as well as in corporates.

    Word Count: 1166

  • Media:
    Letter from Emanuel Schlesinger (Bombay) to S. H. Raza (Paris), September 1956, on official INDON letterhead paper (Reprinted from: Vajpeyi 2013, 96; Image courtesy: The Raza Foundation).
    Emanuel Schlesinger (far left, seated in the first row) at the opening of the Chemould Gallery at Jehangir Art Gallery Main Hall, September 1963 (Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz © Gandhy Archive, Mumbai; All Rights Reserved).
    Early Raza painting Street Scene in Bombay from Schlesinger Collection as a calendar print (Photo: Margit Franz 2010; All Rights Reserved).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Dalmia, Yashodhara. The Making of Modern Indian Art: The Progressives. Oxford University Press, 2001.

    Dhage, Vrushali. “P. A. G. and the Role of the Critics.” art etc. news & views, February 2012, www.artnewsnviews.com/view-article.php?article=p-a-g-and-the-role-of-the-critics&iid=30&articleid=848. Accessed 18 April 2021.

    Franz, Margit. “Transnationale & transkulturelle Ansätze in der Exilforschung am Beispiel der Erforschung einer kunstpolitischen Biographie von Walter Langhammer.” Mapping Contemporary History. Zeitgeschichten im Diskurs, edited by Margit Franz et al., Böhlau, 2008, pp. 243–272. Academia, www.academia.edu/45523873/Transnationale_und_transkulturelle_Ans%C3%A4tze_in_der_Exilforschung_am_Beispiel_der_Erforschung_einer_kunstpolitischen_Biographie_von_Walter_Langhammer. Accessed 14 March 2021.

    Franz, Margit. “Graz – Wien – Bombay – London: Walter Langhammer, Künstler und Kunstförderer.” Historisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Graz, vol. 40, edited by F. Bouvier, and N. Reisinger, Stadt Graz – Kulturamt, 2010, pp. 253–276. Academia, www.academia.edu/45524011/Graz_Wien_Bombay_London_Walter_Langhammer_Künstler_und_Kunstförderer. Accessed 14 March 2021.

    Franz, Margit. Gateway India: Deutschsprachiges Exil in Indien zwischen britischer Kolonialherrschaft, Maharadschas und Gandhi. CLIO, 2015.

    Franz, Margit. “From Dinner Parties to Galleries: The Langhammer-Leyden-Schlesinger Circle in Bombay – 1940s through the 1950s.” Arrival Cities. Migrating Artists and New Metropolitan Topographies in the 20th Century, edited by Burcu Dogramaci et al., Leuven University Press, 2020, pp. 73–90. Project Muse, doi: 10.1353/book.77990. Accessed 30 March 2021.

    Franz, Margit. “Die multiplen Identitäten und Loyalitäten der Käthe Langhammer.” Das Exil von Frauen. Historische Perspektive und Gegenwart (biografiA. Neue Ergebnisse der Frauenbiografieforschung, 26), edited by Ilse Korotin and Ursula Stern, Praesens Verlag, 2020, pp. 148–167.
    Rushdie, Salman. The Moor’s Last Sigh. Random House, 1997.

    Rushdie, Salman. Midnight’s Children. Cape, 1981.

    Schürer, Norbert. Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children: A Reader’s Guide. Continuum, 2004.

    Vajpeyi, Ashok, and Shruthi Issac, editors. Geysers: Letters Between Raza & Akbar Padamsee, Bal Chhabda, E. Schlesinger, F.N. Souza, Laxman Pai, M.F. Husain, R.V. Leyden, S.K. Bakre, Tyeb Mehta, V.S. Gaitonde, Ram Kumar, Walter Longhammar (Raza correspondence, vol. 2). Vadehra Art Gallery, n.d. [2013].

    Zitzewitz, Karin. The Perfect Frame: Presenting Modern Indian Art. Stories and Photographs from the Collection of Kekoo Gandhy. Chemould Publications and Arts, 2003.

