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Bombay Art Society

  • Name:
    Bombay Art Society
  • Kind of Organisation:
    Association
  • Introduction:

    One of the oldest art societies in India founded by colonial rulers, Bombay Art Society showcased art students and professional artists from all over India, including the Progressive Artists of Bombay.

    Word Count: 31

  • Content:

    The Bombay Art Society (BAS) is one of the oldest and most enduring art societies in India, founded by the British rulers in 1888 as a venue for exhibitions and to encourage the taste for Victorian academic art among educated Indians. Enjoying both official patronage and that of resident Europeans, the society encouraged local painters, showcasing students of the government-supported J.J. School of Art, such as the portrait painter Pestonji Bomanji and the figurative painter and art teacher M. V. Dhurandhar, maintaining close links with the art school throughout the colonial era. Well-known artists from other parts of India included Raja Ravi Varma, the most important academic painter in India, the landscape painter J.P. Gangooly from Calcutta, Abdur Rahman Chughtai from Lahore, and the iconic Amrita Sher-Gil. The society’s annual exhibitions were great social events, eagerly attended by the public, the artists widely reviewed in the leading newspaper The Times of India, and the prize-winners lionised. A small number of local women artists from the Parsi community, and expatriate European women, also found space in early exhibitions.
    This set of twelve annual exhibition catalogues (1935−1947), offers us an idea of the range of works and the prominent artists, as well as the tastes of the educated public and the general artistic ambience of the city. They also provide a helpful list of artists and their addresses for interested buyers. The inaugural catalogue (1935), the Bombay Art Annual, contains a selection of frequently-exhibited artists, in addition to articles by well-known authors. To select some of the more interesting events: in 1938, the Italian king Victor Emmanuel sent 160 etchings to the annual exhibition. The pioneering modernist, Amrita Sher-Gil’s prize-winning painting, Group of Young Girls, adorned the frontispiece of the 1937 catalogue. From that year, photography was included, indicating the increasing acceptance of photography as art, especially with the presence of Jehangir N. Unwalla, a photographer of international repute. Among foreign painters, Magda Nachmann, a pupil of Léon Bakst in pre-Revolutionary Russia, moved to Bombay (today's Mumbai), with her husband, the Indian revolutionary M.P. T. Acharya; she was a regular exhibitor. The society effected a coup in 1940 by showing in a special gallery, the celebrated Russian symbolist painter, sometime resident in India, Nicholas Roerich.
    The society endorsed the prevailing taste by exhibiting academic artists and the Bengal School orientalists, but in 1936 the art scene began to change with the appointment of Charles Gerrard as head of the art school; he encouraged his students to respond to new movements in the West. The works of three of his students, N.S. Bendre, K.K. Hebbar and Shakir Ali (later a leading Pakistani modernist), exhibited works at the society that deployed post-impressionist brushstrokes. But a proper modernist revolution began with the arrival of Walter Langhammer, a student of the Vienna Academy. In 1937, as the Nazis overran Austria, Langhammer was desperate to leave his homeland. He was hired by the Advertisement Department of the The Times of India in Bombay on the intervention of his friend Shirin Vimadalal. Later he rose to be Art Director. She was his student in Vienna. Langhammer, along with Rudolf von Leyden and Emanuel Schlesinger, fellow central European Jewish refugees, joined Kekoo Gandhy, owner of the Chemould Gallery, in mentoring Francis Newton (the surname Souza was added later, F.N. Souza) and Syed Hyder (S.H.) Raza, both art school students. They were to be the key figures in the radical modernist group, Progressive Artists of Bombay (PAG).
    The catalogues of the society give us a glimpse of the spread of modernism in Bombay, beginning with Langhammer’s debut at the annual exhibition of 1939. The portrait of his friend Shirin Vimadalal, reminiscent of Kokoschka’s colours and brushstrokes, graced the frontispiece of the Golden Jubilee edition (1939). Again, in 1943, his portrait of Rudi von Leyden decorated the masthead. The 1945 show included one work by Souza and seven by Raza. Another founding member of the Bombay Progressives, K.H. Ara, began as a traditionalist, winning the Bombay Art Society prize in 1944. He was soon converted to modernism by von Leyden. Yet another founding member of the Bombay Progressives, H.A. Gade had also been showing at the society from the early forties.
    1947, the year of Indian independence, was celebrated with two exhibitions (the 56th and 57th). At the 57th exhibition, Souza won a prize for watercolours and Raza for oils, while Maqbul Fida (M.F.) Husain made his debut at the Bombay Art Society in the same show. One of the last to join the Progressives, he became the iconic painter of independent India, representing a secular, optimistic future under the first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru.
    My short essay is based on the rare set of BAS catalogues of the momentous decade, 1937−47, in my possession. To the best of my knowledge, these fully illustrated catalogues of the annual exhibitions provide a vivid and reliable account of the work and scope of the society. During my research I have not come across a similar set anywhere else. I am not aware if BAS or the J.J. School of Art has a similar set. My enquiries in that direction have failed. The catalogue numbers are confusing. It is unclear whether there was a catalogue for 1936 (45th exhibition). 1937 is numbered as the 46th show, followed by 1938 (the 47th show). 1939 is the Golden Jubilee edition and unnumbered. Then, confusingly, the 1940 exhibition is numbered as the 49th. 1941 (50th annual exhibition) is missing, probably because the Golden Jubilee edition came out in 1939.

