Archive

Start Over

Richard Paulick

  • Given name:
    Richard
  • Last name:
    Paulick
  • Alternative names:

    Peter Winslow

  • Date of Birth:
    07-11-1903
  • Place of Birth:
    Roßlau (DE)
  • Date of Death:
    04-03-1979
  • Place of Death:
    Berlin (DE)
  • Profession:
    ArchitectDesigner
  • Introduction:

    After studying with Hans Poelzig, Richard Paulick worked in Walter Gropius’s office and frequented the Bauhaus in Dessau before emigrating to Shanghai in 1933. After his return, he became an influential planner and architect in the GDR, from 1950 until his retirement

    Word Count: 41

  • Content:

    One of the first to flee Germany for political reasons after the National Socialists came to power was the architect Richard Paulick, who moved to Shanghai at the beginning of June 1933, at the invitation of his former fellow student Rudolf Hamburger, with whom he had studied under Hans Poelzig in Berlin. After 17 years in exile, he returned to East Berlin in 1950. During his time in Shanghai, Richard Paulick became an important contact person who, during the first phase of his exile, met with politically like-minded people, as well as with the German community. During the second phase, towards the end of the thirties until after the end of the war, he worked within the circle of Jewish emigrants. From the early 1940s until his return, he collaborated with Chinese colleagues on important urban planning issues in Shanghai.

    In the beginning Paulick worked as an interior designer at The Modern Home, a company owned by his friend Rudolf Hamburger. In November 1933 his brother Rudolf, who had been trained at the Bauhaus in Dessau, also arrived in Shanghai. The brothers later founded their own companies with other partners: Modern Homes, at the end of 1936; Paulick & Paulick Architects & Engineers during the war; and Modern Textiles after the war.

    In the mid-1930s, Richard Paulick met communist friends for discussions and training courses at the political magazine Voice of China. When American journalist Agnes Smedley moved from Shanghai to the USA in 1941, he took over her legendary library of banned political books. Secret meetings of communist refugees from Europe took place in his apartment during the war, with Alfred Dreifuß, Johannes König and Walter Czolleck, for example, taking part. They all returned to the GDR after the war. For the community of Jewish refugees, Paulick and his partners organised an exhibition of prints and originals by German painters in 1940, including those by Käthe Kollwitz, Max Pechstein, Max Liebermann, Max Slevogel and Lovis Corinth, which were shown in the Modern Homes shop.

    Richard Paulick worked as a set designer for the Deutscher Theater Verein, which had been forced into line since the Nazis came to power, on at least eight productions up until 1939. Between 1940 and 1946 he designed at least seven sets for the Jewish theatre in exile and, from 1947 until his return, worked with the British Amateur Dramatic Club on at least five productions, though the number may actually have been ten.

    From 1943 to 1949 Richard Paulick taught as a professor of interior design and urban planning at St. John’s University in Shanghai. Because of his expertise in urban planning, he was appointed after the war to the planning commission for urban planning in Greater Shanghai, which he also headed from 1948.

    On 1 November 1945, a discussion group developed into the Gemeinschaft der demokratischen Deutschen (Association of Democratic Germans), which a short time later gave itself the English name Association of Refugees from Germany in Shanghai – China. The association supported the mainly Jewish refugees returning to Germany or emigrating to other countries. As a member of the board of directors, Richard Paulick supported the association’s aid organisation with “very substantial donations”, but also supported individuals. While 2,500 of the 7,000 people in the association wanted to return to Germany, by the end of 1948 only around 500 were able to do so. Of these, 244 went to the Western zones and 258 to the East.

    While in exile in Shanghai, Paulick was associated with communist groups and with “normal” Germans, helped Jewish emigrants and supported their cultural activities, just as he collaborated with foreigners from other nations. In his professional work he trained China’s first urban planners and led the planning group for Greater Shanghai with its interdisciplinary strategies. In Shanghai, Paulick was a significant node in the network, connecting different milieus and using his positions to help others. After his return to the GDR in 1950, he was no longer able to engage in all these rich activities, because his stay in Shanghai was considered a “Western emigration” and therefore ideologically hostile.