    Word Count: 345

  • Archives and Sources:

    Private Archive Margit Franz, Sinabelkirchen.

    Archival records from personal interviews between the author and Khorshed and Kekoo Gandhy, Mumbai, 30 April to 3 May 2003; 18 to 22 January 2004; 26 April to 12 May 2007; 13 to 15 October 2008; 24 October 2010.

    Archival records from personal interviews between the author and S.H. Raza, Paris, 3 to 4 July 2006; and Gorbio, 18 August 2010.

    Archival records from a personal interview between Yashodhara Dalmia and Maseeh Rahman and Käthe Langhammer, London, August 1993 (Private Archive Margit Franz: digital audio material and transcription).

    Private Archive of late Khorshed & Kekoo Gandhy Archive, Mumbai

    Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes
    National Archive of India, New Delhi, Application from Mr Emanuel Schlesinger to Austrian Jewish Refugee For Naturalisation Under the British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act 1914 (National Archives of India, New Delhi), Home Political/E/1946/ F32–27.

    Bombay Art Society exhibition catalogues from 1938 till 1960.

    Times of India Archive via Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin:
    http://erf.sbb.spk-berlin.de/historical-newspapers/. Accessed 18 April 2021.

    Word Count: 148

  • Author:
    Margit Franz
  • Exile:

    Bombay, India (1939–1968).

  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    Indo Pharma Pharmaceutical Works Private Ltd., Shanti Bhavan, 83 Kohinoor Road, Dadar, Bombay 14 (now 83, Swami Gyan Jivandas Marg, Lokmanya Tilak Colony, Dadar, Mumbai) (residence and work, 1939–1946); Windsor Villa, Westfield Park, Warden Road, Bombay 26 (now Windsor Villa, 1 Westfield Estate, Bhulabhai Desai Road, Cumballa Hill) (residence, 1946).

  • Metropolis:
    Bombay
  • Margit Franz. "Emanuel Schlesinger." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/2951/object/5138-11881499, last modified: 31-07-2021.
  • Mulk Raj Anand
    WriterPhilosopherArt PatronCultural Critic

    As a global socialist and modernist, Mulk Raj Anand sought and shaped opportunities for intellectual exchanges between Asia and Europe.

    Word Count: 20

    Mulk Raj Anand by Howard Coster, half-plate film negative, 1930s (© National Portrait Gallery, London).
    Paperback cover of Untouchable by Mulk Raj Anand Preface by E.M., 34pp., Forster, Bombay: Kutub-Popular, around 1953 (© Kutub-Popular).Mulk Raj Anand in his late years at Taraporevala Mansion. 25 Cuffe Parade. Photograph: Dolly Sahiar (reproduced with the permission of The Marg Foundation, Mumbai, India/ Taken from Garimella 2005, 9).
    Bombay
    Rudolf von Leyden
    GeologistAdvertisement SpecialistJournalistArt CriticArt CollectorCartoonist

    The advertisement expert, Rudolf von Leyden, became a major art critic and art historian in Bombay in the 1940s, advocating an urgent need for modernism in art in post-colonial India.

    Word Count: 30

    Rudolf and Nena von Leyden’s farewell party for Francis Newton. Showing all members of the Progressive Artists’ Group. Front from left: PAG = M.F. Husain, S.K. Bakre, H.A. Gade, K.H. Ara, F.N. Souza, S.H. Raza with writer Mulk Raj Anand (1st right front). Back: Käthe Langhammer (with lace collar dress), Rudolf von Leyden with his wife Nena (centre), Walter Langhammer (2nd right), Ebrahim Alkazi (theatre pioneer, 1st right back), Bombay 1949. (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).
    Letterhead of The Hand. Commercial Art Studio Rudolf von Leyden, 1934 (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).Advertisement for Agfa by Rudolf von Leyden (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).Bombay Art Society Committees 1952/53, reprinted in Bombay Art Society 62th Annual Exhibition 1952–53 (at Jehangir Art Gallery), Bombay 1952, n.p. (Photo: Margit Franz 2021).Two modernists meet: Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru (left) and Rudolf von Leyden (right), 1950s. (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).The article by Rudolf and Nena von Leyden “Ganjifa, the Playing Cards of India” (Marg, vol. 3, no. 4, 1949, p. 36; reproduced with the permission of The Marg Foundation, Mumbai, India).Indian President Zakir Husain (left), President of India, opened the first Triennial for contemporary art on 10 February 1968 in the Lalit Kala Gallery in New Delhi. In the picture on the left with jury member Rudolf von Leyden (right). (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).
    Bombay
    Iconic Photo of the Progressive Artists’ Group and Their Associates
    Photograph