    Word Count: 915

  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    K. C. Marg, Bandra Reclamation, Bandra West, Bombay (now Mumbai).

  • Signature Image:
    Title page of the catalogue for the Golden Jubilee Exhibition, exh. cat. Bombay Art Society, Bombay, 1939 (© Bombay Art Society, Photo: Partha Mitter 2021).
  • Media:
    Francis Newton [Souza], Prosperity, Cat. no. 17, n.d. and S.H. Raza, Bori Bunder, Cat. no. 65, n.d. Detail of an inside page, exh. cat. The Bombay Art Society, 1947, 21 (© Bombay Art Society, Photo: Partha Mitter 2021).
    Walter Langhammer, Portrait of Mrs. Shirin Vimadalal, 1939, Detail of an inside page, exh. cat. The Bombay Art Society, 1939, Frontispiece (© Bombay Art Society, Photo: Partha Mitter 2021).
    Title page of the catalogue for the 57th Annual Exhibition, exh. cat. The Bombay Art Society, December 1947 (© Bombay Art Society, Photo: Partha Mitter 2021).
    A.J. Patel, Sabita, cat. no.727, n.d. and J.N. Unwalla, Screened, cat. no. 721, n.d. Detail of an inside page, exh. cat. The Bombay Art Society, 1939, 46 (© Bombay Art Society, Photo: Partha Mitter 2021).
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Bernstein, Lina. Magda Nachman: An Artist in Exile (Modern Biographies). Academic Studies Press, 2020.

    Franz, Margit. “Graz – Wien – Bombay – London: Walter Langhammer, Künstler und Kunstförderer.” Historisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Graz, vol. 40, edited by F. Bouvier and N. Reisinger, Stadt Graz – Kulturamt, 2010, pp. 253−276.

    Mitter, Partha. Art and Nationalism in Colonial India 1850–1922. Occidental Orientations. Cambridge University Press, 1994, pp. 69–72.

    National Portrait Gallery. “Walter Langhammer 1905–1977.” National Portrait Gallery, www.portrait.gov.au/people/walter-langhammer-1905. Accessed 18 March 2021.

    Story of a Hundred Years: The Bombay Art Society 1888–1988, edited by Baburao Sadwelkar, exh. cat. The Bombay Art Society, Mumbai, 1989.

    Word Count: 93

  • Author:
    Partha Mitter
  • Date of Founding:
    1888
  • Participants (selection):

    Abdur Rahman Chughtai, Amrita Sher-Gil, Charles Gerrard, H.A. Gade, Jehangir N. Unwalla, J.P. Gangooly, Kekoo Gandhy, K.H. Ara, Magda Nachmann, M.F. Husain, Pestonji Bomanji, Rudolf von Leyden, Shakir Ali, S.H. Raza, Walter Langhammer.

  • Metropolis:
    Bombay
  • Entry in process:
    no
  • Partha Mitter. "Bombay Art Society." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/2951/object/5145-11881496, last modified: 24-06-2021.
  • Kekoo Minochair Gandhy
    Frame Shop OwnerGalleristArt Collector

    Starting from a cosmopolitan milieu for young local artists, Kekoo and his wife Khorshed Gandhy developed a business model that turned the frame shop into Gallery Chemould.