    Word Count: 665

  • Media:
    Richard Paulick on board ship, en route to exile, photography, 1933. (© private archive, courtesy of Natascha Paulick).
    Richard Paulick on a weekend boat trip around Shanghai, photography (© private archive, courtesy of Natascha Paulick).
    Richard Paulick sketches in the landscape, photography (© private archive, courtesy of Natascha Paulick).
    Richard Paulick (with a pipe) in his office. His brother Rudolf is standing in front of the plan cupboard, photography (© private archive, courtesy of Natascha Paulick).
    Ye Qianyu, cover print, The Second-class Rail Carriage, Modern Sketch, July 1935.
  • Bibliography (selected):

    Eduard Kögel: Ein Knoten im Netz. Richard Paulick in Shanghai, by Burcu Dogramaci; Karin Wimmer (Hg.): Netzwerke des Exils. Künstlerische Verflechtungen, Austausch und Patronage nach 1933. Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag 2011 p.223–241.

    Kögel, Eduard. "The Glamour Boy of Hongkew, Emigration und Politik – Richard Paulick in Shanghai (1933–1949)." Bauhaus Tradition und DDR Moderne. Der Architekt Richard Paulick edited by Thöner, Wolfgang and Peter Müller,  Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2006.
    Thomas Flierl, editor. Bauhaus Shanghai Stalinallee Ha-Neu. Der Lebensweg des Architekten Richard Paulick 1903–1979,Lukas Verlag, 2020.

    Word Count: 82

  • Author:
    Eduard Kögel
  • Exile:

    Shanghai (1933–1949)

  • Known addresses in Metromod cities:

    Modern Homes, Bubbling Well Road, International Settlement (now Nanjing Xi Lu, Huangpu Qu) Shanghai

  • Metropolis:
    Shanghai
  • Eduard Kögel. "Richard Paulick." METROMOD Archive, 2021, https://archive.metromod.net/viewer.p/69/2952/object/5138-11304819, last modified: 15-09-2021.
  • David Ludwig Bloch
    Artist

    David Ludwig Bloch is known for his paintings and watercolours revolving around the Holocaust and his exile. With the woodcuts from his time in exile in Shanghai, Bloch created an artistic account of everyday life in the city, while harvesting the simplicity of form and colour of the medium.

    Word Count: 49

    David Ludwig Bloch, Rickshaw, book of woodcuts, cover, ink on paper, 20 cm x 14 cm, 1945, Taiping Yinshua Gongsi, Shanghai, David Ludwig Bloch Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).
    David Ludwig Bloch, Invitation to Bloch's exhibition of watercolors, linotype, 16.5 x 25 cm, 1941, Shanghai, David Ludwig Bloch Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).David Ludwig Bloch, Shanghai Soldier, woodcut, ink on paper, 53.3 cm x 76.2 cm, 1942, Shanghai, David Ludwig Bloch Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).David Ludwig Bloch, Chinese Street Scene–Shanghai, hand colored woodcut, matted with Chinese silk, Shanghai 1945 (© United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of David L. Bloch).David Ludwig Bloch, Shanghai Street, woodcut, hand tinted, matted with Chinese silk, framed in gilded bamboo, 105 x 27 cm, 1945, Shanghai, David Ludwig Bloch Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York). This print was signed for Hans Jacoby.David Ludwig Bloch, Shanghai, Street Scene, watercolor on paper, 39 x 57 cm, 1949, Shanghai, David Ludwig Bloch Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).David Ludwig Bloch, Yin and Yang, book of 48 woodcuts, street scene, ink on paper, 21,1 x 18,4 cm, 1948, Shanghai, David Ludwig Bloch Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).David Ludwig Bloch, Yin and Yang, book of 48 woodcuts, Wing Hon Coffin Co., ink on paper, 21,1 x 18,4 cm, 1948, Shanghai, David Ludwig Bloch Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).David Ludwig Bloch, Yin and Yang, book of 48 woodcuts, Race Course, ink on paper, 21,1 x 18,4 cm, 1948, Shanghai, David Ludwig Bloch Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York). While many of Block's prints show details and small sections of street life, this is one of those that capture a wide urban space from an elevated perspective. This print is reminiscent of those by Emma Bormann.Sax-Darnous. "Houang Pao Tch'ô." Revue National Chinoise, vol. 22, no. 156, 1946, pp. 56–57. This article was published on the occasion of Bloch's book Rickshaw.Future, vol. 1, no. 12, January 1948, series 5, printed materials, 1939–1988, Future, 1948, John and Harrier Isaack papers (© United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of John and Harriet Isaack). Published by the Shanghai Jewish Youth Community Center. Cover lettering print by John Isaack, cover print by David Ludwig Bloch. Last issue “our magazine has served as a binding link between those of our members who have gone abroad and those who will remain in Shanghai.”
    Shanghai
    Friedrich Hermann Schiff
    ArtistCartoonistDesigner