    There are two versions of the PAG photo at the opening of M.F. Husain's first solo exhibition in 1950 (published in 1996 and 2003) and two narratives about the opening.

    Word Count: 28

    The iconic photo of the Progressive Artists’ Group and their associates, 1950 (Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz © Gandhy Archive, Mumbai; All Rights Reserved). First row: (seated, from left) Dr. Mulk Raj Anand, Siloo Bharucha, Renu Khanna, K.H. Ara, M.F. Husain (in black headgear, seated in front of everyone else), Bal Chhabda, unknown, G.M. Hazarnis (holding folder). Second row: (seated, from left) unknown, unknown, Laxman Pai, Käthe Langhammer (black dress with white framed collar), Emanuel Schlesinger. Third row: (standing, from left) Dr. Percy Brown, Khorshed Gandhy, T.A. Schinzel (behind Mrs. Gandhy), Krishen Khanna (in striped tie), Sadanand Bakre (with glasses, just behind Khanna), D.G. Kulkarni (with glasses, near Bakre), V.S. Gaitonde (to Kulkarni’s left), A.A. Amelkar, Tyeb Mehta, Shiavax Chavda (with hands folded), Walter Langhammer (in dark tie), Kekoo Gandhy, Manishi Dey. Last row: (standing) all four men are unknown.
    First publication of the iconic photo of the Progressive Artists’ Group and their associates in the catalogue for the inauguration of the National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA) Mumbai, 1996 (Photo: Yashodhara Dalmia, 2020).Another moment from the same lineup: the historic snapshot from Khorshed and Kekoo Gandhy’s archive on the front-page of their book The Perfect Frame. Presenting Modern Indian Art. Stories and Photographs from the collection of Kekoo Gandhy (Zitzewitz 2003, front page).Dr. Percy Brown, Käthe Langhammer and M.F. Husain in front of Husain´s ground-breaking painting Man during the evening of the opening on 3 February 1950 (Dalmia 2001, 103; authorized by Yashodhara Dalmia).
    Bombay
    Picture of Rudi von Leyden’ s Bust by Sadanand K. Bakre
    Photograph

    The picture of the previously lost and recently located sculpture by Sadanand K. Bakre reflects the relationship between the artist Bakre and the art critic Rudi von Leyden.

    Word Count: 28

    Bakre’s clay bust featured on Leyden’s greetings card, 1949 (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes. All Rights Reserved).
    Press clipping with historic photo of young Bakre working on the clay bust while Leyden sits as a model, late 1940s (Maddox, Georgina. “In Retrospect.” Indian Express, 8 November 2002, p. 8. © Indian Express. Reprinted in Singh 2013, 276; Image courtesy: Delhi Art Gallery).Press clipping from a Marathi Newspaper showing Bakre’s bust of Leyden, 1997 (Reprinted in Singh 2013, 276; Image courtesy: Delhi Art Gallery).S.K. Bakre, Head, 1950, Bronze. Exhibited at the National Gallery of Modern Art, 2018 (© Creative Commons, Photo: Ashok Bhatia 2018).
    Bombay
    Baumgartner’s Bombay
    Book

    The novel Baumgartner’s Bombay provides an opposite picture to that of the successful refugee in Bombay. Anita Desai’s fiction depicts poverty and failure in Indian exile.