    Word Count: 27

    Kekoo and Khorshed Gandhy in front of their life’s work. Drawing by Kripa in The Art Gallery on Princess Street by Jerry Pinto (Reprinted from: Pinto 2019, 28).
    Kekoo Gandhy in conversation with the painter K.K. Hebbar in front of Souza’s Death of the Pope, Taj Mahal Gallery, 1961 (Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz © Gandhy Archive, Mumbai; All Rights Reserved).Kekoo Gandhy with the author (far left) visiting a local artist and his family in his Mumbai home, 2007 (© Margit Franz; All Rights Reserved).Khorshed and Kekoo Gandhy in front of the oil portrait of their children Adil and Rashna by Walter Langhammer in their family house, Kekee Manzil, May 2007 (Photo: Margit Franz; All Rights Reserved).
    Bombay
    Magda Nachman Acharya
    ArtistTheatre DesignerIllustratorTeacher

    The political turmoil of the twentieth century took Magda Nachman from St. Petersburg to Moscow to the Russian countryside, then to Berlin during the 1920s and 1930s and, finally, to Bombay.

    Word Count: 31

    Photo of Magda Nachman Acharya in front of her house on Malabar Hill, n.d., detail (Courtesy of Sophie Seifalian, All Rights Reserved).
    Magda Nachman Acharya, City landscape, around 1937, exh. cat. The Bombay Art Society, Bombay, 1937, p. 13 (Photo: Lina Bernstein 2014).Magda Nachman Acharya, A portrait of Kamal Wood, around 1944 (© Private collection, USA, All Rights Reserved).Magda Nachman Acharya, A Young Man, 1945 (© Private collection, Israel, All Rights Reserved).Magda Nachman Acharya, Landscape in Matheran, 1945 (© Roshan Cooper collection, Pune, All Rights Reserved).
    Bombay
    Iconic Photo of the Progressive Artists’ Group and Their Associates
    Photograph

    There are two versions of the PAG photo at the opening of M.F. Husain's first solo exhibition in 1950 (published in 1996 and 2003) and two narratives about the opening.

    Word Count: 28

    The iconic photo of the Progressive Artists’ Group and their associates, 1950 (Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz © Gandhy Archive, Mumbai; All Rights Reserved). First row: (seated, from left) Dr. Mulk Raj Anand, Siloo Bharucha, Renu Khanna, K.H. Ara, M.F. Husain (in black headgear, seated in front of everyone else), Bal Chhabda, unknown, G.M. Hazarnis (holding folder). Second row: (seated, from left) unknown, unknown, Laxman Pai, Käthe Langhammer (black dress with white framed collar), Emanuel Schlesinger. Third row: (standing, from left) Dr. Percy Brown, Khorshed Gandhy, T.A. Schinzel (behind Mrs. Gandhy), Krishen Khanna (in striped tie), Sadanand Bakre (with glasses, just behind Khanna), D.G. Kulkarni (with glasses, near Bakre), V.S. Gaitonde (to Kulkarni’s left), A.A. Amelkar, Tyeb Mehta, Shiavax Chavda (with hands folded), Walter Langhammer (in dark tie), Kekoo Gandhy, Manishi Dey. Last row: (standing) all four men are unknown.
    First publication of the iconic photo of the Progressive Artists’ Group and their associates in the catalogue for the inauguration of the National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA) Mumbai, 1996 (Photo: Yashodhara Dalmia, 2020).Another moment from the same lineup: the historic snapshot from Khorshed and Kekoo Gandhy’s archive on the front-page of their book The Perfect Frame. Presenting Modern Indian Art. Stories and Photographs from the collection of Kekoo Gandhy (Zitzewitz 2003, front page).Dr. Percy Brown, Käthe Langhammer and M.F. Husain in front of Husain´s ground-breaking painting Man during the evening of the opening on 3 February 1950 (Dalmia 2001, 103; authorized by Yashodhara Dalmia).
    Bombay
    Picture of Rudi von Leyden’ s Bust by Sadanand K. Bakre
    Photograph

    The picture of the previously lost and recently located sculpture by Sadanand K. Bakre reflects the relationship between the artist Bakre and the art critic Rudi von Leyden.