    Friedrich Schiff was an Austrian-born artist who went to Shanghai in 1930. He became known for his humorous cartoons, which were enjoyed by the colonial bourgeoisie.
    Due to his Jewish origins, he was unable to return to Austria after Hitler’s annexation of Austria in 1938. He left Shanghai for Buenos Aires in 1947.

    Word Count: 51

    The North China Daily News?, S. M. L. Sanzetti, Portrait Friedrich Schiff.
    Paula Eskelund and Friedrich Schiff,Squeezing through! Shanghai Sketches 1941–1945, Hwa Kuo Print. Co, 1945, cover.Paula Eskelund and Friedrich Schiff, Squeezing through! Shanghai Sketches 1941–1945, Hwa Kuo Print. Co, 1945. The Japanese officer depicted is Kano Ghoya who ruled despotically and cruelly over the affairs of the ghetto residents.Friedrich Schiff, "Hong Kong, a sporting paradise," in Hong Kong Baptist University Library Art Collections, accessed 28/05/2021, https://bcc.lib.hkbu.edu.hk/artcollection/91512504h757t3/. Poster for the Hong Kong Travel Association, 101 x 71 cm, around 1938.Friedrich Schiff, "Fly to the Far East B.O.A.C," in Hong Kong Baptist University Library Art Collections, accessed 28/05/2021, https://bcc.lib.hkbu.edu.hk/artcollection/91512504h757t4/. Poster advertising the service of B.O.A.C (now British Airways), 73 x 48 cm, 1940–49.Schiff, Friedrich and Ellen Thorbecke. China. Java-China-Japan Lijn. Het geheimzinnige China. Mysterious China. 1937, cover.Schiff, Friedrich and Ellen Thorbecke. Hong Kong. Kelly & Walsh, 1938, cover.Schiff, Friedrich and Ellen Thorbecke. Shanghai, North China daily News & Herald Ltd., 1941, cover.Friedrich Schiff. Maskee. A Shanghai Sketch Book. The Yellow Hall, Shanghai, 1940, fan fold binding, first page.
    Shanghai
    Hans Jacoby
    Artist

    Hans Jacoby fled in 1938 to the Netherlands, where he was interned by the Dutch government in Hook of Holland. He was able to leave the camp and arrived, together with his wife Emma Jacoby, in Shanghai in 1940 where he continued to work as an artist.

    Word Count: 45

    Photograph, Hans Jacoby, 1940, Hans Jacoby Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).
    Hans Jacoby, Chinese Theatre Masks, oil on canvas, 66,6 x 58 cm, Shanghai, 1941, Hans Jacoby Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).Portrait of Willy Tonn, painting by Hans Jacoby, photography, Hans Jacoby Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).Hans Jacoby, Portrait of Bao Bao, oil on canvas, 60.2 x 50 cm around 1940 [probably 1943 or later], Shanghai, Hans Jacoby Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).Asia Seminar, programme, winter semester 1943/44, Hans Jacoby Collection, Box 1, Folder 5 (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).Asia Seminar, card of Hans Jacoby, winter semester 1943/44, Hans Jacoby Collection, Box 1, Folder 5 (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).Hans Jacoby, drawing of religious figure, Shanghai, Hans Jacoby Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).Ernst Handl, Self Portrait, drawing, 15 September 1943, Shanghai, Hans Jacoby Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).
    Shanghai
    Emma Bormann
    Artist

    Emma Bormann was a pioneering artist and printmaker. Her oeuvre gives witness to her extensive travels around the globe and to the agility and versatility of her artistic rendering of the urban sites she encountered.