    Word Count: 28

    Book cover of Baumgartner’s Bombay by Anita Desai, 1988, detail (Photo: Margit Franz 2021).
    Book cover of Baumgartner’s Bombay by Anita Desai, 1988 (Photo: Margit Franz 2021).Postcard of Bombay Mahalaxmi Bombay Race Course, around 1960 (© Margit Franz Archive; All rights reserved).
    Bombay
    One Man exhibition and subsequent trial, Akbar Padamsee
    Court Case

    Akbar Padamsee’s solo exhibition in Bombay in 1954 was overshadowed by his arrest on charge of displaying obscene pictures. The subsequent court case drew support from across the art world.

    Word Count: 30

    Invitation Akbar Padamsee Solo Show 29.04–4.05.1954, Jehangir Art Gallery (Courtesy of Bhanumati Padamsee, Akbar Padamsee Archive, Vinayak Aangan, Mumbai).
    Solo show at Jehangir Art Gallery from 29 to 4 May 1954. (Courtesy of Bhanumati Padamsee, Akbar Padamsee Archive, Vinayak Aangan, Mumbai).Akbar Padamsee, Lovers, 1952, 157.5 x 81.3 cm, oil on board (Courtesy of Bhanumati Padamsee, Akbar Padamsee Archive, Vinayak Aangan, Mumbai).Akbar Padamsee, Lovers I, 1952, 136 x 110 cm, oil on board (Courtesy of Bhanumati Padamsee, Akbar Padamsee Archive, Vinayak Aangan, Mumbai).Akbar Padamsee, Lovers II, 1953, 121.92 x 60.96 cm, oil on canvas. (Courtesy of Bhanumati Padamsee, Akbar Padamsee Archive, Vinayak Aangan, Mumbai).Newspaper report, “Artist arrested for displaying obscene pictures”, The Times of India, 2 May, 1954 (Courtesy of Bhanumati Padamsee, Akbar Padamsee Archive, Vinayak Aangan, Mumbai).Newspaper report, “Alleged Obscene Paintings Given Back to Artist”, The Indian Express, 4 May, 1954 (Courtesy of Bhanumati Padamsee, Akbar Padamsee Archive, Vinayak Aangan, Mumbai).
    Bombay
    Open Studio Evenings by Käthe and Walter Langhammer
    Salon

    The painter Walter Langhammer and his wife Käthe built an informal infrastructure to promote local avant-garde artists and regularly invited them to Open Studio Evenings at their studio.

    Word Count: 29

    Open evening at the Langhammer’s, from left: Walter Langhammer, unknown woman, Kekoo Gandhy, Wayne Hartwell (American cultural affairs diplomat) n.d. (© Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz; authorised by the late Kekoo Gandhy; All Rights Reserved).
    Dinner party at the Langhammer’s studio amidst his paintings (© Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz; authorised by the late Kekoo Gandhy; All Rights Reserved).Käthe and Walter Langhammer (far left) attending an Indian dinner, late 1930s/early 1940s (© Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz; authorised by the late Kekoo Gandhy; All Rights Reserved).Opening of the annual Langhammer exhibition by Sir Cowasjee Jehangir in the Convocation Hall, 27 November 1949 (from left: Mr. C.V. Oak, Rani Maharaj Singh, Walter Langhammer, Sir Cowasjee Jehangir, Käthe Langhammer) (© Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz; authorised by the late Kekoo Gandhy; All Rights Reserved).Photography Morning in the Great Mosque in Ajmer (translation by the author) by Käthe Langhammer, Rajasthan, 1940s (© Archive Margit Franz: Langhammer Photo Archive; All Rights Reserved).Käthe Langhammer in South India. They toured all of India for The Times of India Annual. Photo by Walter Langhammer (© Archive Margit Franz: Langhammer Photo Archive; All Rights Reserved).Invitation card for the Langhammers’ farewell party, April 1957 (© Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz; authorised by the late Kekoo Gandhy; All Rights Reserved).Entrance to Langhammer’s residence at 20 Nepean Sea Road (Photo: Margit Franz, 2007; All Rights Reserved).
    Bombay
    Institute of Foreign Languages
    Language SchoolExhibition SpaceLibraryTheatre

    With its wide range of cultural activities, the Institute of Foreign Languages − founded in 1946 by the Viennese emigrant Charles Petras − became a glocal contact zone in Bombay.