    Word Count: 28

    Bakre’s clay bust featured on Leyden’s greetings card, 1949 (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes. All Rights Reserved).
    Press clipping with historic photo of young Bakre working on the clay bust while Leyden sits as a model, late 1940s (Maddox, Georgina. “In Retrospect.” Indian Express, 8 November 2002, p. 8. © Indian Express. Reprinted in Singh 2013, 276; Image courtesy: Delhi Art Gallery).Press clipping from a Marathi Newspaper showing Bakre’s bust of Leyden, 1997 (Reprinted in Singh 2013, 276; Image courtesy: Delhi Art Gallery).S.K. Bakre, Head, 1950, Bronze. Exhibited at the National Gallery of Modern Art, 2018 (© Creative Commons, Photo: Ashok Bhatia 2018).
    Bombay
    The Leydens: Sculpture, Paintings, Cartoons
    Exhibition

    In 1948 Albrecht and Rudi von Leyden sold their personal works of art in order to set up an “Artists' Aid Fund”, which became an institution in the following years.

    Word Count: 29

    Folder for the Leyden exhibition in May 1948, front and back (© Private Archive Flora Veit-Wild, Berlin; All Rights Reserved).
    Folder (inside) for the Leyden exhibition in May 1948 with the titles of the exhibits (© Private Archive Flora Veit-Wild, Berlin; All Rights Reserved).The four exhibiting artists: Luise and Victor Ernst von Leyden (front), Rudolf and Albrecht von Leyden (with glasses) (back) (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).The opening was well attended: in front the Elephant, woodcarving by Victor Ernst von Leyden (far left), who is sitting under his sculpture in conversation with a gentleman, his wife Luise (with a headscarf, from behind) sitting in the same row. Käthe Langhammer moves to the far right in the photo; the group at the back in front of the oil paintings by Albrecht von Leyden (from left): Kekoo Gandhy, Walter Langhammer (from behind), Khorshed Gandhy in conversation with two unknown women (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).Rudolf von Leyden´s Denley caricatures on display and for sale (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).The financial person behind the project: Albrecht “Lolly” von Leyden, an enthusiastic amateur painter, self-portrait from later years, n.d. (painting currently lost; Photo: Margit Franz, 2004; All Rights Reserved).Main entrance to Ador House, the exhibition venue in the salon of the Bombay Art Society, 2018 (Photo: Margit Franz; All Rights Reserved).Ador House, exhibition venue in the Bombay Art Society Salon, 2018 (Photo: Margit Franz; All Rights Reserved).
    Bombay
    Open Studio Evenings by Käthe and Walter Langhammer
    Salon

    The painter Walter Langhammer and his wife Käthe built an informal infrastructure to promote local avant-garde artists and regularly invited them to Open Studio Evenings at their studio.

    Word Count: 29

    Open evening at the Langhammer’s, from left: Walter Langhammer, unknown woman, Kekoo Gandhy, Wayne Hartwell (American cultural affairs diplomat) n.d. (© Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz; authorised by the late Kekoo Gandhy; All Rights Reserved).
    Dinner party at the Langhammer’s studio amidst his paintings (© Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz; authorised by the late Kekoo Gandhy; All Rights Reserved).Käthe and Walter Langhammer (far left) attending an Indian dinner, late 1930s/early 1940s (© Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz; authorised by the late Kekoo Gandhy; All Rights Reserved).Opening of the annual Langhammer exhibition by Sir Cowasjee Jehangir in the Convocation Hall, 27 November 1949 (from left: Mr. C.V. Oak, Rani Maharaj Singh, Walter Langhammer, Sir Cowasjee Jehangir, Käthe Langhammer) (© Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz; authorised by the late Kekoo Gandhy; All Rights Reserved).Photography Morning in the Great Mosque in Ajmer (translation by the author) by Käthe Langhammer, Rajasthan, 1940s (© Archive Margit Franz: Langhammer Photo Archive; All Rights Reserved).Käthe Langhammer in South India. They toured all of India for The Times of India Annual. Photo by Walter Langhammer (© Archive Margit Franz: Langhammer Photo Archive; All Rights Reserved).Invitation card for the Langhammers’ farewell party, April 1957 (© Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz; authorised by the late Kekoo Gandhy; All Rights Reserved).Entrance to Langhammer’s residence at 20 Nepean Sea Road (Photo: Margit Franz, 2007; All Rights Reserved).
    Bombay
    Chemould
    GalleryFrame Shop

    Chemould’s history stretches from its beginnings as a manufacturer of chemical mouldings and frames in 1941 over to a hub for art circulation displaying a variety of artists in Bombay.