    Word Count: 35

    Emma Bormann, Shanghai from YMCA, wood or lino cut, around 1940 (© private collection).
    Emma Bormann, Deutsches Eck [German Corner], wood or lino cut, around 1949 (© private collection).Emma Bormann, Ex Libris Fritz Maas, around 1940, Shanghai (© private collection).Emma Bormann, Great Western Road, wood or lino cut, around 1940 (© private collection).Emma Bormann, Mei Lanfang, wood or lino cut, around 1940 (© private collection).Emma Bormann, Garden Bridge, woodcut or linocut, around 1940, Shanghai (© private collection).Emma Bormann, Foochow Road, wood or lino cut, around 1940, Shanghai (© private collection).Church Missionary Society House, 89 Range Road, Shanghai, around 1915 (© 2008 Peter Lockhart Smith, University of Bristol, Historical Photographs of China, www.hpcbristol.net).
    Shanghai
    Lyceum Theatre
    Building

    The new Lyceum Theatre was designed in an eclectic style by British architects Davies & Brooke and opened on 5 February 1931.

    Word Count: 20

    Lyceum Theatre, facade, photography (© Eduard Kögel 2004). The Lyceum Theatre was designed by the British architects Davies & Brooke in 1931.
    Lyceum Theatre, foyer, photography (© Eduard Kögel 2004).Horst zum Eschenhoff, Stage design for the play Arm wie eine Kirchenmaus, photography, Bühnenspiegel im Fernen Osten, 30 October 1929.Advertisement for the play Parkstr. 13,Bühnenspiegel im Fernen Osten, 22 March 1939. The stage design was made by Richard Paulick.Richard Paulick, Stage design for the British Amateur Dramatic Club around the late 1940s, photography (© Architekturmuseum der TU Munich, Estate Richard Paulick).
    Shanghai
    Voice of China
    Magazine

    Song Qingling, widow of the founder of the republic, Sun Yatsen, supported the political magazine Voice of China in 1936, which appeared in Shanghai in English. After the Japanese army invaded China in August 1937, the magazine had to cease publication.

    Word Count: 39

    Cover, Voice of China, no.1, 1 April 1936 (© Eduard Kögel 2006).
    Cover, Voice of China, 15 March 1937 (© Eduard Kögel 2006).Content, Voice of China, 15 April 1937 (© Eduard Kögel 2006).Cover, Voice of China, 1 June 1937 (© Eduard Kögel 2006).Grace & Max Granich, photography, China Reconstructs, September 1972.
    Shanghai
    Shanghai Life
    Book

    Shanghai Life was the first book published by the newly-founded Shanghai Cartoonist Club (March 7, 1942). The club held its first exhibition in June of the same year, at the Shanghai Art Gallery on Nanking Road (now Nanjing Dong Lu).

    Word Count: 38

    Shanghai Cartoonist Club, Shanghai Life, fist page, 1942.
    L. M. Wann (Wan Laiming), Beggar, detail, Shanghai Life, 1942.Mawoo (Ma Wu/Chen Xiazuo), Twilight comes to Fochow Road,detail, Shanghai Life, 1942. Fochow Road (now Fuzhou Lu) was in the International Settlement, running in East-West direction south and parallel to Nanking Road (now Nanjing Dong Lu), Still today the street is known for its book and calligraphy shops.Minosuke (Kato Minosuke), Nationalist & Internationalist, detail, Shanghai Life, 1942. This cartoon also uses the means of juxtaposition and makes use of the differently connoted variants within one form of dress which is the qipao here. Attributes, body posture and gestures differ accordingly.Noa (Miura Noa), Encounter in Shanghai, detail, Shanghai Life, 1942. The cartoon juxtaposes Japanese and Chinese clothing styles with different connotations. The cartoon juxtaposes Japanese and Chinese clothing styles with different connotations. The gestures and postures of the two figures differ. A concealed and covered body meets an openly posed and uncovered body.Schiff (Friedrich Schiff), Rain, detail, Shanghai Life, 1942. This cartoon shows a highly stylised version of a tall and underweight ‘modern Shanghai girl’ wearing a fashionable very fitted and very high slit qipao. Her body parts are extremely exposed and flaunted by her gesture. She carries small shopping parcels, wears high heels and bright red lipstick instead of clothing appropriate to the climatic conditions.
    Shanghai
    Hubertus Court
    Print

    The print was made by the artist Emma Bormann during her exile in Shanghai in the 1940s.The title suggest that the print offers a bird’s eye view from the Hubertus Court building.