    Word Count: 27

    Invitation to IFL International Club, 1949 (IFL News, vol. 1, no. 2, June–July 1949, p. 2. Archive Margit Franz © Musée Ianchelevici La Louviére, Archive).
    Former site of IFL, Jehangir Building, 1950–1959, entrance (Photo: Margit Franz, 2018).Former site of IFL, Jehangir Building, 1950–1959, street view (Photo: Margit Franz, 2018).Press images of Gade’s solo exhibition at the Institute of Foreign Languages, January 1951. Photo left: H.A. Gade (from left), Albrecht von Leyden, Margit von Leyden, unknown. Photo right: unknown woman (from left), Walter Langhammer, Khorshed Gandhy (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes).Cover of the first edition of IFL News, April-May 1949 (IFL News, vol.1, no. 1, April-May 1949, p. 1. Private Archive Margit Franz © Musée Ianchelevici Archive, La Louviére).Advertisement for the IFL Language Bureau, 1949 (IFL News, vol. 1, no. 2, June–July 1949, p. 8. Private Archive Margit Franz © Musée Ianchelevici Archive, La Louviére).
    Bombay
    Bombay Art Society
    Association

    One of the oldest art societies in India founded by colonial rulers, Bombay Art Society showcased art students and professional artists from all over India, including the Progressive Artists of Bombay.

    Word Count: 31

    Title page of the catalogue for the Golden Jubilee Exhibition, exh. cat. Bombay Art Society, Bombay, 1939 (© Bombay Art Society, Photo: Partha Mitter 2021).
    Francis Newton [Souza], Prosperity, Cat. no. 17, n.d. and S.H. Raza, Bori Bunder, Cat. no. 65, n.d. Detail of an inside page, exh. cat. The Bombay Art Society, 1947, 21 (© Bombay Art Society, Photo: Partha Mitter 2021).Walter Langhammer, Portrait of Mrs. Shirin Vimadalal, 1939, Detail of an inside page, exh. cat. The Bombay Art Society, 1939, Frontispiece (© Bombay Art Society, Photo: Partha Mitter 2021).Title page of the catalogue for the 57th Annual Exhibition, exh. cat. The Bombay Art Society, December 1947 (© Bombay Art Society, Photo: Partha Mitter 2021).A.J. Patel, Sabita, cat. no.727, n.d. and J.N. Unwalla, Screened, cat. no. 721, n.d. Detail of an inside page, exh. cat. The Bombay Art Society, 1939, 46 (© Bombay Art Society, Photo: Partha Mitter 2021).
    Bombay
    Kekoo Minochair Gandhy
    Frame Shop OwnerGalleristArt Collector

    Starting from a cosmopolitan milieu for young local artists, Kekoo and his wife Khorshed Gandhy developed a business model that turned the frame shop into Gallery Chemould.

    Word Count: 27

    Kekoo and Khorshed Gandhy in front of their life’s work. Drawing by Kripa in The Art Gallery on Princess Street by Jerry Pinto (Reprinted from: Pinto 2019, 28).
    Kekoo Gandhy in conversation with the painter K.K. Hebbar in front of Souza’s Death of the Pope, Taj Mahal Gallery, 1961 (Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz © Gandhy Archive, Mumbai; All Rights Reserved).Kekoo Gandhy with the author (far left) visiting a local artist and his family in his Mumbai home, 2007 (© Margit Franz; All Rights Reserved).Khorshed and Kekoo Gandhy in front of the oil portrait of their children Adil and Rashna by Walter Langhammer in their family house, Kekee Manzil, May 2007 (Photo: Margit Franz; All Rights Reserved).
    Bombay
    The Leydens: Sculpture, Paintings, Cartoons
    Exhibition

    In 1948 Albrecht and Rudi von Leyden sold their personal works of art in order to set up an “Artists' Aid Fund”, which became an institution in the following years.