    Word Count: 30

    Chemould Frames shop advertising with a painting by Jamini Roy, 1946, detail (Marg, vol. 1, no. 2, January 1947, p. 104; reproduced with the permission of The Marg Foundation, Mumbai, India).
    Chemould Frames shop advertising with a painting by Jamini Roy, 1946. (Marg, vol. 1, no. 2, January 1947, p. 104; reproduced with the permission of The Marg Foundation, Mumbai, India).Murals of Italian POW in the St. Francis Church in Dehradun, 2005 (Photo: Margit Franz; All Rights Reserved).Photo of the portrait of the Italian POW painters engaged in Murart, Kekee Manzil, 2003 (Photo: Margit Franz; All Rights Reserved).Letter from Khorshed Gandhy to Carol Ross, 20 February 2009 (© Private Archive Joe Schimmel, Cape Town; All Rights Reserved).Chemould’s successful couple: level-headed Khorshed (woman standing), networking, enthusiastic Kekoo Gandhy (man sitting, chatting), at Leydens’ exhibition, 1948 (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).A Chemould level on the back of a Chemould art frame (© Private Archive Joe Schimmel, Cape Town; All Rights Reserved).Opening of Chemould Gallery. Khorshed Gandhy (3. right, first row sitting), September 1963 (Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz © Gandhy Archive, Mumbai; All Rights Reserved).
    Bombay
    Institute of Foreign Languages
    Language SchoolExhibition SpaceLibraryTheatre

    With its wide range of cultural activities, the Institute of Foreign Languages − founded in 1946 by the Viennese emigrant Charles Petras − became a glocal contact zone in Bombay.

    Word Count: 27

    Invitation to IFL International Club, 1949 (IFL News, vol. 1, no. 2, June–July 1949, p. 2. Archive Margit Franz © Musée Ianchelevici La Louviére, Archive).
    Former site of IFL, Jehangir Building, 1950–1959, entrance (Photo: Margit Franz, 2018).Former site of IFL, Jehangir Building, 1950–1959, street view (Photo: Margit Franz, 2018).Press images of Gade’s solo exhibition at the Institute of Foreign Languages, January 1951. Photo left: H.A. Gade (from left), Albrecht von Leyden, Margit von Leyden, unknown. Photo right: unknown woman (from left), Walter Langhammer, Khorshed Gandhy (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes).Cover of the first edition of IFL News, April-May 1949 (IFL News, vol.1, no. 1, April-May 1949, p. 1. Private Archive Margit Franz © Musée Ianchelevici Archive, La Louviére).Advertisement for the IFL Language Bureau, 1949 (IFL News, vol. 1, no. 2, June–July 1949, p. 8. Private Archive Margit Franz © Musée Ianchelevici Archive, La Louviére).
    Bombay
    Jehangir Art Gallery
    Art GalleryAuditorium HallLibrary

    Efforts to create spaces for the democratic presentation, discussion and reflection of art in Bombay after independence led to the establishment of the Jehangir Art Gallery in 1952.

    Word Count: 27

    Jehangir Art Gallery, 2018 (Photo: Margit Franz; All Rights Reserved).
    Jehangir Art Gallery, entrance hall, 2007 (Photo: Margit Franz; All Rights Reserved).Jehangir Art Gallery, entrance hall: Bust of the donor and founder Sir Cowasji Jehangir between his two sons. On the left Jehangir Cowasji Jehangir, who gave the gallery its name; on the right Sir Hirji Jehangir, former chairman of the Jehangir Art Gallery Trust, 2018 (Photo: Margit Franz, 2018).Portrait of Jehangir Cowasji Jehangir by Walter Langhammer (Photo: Margit Franz, 2007).Commemorative plaque (Photo: Margit Franz, 2018).Art education for the masses: Walter Langhammer presents a USIS (United States Information Service) film at Jehangir Art Gallery, Auditorium Hall, 1952 (© Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz, authorized by the late Kekoo Gandhy; © Gandhy Archive, Mumbai; All Rights Reserved).
    Bombay
    Studio Berko
    Photo Studio

    Studio Berko was run from August 1939 to 1944 by the Hungarian Jewish avant-garde émigré photographer Ferenc Berko. It allowed him to make a living at a time of global political upheaval.