    Word Count: 34

    Emma Bormann, Hubertus Court, lino cut or wood cut, around 1940, Shanghai (© private collection).
    Emma Bormann, Deutsches Eck [German Corner], wood or lino cut, around 1949 (© private collection).Emma Bormann, Great Western Road, wood or lino cut, around 1940 (© private collection).Schiff, Friedrich and Ellen Thorbecke. Shanghai. North China Daily News & Herald Ltd., Shanghai, 1941.
    Shanghai
    Association of Jewish Artists and Fine Art Lovers (ARTA)
    Association

    Seven Jewish artists living in the so-called Shanghai Ghetto joined together to form an art association in 1943. The founding members were: David Ludwig Bloch, Paul Fischer, Fred Fredden Goldberg, Ernst Handl, Max Heimann, Hans Jacoby and Alfred Mark.

    Word Count: 38

    Advertisement, First ARTA Exhibition,Jüdisches Nachrichtenblatt, 4 March 1944, vol. 5, no. 9, p. 4. Entrance was free of charge. An entrance ticket authorised the residents of the designated area to leave it in order to get to the exhibition venue at the S.Y.Y.A. School at East Yuhuang Road, which was only a short distance away.
    ARTA, ticket, Hans Jacoby Collection, Box 1, Folder 5 (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).C. H. Gonda, Shanghai Jewish School, drawing, 1931, Seymour Road, Shanghai. Venue of the first ARTA exhibition in 1944.C. H. Gonda, Whiteaway, Laidlaw & Co., drawing, 1930, Nanking Road, Shanghai. Venue of the second ARTA exhibition in 1944.Jewish School, photograph, 14 January 1931, Seymour Road, Shanghai.Ernst Handl, Self Portrait, drawing, 15 September 1943, Shanghai, Hans Jacoby Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).Advertisement, Whiteaway, Laidlaw & Co., Shanghai Woche, no. 1, 5 April 1939, p. 4.W. F. (Wolfgang Fischer) “Das Werden der Emigrantenwirtschaft und ihre Pioniere. Fred Fredden-Goldberg – Ein juedischer Maler.“ Shanghai Woche, no. 13, 4 September 1942, p. 4.Catalogue, ARTA 2nd Exhibition, front, Whiteaway Laidlaw & Co., 22–27 May 1944, Shanghai, David Ludwig Bloch Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).Catalogue, ARTA 2nd Exhibition, double page, Whiteaway Laidlaw & Co., 22–27 May 1944, Shanghai, David Ludwig Bloch Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).Catalogue, ARTA 2nd Exhibition, back, Whiteaway Laidlaw & Co., 22–27 May 1944, Shanghai, David Ludwig Bloch Collection (© Leo Baeck Institute, New York).
    Shanghai
    St. John’s University
    University / Higher Education Institute / Research Institute

    In the first half of the 20th century, St. John’s University in Shanghai was an important Protestant university under American leadership. During the 1940s, German emigrants also taught there, after British and American university lecturers were interned in the wake of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

    Word Count: 48

    St. John’s University S.Y Hall with clock tower, photography (© Eduard Kögel 2004).
    Former administration building of St. John’s University, photography (© Eduard Kögel 2004).Mary Lamperton. St. John’s University Shanghai. New York, United Board of Christian Colleges in China, 1955. An overview of St. John’s University around 1950.Student exhibition put on by Richard Paulick’s architecture class, photography, 1947 (© private archive, courtesy of Natascha Paulick).Richard Paulick, letterhead 1948, photography (© private archive, courtesy of Natascha Paulick).
    Shanghai
    Modern Homes
    Architecture and Furniture Company

    The three firms The Modern Home, Modern Home and Modern Homes existed from 1931 until 1950. Run by the Paulick brothers together with the Jewish emigrant Luedecke, the firms provided work for many emigrants.

    Word Count: 32

    Rudolf Hamburger, interior decoration for The Modern Home, photography (© Hamburger family).
    Advertisement, The Modern Home, 1931.Modern Homes, letterhead, around the late 1940s (© private archive, courtesy of Natascha Paulick).Modern Homes, Tango Bar, interior, photography (© Architekturmuseum der TU Munich, Estate Richard Paulick).Modern Homes, interior, photography, around 1941, pauli-22-1002 (© Architekturmuseum der TU Munich, Estate Richard Paulick). The landscape painting was made by the Austrian artist Friedrich Schiff.
    Shanghai
    Photo Willinger
    Photo Studio

    Before their emigration to China in 1938, Margarete and Wilhelm Willinger ran several successful photo studios and agencies in Berlin (until 1927), Budapest and Vienna. Their son was the photographer Laszlo Willinger.