    Word Count: 29

    Folder for the Leyden exhibition in May 1948, front and back (© Private Archive Flora Veit-Wild, Berlin; All Rights Reserved).
    Folder (inside) for the Leyden exhibition in May 1948 with the titles of the exhibits (© Private Archive Flora Veit-Wild, Berlin; All Rights Reserved).The four exhibiting artists: Luise and Victor Ernst von Leyden (front), Rudolf and Albrecht von Leyden (with glasses) (back) (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).The opening was well attended: in front the Elephant, woodcarving by Victor Ernst von Leyden (far left), who is sitting under his sculpture in conversation with a gentleman, his wife Luise (with a headscarf, from behind) sitting in the same row. Käthe Langhammer moves to the far right in the photo; the group at the back in front of the oil paintings by Albrecht von Leyden (from left): Kekoo Gandhy, Walter Langhammer (from behind), Khorshed Gandhy in conversation with two unknown women (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).Rudolf von Leyden´s Denley caricatures on display and for sale (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).The financial person behind the project: Albrecht “Lolly” von Leyden, an enthusiastic amateur painter, self-portrait from later years, n.d. (painting currently lost; Photo: Margit Franz, 2004; All Rights Reserved).Main entrance to Ador House, the exhibition venue in the salon of the Bombay Art Society, 2018 (Photo: Margit Franz; All Rights Reserved).Ador House, exhibition venue in the Bombay Art Society Salon, 2018 (Photo: Margit Franz; All Rights Reserved).
    Bombay
    Schimmel’s Wedding Film 1948
    Film

    The film shows Schimmel’s Jewish wedding ceremony at the prestigious Glamis Villa, followed by lunch at the Taj Mahal Hotel. Among the guests were Käthe and Walter Langhammer.

    Word Count: 30

    Photo of the newlyweds with wedding gifts, including the Langhammer painting Bombay from the Malabar Hills in the dining room of Glamis Villa, 1948 (© Private Archive Joe Schimmel, Cape Town).
    Schimmel’s wedding film, 1948 (© Private Archive Joe Schimmel, Cape Town; revisions, technical adaptations and simplifications by Martin Schitter; entire film on Vimeo, see link below).Joe Schimmel’s family during the wedding. From left: Kamilla Thenen (groom’s cousin), Adolf and Klara Schimmel (groom’s parents), the groom Joe Schimmel, the bride Eva Ormos and Julius Thenen, 1948 (© Private Archive Joe Schimmel, Cape Town; photo montage from the film by Fredi Kuncio).The Marriage Certificate from the Keneseth Eliyahoo Fort Synagogue, 1948 (© Private Archive Joe Schimmel, Cape Town).The Schimmels at the Bombay Race Course in high society Bombay, late 1940s (© Private Archive Joe Schimmel, Cape Town).The Schimmel couple on vacation in Bad Gastein, Austria, 1951 (© Private Archive Joe Schimmel, Cape Town).Stallion belonging to Joe Schimmel, before 1948 (© Private Archive Joe Schimmel, Cape Town).Langhammer's painting Bombay from the Malabar Hills, n.d. (Photo: Margit Franz, 2010).
    Bombay
    Jewish Relief Association Bombay
    Relief Organisation

    In 1934, the first refugees from National Socialism founded a Jewish aid association in Bombay called the Jewish Relief Association (JRA) to help refugees in financial and other difficulties.

    Word Count: 28

    Letter from the Jewish Relief Association confirming active membership to Joe Schimmel during his years in India (© Private Archive Joe Schimmel, Cape Town).
    JRA announcement of the release of Victor von Leyden from internment on 5 October, 1939 (© Private Archive Flora Veit-Wild, Berlin).Memorial plaque for Alfred W. Rosenfeld at the Chinchpokli Jewish cemetery in Mumbai, 2010 (Photo: Margit Franz; All Rights Reserved).
    Bombay