    Word Count: 30

    Part of advertisement in 1940 Bombay Art Society 49th Annual Exhibition catalogue referencing Berko’s exhibited photographs, detail (Bombay Art Society, 1940, n.p., Photo: Margit Franz 2015).
    Advertisement in 1940 Bombay Art Society 49th Annual Exhibition catalogue referencing Berko’s exhibited photographs (Bombay Art Society, 1940, n.p., Photo: Margit Franz 2015).Robin. Bombay Art Society 50th Annual Exhibition, 1941 (Bombay Art Society, 1941, 20, Photo: Margit Franz 2015; © Ferenc Berko, The Ferenc Berko Photo Archive).Good-Bye Holidays. Bombay Art Society 49th Annual Exhibition, 1940 (Bombay Art Society, 1940, 17; © Ferenc Berko, The Ferenc Berko Photo Archive).An Indian Silhouette, The Times of India Annual, 1949 (Times of India Annual, 1949, 67, Photo: Margit Franz 2015; © Ferenc Berko, The Ferenc Berko Photo Archive).
    Bombay
    Rudolf von Leyden
    GeologistAdvertisement SpecialistJournalistArt CriticArt CollectorCartoonist

    The advertisement expert, Rudolf von Leyden, became a major art critic and art historian in Bombay in the 1940s, advocating an urgent need for modernism in art in post-colonial India.

    Word Count: 30

    Rudolf and Nena von Leyden’s farewell party for Francis Newton. Showing all members of the Progressive Artists’ Group. Front from left: PAG = M.F. Husain, S.K. Bakre, H.A. Gade, K.H. Ara, F.N. Souza, S.H. Raza with writer Mulk Raj Anand (1st right front). Back: Käthe Langhammer (with lace collar dress), Rudolf von Leyden with his wife Nena (centre), Walter Langhammer (2nd right), Ebrahim Alkazi (theatre pioneer, 1st right back), Bombay 1949. (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).
    Letterhead of The Hand. Commercial Art Studio Rudolf von Leyden, 1934 (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).Advertisement for Agfa by Rudolf von Leyden (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).Bombay Art Society Committees 1952/53, reprinted in Bombay Art Society 62th Annual Exhibition 1952–53 (at Jehangir Art Gallery), Bombay 1952, n.p. (Photo: Margit Franz 2021).Two modernists meet: Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru (left) and Rudolf von Leyden (right), 1950s. (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).The article by Rudolf and Nena von Leyden “Ganjifa, the Playing Cards of India” (Marg, vol. 3, no. 4, 1949, p. 36; reproduced with the permission of The Marg Foundation, Mumbai, India).Indian President Zakir Husain (left), President of India, opened the first Triennial for contemporary art on 10 February 1968 in the Lalit Kala Gallery in New Delhi. In the picture on the left with jury member Rudolf von Leyden (right). (© Private Archive James von Leyden, Lewes; All Rights Reserved).
    Bombay
    Emanuel Schlesinger
    Factory OwnerTechnical DirectorArt CollectorArt Critic

    The art collector Schlesinger provided primarily financial aid by creating working opportunities for young artists in post-independence Bombay, and initiated the corporate culture of buying art.

    Word Count: 26

    Opening of the Raza exhibition, first row from left: Unknown, S.H. Raza, Käthe Langhammer, Rudolf von Leyden, second row from left: Walter Langhammer, K.H. Ara, Emanuel Schlesinger, 1948 (Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz, authorized by the late S.H. Raza © Raza archive; All Rights Reserved).
    Letter from Emanuel Schlesinger (Bombay) to S. H. Raza (Paris), September 1956, on official INDON letterhead paper (Reprinted from: Vajpeyi 2013, 96; Image courtesy: The Raza Foundation).Emanuel Schlesinger (far left, seated in the first row) at the opening of the Chemould Gallery at Jehangir Art Gallery Main Hall, September 1963 (Digital Photo Archive Margit Franz © Gandhy Archive, Mumbai; All Rights Reserved).Early Raza painting Street Scene in Bombay from Schlesinger Collection as a calendar print (Photo: Margit Franz 2010; All Rights Reserved).
    Bombay