    Word Count: 30

    Advertisement, Willinger & Co, 88 Nanking Road, Shanghai Jewish Chronicle, 2 October 1940, S. 20.
    Advertisement, Photo Willinger, 794/4 Point Rd., Shanghai Jewish Chronicle, 7 May 1945, S. 12.E. F. “Im Zeichen der Chrysantheme. Die grosse Herbstblumenschau.” Shanghai Jewish Chronicle, 24 November 1940, p. 9. Photographs by Willinger & Co.“Die Ejas auf der Fussballbuehne.“ Special Issue, Supplement, Two Years Shanghai Jewish Chronicle, 11 May 1941, p. XIII. Photographs by Willinger & Co.Advertisement, Pollack Foto-Studio, Eroeffnung (opening), 896 East Seward Road, Shanghai Jewish Chronicle, 14 September 1941, S. 13.Announcement, Rembrandt-Studio, vormals Hamilton-House, jetzt: 581/20 Kungping Road (formerly Hamilton House, now: 581/20 Kungping Road), Shanghai Jewish Chronicle, 28 May 1943, S. 4.
    Shanghai
    Agnes Smedley
    WriterJournalist

    Agnes Smedley was an American journalist, writer and activist. Between 1929 and 1941, she lived in China, where she wrote reportages for European and American newspapers. As a feminist and socialist writer, she focused on the concerns of rural people and paid special attention to artists and their work during the Chinese revolution.

    Word Count: 51

    Smedley, Agnes. “Chinese Woodcuts 1935–49.” The Massachusetts Review, vol. 25, no. 4, 1984, pp. 553-564.
    Aino Taylor, Agnes Smedley in Kuomintang uniform as worn by Communist troops in central China during the United Front in 1939, Agnes Smedley Collection (© University Archives, Arizona State University Library).Smedley, Agnes. China blutet. Cover, Dietz Verlag Berlin, 1949. The German exiled artist John Heartfield (née Helmut Herzfeld) did a letterpress print for Cina blutet for his brother’s publishing house Malik Verlag during their exile in Prague in 1936. The print is archived at the Museum of Modern Art in New York and belongs to the Jan Tschichold Collection. Jan Tschichold was a calligrapher, typographer, and book designer. In 1933 he fled with his family to Switzerland and stayed for longer periods in London and Hampstead where he was involved in the design of the Penguin Books.
    Shanghai
    Exhibition of prints by Käthe Kollwitz
    Exhibition

    A German woodcut exhibition organised at the Zeitgeist Bookstore presumably took place in June 1931. In June 1932. A further exhibition with more than 200 works by German artists, including works by Käthe Kollwitz and George Grosz, was shown at the Chinese Y.M.C.A.

    Word Count: 44

    Advertisement for the Zeitgeist Bookstore.
    Agnes Smedley in her apartment with a lamp designed by Rudolf Hamburger, photography, 1931 (© Hamburger family).Käthe Kollwitz, The Ploughmen, sheet 1 of the cycle “Peasants War”, 1907, line etching, drypoint, aquatint, reservage, sandpaper, needle bundle and soft ground with imprint of Ziegler's transfer paper, Kn 99 VIII b. (© Käthe Kollwitz Museum Köln).Smedley, Agnes. “Chinese Woodcuts 1935–49.”, The Massachusetts Review, vol. 25, no. 4, 1984, p. 553. Reprint of Li Hua, Ploughing, Angry Tide series, 1947. 5_ Ye Qianyu, cover print, The Second-class Rail Carriage, Modern Sketch, July 1935. The print was inspired by George Grosz.Wang Guodong, cover print, Pornographic behaviour under the blue sky and red sun, Modern Sketch, February 1936. The print was inspired by George Grosz’ sketch The Kiss.Ye Qianyu, cover print, The Second-class Rail Carriage, Modern Sketch, July 1935.
    Shanghai